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ORGANIZING FOR NATIONAL SECURITY—A BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. BOOKS (OTHER THAN MEMOIRS) AND ARTICLES

A. MATERIALS DEALING GENERALLY WITH NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY

AND ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY

1. BOOKS

Agar, Herbert. The unquiet years: U.S.A. 1945–1955. London,

, Ř. Hart-Davis, 1957. 176 p.

Contents: From San Francisco to Potsdam. 1946: The Year of Frustration. The Eightieth Congress. Hiss, Chiang, Fuchs, and the Bomb. McCarthy and Korea. "The Mess in Washington.” The Making of a

President. "Peace” and the Bandung Conference.
American Academy of Political and Social Science, Philadelphia.

Unofficial government: pressure groups and lobbies. Edited by
Donald C. Blaisdell. Philadelphia, 1958. 228 p. (Its Annals,
V. 319.)

A collection of essays describing pressure groups in government-their methods, operations, relations with political parties, and role as policy

shapers. American Assembly. The representation of the United States abroad;

{background papers prepared for the use of participants, and the final report of the Ninth American Assembly, Arden House, Harriman Campus of Columbia University, Harriman, New York, May 3-6, 1956. Final ed.] New York, American Assembly, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, 1956.

217 p.

Has considerable material on the administration of American overseas activities--the “old line agencies, such as the Department of the Treasury; economic representation; information and cultural representation; military representation; representation in international organizations; and

the coordination of overseas representation. American Political Science Association. International commitments

and National administration. Charlottesville, Bureau of Public Administration, Univ. of Virginia, 1949. 108 p.

Contents: Congressional control over foreign policy commitments, by W. Y. Elliott.-The impact of foreign commitments on the presidency, by A. N. Holcombe.—The impact of foreign commitments upon the coordinative responsibilities of the Department of State, by G. C. McGhee. The impact of foreign commitments on the organization for National defense, by. 0. L. Nelson, Jr.--The role of the Economic Cooperation Administration in National administration, by P. G. Hoffman.--National administration and the United Nations system, by W. R. Sharp.

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Blaisdell, Donald C. American democracy under pressure. New York, Ronald Press Co. (1957]. 324 p.

A general introduction to pressure politics in the United States. Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. International Studies

Group. The administration of foreign affairs and overseas operation; a report prepared for the Bureau of the Budget, Executive Office of the President. Washington, 1951. 380 p.

"Considered an extension of the Hoover Commission reports. Ch. 5 analyzes the role of the Dept. of Defense in foreign affairs. Ch. 6 discusses the role of the Dept. of State in program operation and coordination and makes recommendations. Ch. 9 is devoted to coordination through

interdepartmental committees." Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. International Studies

Group. Governmental mechanism for the conduct of United
States foreign relations. Washington, 1949. 58 p.

Describes the structure, function, power, and problems of the Executive

and Legislative Branches in formulating and carrying out foreign policy. Buck, Philip W. ed. Control of foreign relations in modern nations.

Editors: Philip W. Buck and Martin W. [i.e. B.) Travis, Jr. (1st ed.] New York, W. W. Norton (1957). 865 p.

See Chapter 3, "The Control of United States Foreign Policy." Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. Foreign relations: What makes

an effective foreign policy? Sixth program in "The Great Challenge" series as broadcast over the CBS television network, n.p. May 18, 1958. 281.

Participants are Lester Pearson, Eric Johnston, Robert Bowie, Dean

Rusk, Paul Nitze, Anthony Nutting. Corwin, Edward Samuel. Total war and the Constitution; five lec

tures delivered at the University of Michigan, March 1946, with an introd. by E. Blythe Stason. [1st ed.] New York, A. A. Knopf, 1947. 182 p. (Michigan. University. William W. Cook Foundation. Lectures, v. 2.)

"* * * examines the structure of wartime government in the United

States * * ** Fischer, John. Master plan U.S.A., an informal report on America's

foreign policy and the men who make it. (1st ed.] New York, Harper (1951). 253 p.

First section has discussion on National Security Council and State

Defense relationships in policy planning. Freeman, John Leiper. The political process: executive bureau

legislative committee relations. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1955. 72 p. (Doubleday short studies in political science, SSPS 13.)

While dealing with the behavior of policymakers rather than poliermaking machinery, this study is valuable to the extent that an understanding of administrative machinery requires an understanding of the men who

operate it. Graber, Doris A. Crisis diplomacy; a history of U.S. intervention

policies and practices. Washington, Public Affairs Press (1959).

402 p.

An attempt to disentangle the theory and practice of nonintervention from each other throughout different periods of United States history.

Graves, William B. comp. Reorganization of the executive branch

of the Government of the United States; a compilation of basic information and significant documents, 1912-1948. Washington, 1949. 425 p. (IU.S.] Library of Congress. Legislative Reference Service. Public affairs bulletin No. 66.)

“Originally prepared for the Commission on Organization the Execu

tive Branch of the Government, the Hon. Herbert Hoover, Chairman." Hobbs, Edward Henry. Executive reorganization in the National

Government. University, Miss., University of Mississippi, 1953.

104 p.

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A survey of reorganization of the Federal Government. See:

Chapter 2, "The Reorganization Movement from 1920”; Chapter 5, "The Armed Services, Agriculture, Labor, Justice, and Treasury'';, and Chapter 6,

"The President's Office, Federal Supply, Regulation, and Accounting. Leonard, Larry. Elements of American foreign policy. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1953. 611 p.

Brief excerpts from writings of a great number of authors, organized into four parts—The Character of American Foreign Policy, The Constitutional Framework, The Making of American Foreign Policy, and The Sub

stance of American Foreign Policy. Lerche, Charles O. Foreign policy of the American people. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1958. 547 p.

A basic textbook on United States foreign policy. McCamy, James L. The administration of American foreign affairs.

(1st ed.] New York, Knopf, 1950. 364 p.

A basic book on governmental organization for the conduct of foreign

relations. Macmahon, Arthur W. Administration and foreign policy. [Urbana,

Ill.) Institute of Government and Public Affairs (1957). 24 p. (Edmund J. James lecture on government, 1956.)

Discusses administration of foreign policy in the context of "the sources of controversy in foreign policy, the nature of responsible criticism, and

the limits of popular control." Macmahon, Arthur W. Administration in foreign affairs. University, Alabama, University of Alabama Press, 1953. 275 p.

A valuable study of the administration of foreign affairs. Contains chapters on the State Department, overseas programs, and interdepart

mental cooperation, among others. Marx, Herbert L. ed. Defense and national security. New York, Wilson, 1955. 192 p.

192 p. (The Reference shelf, v. 26, No. 6.) "Collection of magazine articles dealing with the 'new look' in US military policy and its background: the change-over to a Republican administration, the emergence of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. as the two dominant powers of the world, and the development of new weapons of destruction. Also, the system of alliances built up by the U.S. and friendly nations

since World War II." Mathews, John M. American foreign relations, conduct and policies.

Rev. and enl. ed. New York, Appleton, 1938. 766 p.

“Part II concerns the conduct of foreign relations, the basis and modes of control, including Presidential initiative, Congressional initiative and requests for information."

47597459

Philadelphia. Temple University. Survey of Federal Reorganiza

tion. The Temple University Survey of Federal Reorganization. [Reports, including a Special report on foreign affairs and mutual security. Philadelphia) 1953. 2 v.

The Temple Survey was designed to bring the Hoover Report up to date (as of 1953) and prepare guidelines for continued reorganization by the Eisenhower Administration. Report One deals with the Executive Office.

A Special Report deals with Mutual Security and foreign affairs. Price, Don Krasher. The new dimension of diplomacy; the organiza

tion of the U.S. Government for its new role in world affairs. New York, Woodrow Wilson Foundation (1951). 29 p.

Discusses how the organization and practice of the Government might be improved to permit a more effective role for the United States in foreign

affairs. Selznick, Philip. Leadership in administration; a sociological interpretation. Evanston, II., Row, Peterson (1957). 162 p.

A theoretical essay which “outlines a perspective for the study of leader

ship in administrative organizations. Snyder, Richard C., H. W. Bruck, and Burton Sapin. Decision

making as an approach to the study of international politics. [Princeton] Organizational Behavior Section, Princeton University, 1954. 120 p. (Foreign policy analysis series, No. 3.)

An attempt to develop a method for analyzing the way foreign policy

decisions are made. Sulzberger, Cyrus L. What's wrong with U.S. foreign policy. [1st ed.) New York, Harcourt, Brace (1959). 255 p.

Chapter 2, "How Our Policy Is Administered." Woodrow Wilson Foundation. United States foreign policy: its

organization and control; report of a study group for the Woodrow Wilson Foundation. William Yandell Elliott, chairman. Pref. by Harry D. Gideonse. New York, Columbia University Press, 1952. 288 p.

A study of the constitutional and political processes of United States security policy, together with some suggested reforms and topics for further investigation.

2. ARTICLES

Acheson, Dean. The responsibility for decision in foreign policy. Yale review, v. 44, September 1954: 1-12.

"The importance of decisiveness in conducting foreign relations; the body or person upon whom rests the final responsibility for making the decisions which determine our course as a nation, and how this task is or should be

performed." Blaisdell, Donald C. Coordination of American security policy at

the United Nations. International organization, v. 2, September

1948: 469-477. Bolles, Blair. President, Congress, and foreign policy. American

perspective, v. 2, March 1949: 491-500. Bourbon-Busset, Jacques de. How decisions are made in foreign

politics: Psychology in international relations. Review of politics, v. 20, October 1958: 591-614.

* * *

Bowie, Robert R. Analysis of our policy machine. New York Times magazine, March 9, 1958: 16, 68–71.

"An expert finds our complicated method of forming and executing foreign policy has serious shortcomings—and the times demand the best. Points to the significant role the intelligence estimate plays in the forma

tion of national policy." Cheever, D. S., and H. F. Haviland. Hoover Commission; foreign

affairs. American Political Science Review, v. 43, October 1949:

966-978. Cohen, B. C. Foreign policy making: modern design. World Politics,

v. 5, April 1953: 377-392. Constitutional issues raised by the position of the United States in

world affairs. American Society of International Law Proceedings, v. 1951: 2-43.

Contents: Executive powers in foreign relations by A. S. Fisher; Presidential discretion in world affairs through executive agreements, by C. E. Martin; President's authority to send armed forces abroad, by F. O. Wilcox;

Discussion from the floor. Cook, T. I., and M. Moos. Hindrances to foreign policy: individual

ism and legalism. Journal of Politics, v. 15, February 1953:

114-139. Dean, Vera Micheles. How U.S. foreign policy is made. Foreign

Policy Reports, v. 25, Oct. 1, 1949: 114-123. Eberstadt, Ferdinand. Our national security organization. Com

mercial and Financial Chronicle, v. 169, Mar. 17, 1949: 1176+. Elliott, William Y. The control of foreign policy in the United States.

Political Science Quarterly, v. 20, October-December 1949:

337–351. Elliott, William Y. Governmental organizations for foreign policy decisions. Social Science, v. 30, October 1955: 209–216.

In favor of a Secretary of Foreign Operations within the Department of

State. The formulation of national security policy-developing U.S. gov

ernmental policies and programs in the struggle for the middle billion. In Student Conference on United States Affairs, U.S. Military Academy, 1958. The national security policy of the United States. West Point, N.Y., 1958: 33-56.

Under the chairmanship of George A. Lincoln, Peter Frelinghuysen, James Hagerty, and Paul Nitze discuss the roles of the legislative branch,

the press, and the executive branch. Fosdick, D. How a global policy is evolved. New York Times

magazine, Jan. 23, 1955: 11+. Frankel, Joseph. Towards a decision-making model in foreign policy. Political Studies, v. 7, February 1959: 1-11.

"This paper does not attempt to present a full theory of rational decisionmaking in foreign policy. It restricts itself to outlining the structure of a general verbal model centering round the relations between decision-makers and their environments. The actual operation of the model will be dis

cussed in a forthcoming comprehensive treatment.Galloway, George B. The operation of the Legislative Reorganiza

tion Act of 1946. American Political Science Review, v. 45, March 1951: 41-68.

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