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The activities now conducted or supported by the U.S. Government and which include or involve international scientific cooperation are described briefly below. A. Exchange of scientists

Although the Department of State and other agencies conduct sizable exchange of persons programs which include the exchange of scientists, the only activities designed specifically for scientists are:

1. Foreign Research Scientists Program (International Cooperation Administration of the Department of State) costing about $200,000 annually and bringing about 50 scientists to the United States each year.

2. Training of foreign scientists in the United States by the Atomic Energy Commission atoms-for-peace program and now covering about 150 scientists annually.

3. Programs to bring foreign scientists to the United States to consult on military research problems and covering 500 to 1,200 scientists per year (Department of Defense).

4. Travel grants for attendance by U.S. scientists at international

scientific meetings (National Science Foundation). B. Support of scientific research in foreign countries

The Department of Defense and the International Cooperation Administration are the principal supporters, among Federal agencies, of scientific research over

The National Institutes of Health give some support as does the National Science Foundation in a small number of cases. The Atomic Energy Commission is initiating a program to transfer reactors to foreign countries over the next year or so.

Activities of the Federal Government in the support of science in foreign countries are based upon a variety of objectives. Methods include the financing of facilities and scientific equipment (AEC and ICA); purchase of research and development (Department of Defense); and longer run training of foreign scientists (college contract program of ICA).

Including the new AEC reactor program, present support of research and development in foreign countries (largely indirect) is at the level of somewhere between $25 million and $50 million annually, although the Department of Defense programs are very largely applied and developmental in character. C. Exchange of scientific and technical information

Exchange programs dealing with scientific and technical information are being carried on by a large number of agencies having their own arrangements with agencies and institutions abroad. The formal exchange program of the Library of Congress including Government documents relating to science and technology has been centralized mechanically in the International Exchange Service of the Smithsonian Institution. The State Department has responsibility for procurement of requested publications in foreign countries.

It is impossible to provide a precise estimate of the total cost of individual agency programs, although a figure of $2 to $3 million for the entire effort of the Federal Government in this area would not be too far off. D. Scientific representation and liaison

At the present time science liaison activities of the U.S. Government are spread among a number of agencies: The State Department proper, the Department of the Army, the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force, and the International Cooperation Administration. There are in addition, military officers and civilian scientists in many embassies and overseas commands who perform science liaison and reporting functions incident to other responsibilities. E. Science programs conducted by international organizations

The two principal international organizations having science programs as such are the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The UNESCO science program is at the level of about $1 million annually, of which the United States provides about 30 percent, or $300,000. The ICSU program is at a $250,000-$300,000 level, of which the U.S. share is about $9,000, excluding the U.S. portion of the UNESCO subsidy of ICSU. The International Geophysical Year program (a one-shot program) is under the auspices of ICSU, but each nation is providing the funds for its own participation in this activity. The U.S. scientific program of the IGY is funded by the National Science Foundation.



A. Present activities and programs are diffused

The present activities of the Federal Government in the area of "international science” are diffuse and ill-defined. The level of financial support is fairly high when "support of science” is defined broadly, and not inconsiderable even when defined more narrowly. Depending upon one's definition of "science,” low and high estimates might range from $5 million to $60 million annually. However, more important than the level of support is the character of the support and the method by which it is extended. With few exceptions, present activities are specifically oriented toward identifiable military, economic, intelligence, or political objectives and are not directed toward the support of science as an activity important in its own right as a contributing factor to national and international welfare. B. Scientific research is becoming increasingly global in character

Science has traditionally depended for its progress on the activities of individual workers in many countries. An excellent example of this is the discovery and development of atomic fission and fusion. The basic work in atomic fission was carried on by investigators in Europe. Through this work American scientists were able to develop effectively practical uses of this important phenomenon.

In addition, there are fields of science which must be dealt with on a global basis. The earth sciences fall into this category, since only by a worldwide study of earth phenomena can effective progress be made in such fields as meterology, earth magnetism, the ionosphere, and seismology.

The United States has no monopoly on creative scientific talent, and the occasions are becoming ever more frequent where research projects undertaken in this country require, for their effective and timely completion, the cooperation and participation of scientists abroad.

Legislative authorization is contained in the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 for the kind of cooperation outlined above; however, such authorization is limited to basic research, and no general authorization exists for any coordinated effort by the Federal Government to draw upon foreign scientific resources in behalf of science in the United States. C. Present programs leave many gaps

Although the existing programs of the Federal Government furnish important byproducts in terms of scientific knowledge acquired from abroad, many areas of science and significant scientific resources in many areas of the free world are going untouched and unutilized because they do not happen to mesh into the particular military, political or other objectives which underlie the existing programs. This is especially true with respect to "basic" or "fundamental" science. By its nature, basic research frequently, in fact usually, does not relate sufficiently directly to short-run objectives as to warrant financial support under existing programs of military or economic aid. However, in the long run, the solution of most scientific problems must rest upon new knowledge about the nature of matter and of life processes. Likewise, creative scientific talent may exist in countries which do not stand high on the priority list of U.S. political and military objectives. Existing programs, with few exceptions, do not provide for the utilization or support of such talent, even indirectly. D. Certain programs and policies are not enhancing, and in some cases are under

mining, U.S. leadership in international science It is fair to state that although existing programs involving or supporting international science leave many gaps as pointed out above, the United States is failing to receive recognition from scientists abroad for much of what is now being done. The following are illustrative of the manner in which foreign scientists are given the opportunity to criticize, rightly or wrongly, the posture of the United States in this field.

Although reasonably adequate legislative authorization exists for support by the United States of international scientific meetings and congresses, appropriations for these purposes are often restricted in amount and straitjacketed with various limitations, so that the Government is placed in the position of pinching pennies and taking other negative actions which have the total effect of causing foreign scientists to believe that it is U.S. policy to discourage such meetings.

The problems growing out of the administration of visa regulations as they pertain to foreign scientists visiting the United States are too well known to require elaboration here. While many other considerations in addition to international scientific cooperation enter into U.S. immigration and visa policies, it must be recognized that incidents arising under them receive considerable attention among foreign scientists, admittedly often out of proportion to the significance of the particular occurrence.

Likewise, U.S. Policies and administrative actions in the control of the "export” of unclassified scientific information may tend to have an unfavorable impact upon the attitudes of foreign scientists toward the United States.

In summary, it can be said that the U.S. Government has no coordinated policy with respect to international science. Present activities and programs are oriented in the main to specific military, economic or political objectives and do not constribute effectively to U.S. leadership in international science. Neither do they result, in anywhere near an optimum degree, in the utilization of the creative scientific resources extant in friendly countries. Finally, through sins of omission and commission, U.S. prestige among scientists abroad has been allowed to deteriorate seriously.

IV. EXISTING LEGISLATIVE AUTHORITIES NOT FULLY UTILIZED Several possible courses of action exist under present legislative authorization, any or all of which would have the effect of giving increased emphasis to the support and encouragement by the U.S. Government of activities in international science. A. Increase in number of scientists and fields of science under existing exchange of power. However, an expanded effort in this area by ICA would have important results in terms of increased and improved scientific manpower.

persons programs 1. Added emphasis could be given to the "science component” of the International Exchange Service program of the Department of State. The National Science Foundation could develop recommendations as to the substantive content of the added increments.

2. Increased emphasis could be given to the exchange of scientists under the technical assistance programs of ICA under the Department of State. Care should be exercised however to avoid warping the economic objectives which necessarily underlie this program. B. Support of foreign basic research, and in certain instances, applied research and

development, where results of such research will be available to the United States 1. The National Science Foundation can entertain, and with the approval of the Department of State in the specific instance, give support to basic research proposals submitted from foreign countries. In the absence of further authorization, however, such support is given only on an "exceptional" basis.

2. ICA would have a freer hand, legislationwise, in giving such support to basic research as a part of its technical assistance program, but would face the difficulty of justifying such support in terms of a direct contribution to economic development. While no study has been made of the legal authority available to the Department of Defense for an expanded support of foreign basic rese it is likely that similar difficulties would be encountered in establishing a justifiable relationship to the military mission with the added disadvantage of placing a "military tag” on the research so sponsored. In addition, support by the military departments of basic research in foreign universities is open to misunderstanding and suspicion by foreign scientists and is not conducive toward cementing good international relations. In general, it would appear that some added support to foreign basic research could be given under existing programs but only at the risk of running counter to apparent congressional feeling on the one hand or warping program objectives on the other.

3. Much less difficulty would be encountered in supporting applied research and development abroad on an increased scale, both under existing military programs and under technical assistance programs of ICA because the relevance to assigned military or economic objectives is not nearly so hard to establish as in the case of basic research. In this connection the National Science Foundation, being oriented specifically to basic research, should not play any role, except at the specific request of other agencies. C. Increased support to efforts of other countries to improve the quantity and quality

of scientific manpower 1. The obvious principal mechanism through which increased U.S. support could be given in this area without additional congressional authorization is the college contract program of ICA. Admittedly, this program is oriented to objectives in one sense broader and in another sense narrower, than scientific man

2. Except as might be possible under the foreign research scientist and college contract programs of ICA, one important aspect of improving scientific manpower and the advancement of science generally-namely, fellowships for science students to pursue advanced study in the United States or other countries-does not appear susceptible to general expansion without additional congressional authorization. The National Science Foundation is equipped to carry out such an activity, but its enabling legislation specifically limits the award of NSF fellowships to U.S. citizens. D. Increased support to the interchange of scientific information among countries

1. The National Science Foundation is authorized and directed by its basic act "to foster the interchange of scientific information among scientists in the United States and foreign countries." Pursuant to this directive the Foundation could expand its present scientific information program in order to coordinate and improve the international exchange of scientific documents; to improve the coverage of internationally important scientific reference tools, such as abstract journals and indexes; to assure that significant publications in little known languages are translated into the more widely used languages; and to give needed advice and assistance to other countries in obtaining U.Š. scientific publications and reports. Because a number of Federal agencies are authorized to operate in this general field, at least insofar as the collection and dissemination of printed materials are concerned, an expanded U.S. effort in this regard would require interagency agreements concerning the new activities which each agency would undertake.

2. Congressional authorization also exists to permit the National Science Foundation and the Department of State (a) to support international conferences both by providing for American attendance and assisting in making possible the attendance of outstanding scientists from other countries; and (b) to enable outstanding foreign scientists to come to this country to lecture for limited periods of time. However, both agencies have experienced difficulty in securing appropriations for these purposes. Nevertheless, it is possible that through the combined efforts of the Department of State and the National Science Foundation, some significant increases in U.S. effort and support along these two lines could be effected, if a policy decision were made by the executive branch to place a high priority on this type of activity.

From the foregoing it appears that some real progress can be made in the area of “international science within the framework of existing legislation. However, planning along these lines is characterized by two difficulties—first, expanded efforts in the field of science by agencies and under programs having specially oriented objectives will of necessity carry the “flavor” of those special objectives; consequently, the response of foreign scientists can be expected to be less enthusiastic than would be the case under a broad program of international scientific cooperation. Second, in the review of projects and proposals under existing foreign assistance programs, considerations of scientific merit become subordinated, in at least some degree, to other considerations of an economic or military character. On the other hand, the National Science Foundation, whose objective is the support of progress in science, must proceed cautiously and in a limited fashion in the international area because the justification for its appropriations have largely been considered on the basis of advancement of science in the United States.

V. RECOMMENDATIONS As a major element in the achievement of U.S. foreign policy objectives, it is recommended that the U.S. Government effectively utilize science by increasing materially the support, through both official and private channels, of science (and technology) internationally, and that the Congress provide whatever addi. tional authorization is required to effectuate this objective:

As a corollary to the foregoing recommendation, it is considered mandatory that U.S. activities in the field of science, internationally, be fully considered at an administrative level which will insure complete and effective coordination of all its elements.

The present support of international scientific activities by the U.S. Government is by no means inconsiderable; however, science is supported only where, and to the extent that, such support in each instance is deemed essential or related to a military, economic or other specially oriented objective. The effect of the foregoing recommendation would be to make support available on the basis of scientific considerations, without the necessity of relating such support in each instance to immediate economic, military or political objectives. Stated another way, the recommendation would aim toward supporting foreign, or cooperative U.S.-foreign endeavors of outstanding scientific merit as an immediate scientific objective of U.S. foreign policy.

U.S. support of international science should include the following: (a) widespread interchange of scientific information with other countries; (b) increased interchange of scientific personnel; (c) fundamental research, including facilities for such research; (d) applied research and development; (e) a buildup in the scientific manpower potential of friendly and neutral countries; and (f) improved scientific representation and liaison. Specific recommendations dealing with each of these areas are set forth in the sections which follow.

It is understood that the support of foreign science must take into account the status of relations prevailing at any given time between the United States and the country concerned. Obviously, the United States would not support the buildup of the scientific potential of the U.S.S.R. on any occasion in the foreseeable future. On the other hand, as pointed out earlier, increased communication among scientists tends to ease international tensions and to break down artificial barriers erected by totalitarian countries. In giving support to the categories of international scientific activity listed above, the United States must phase its actions according to reciprocal actions taken by other countries in sharing scientific information and resources. Consequently, support to the interchange of scientific information does not rule out reciprocal arrangements with Iron Curtain countries. At the other end of the scale, with respect to applied science and the building up of scientific manpower resources, support should be limited to friendly and neutral countries. A. Interchange of scientific and technical information

The interchange of scientific and technical information on a worldwide basis is indispensable to healthy scientific development. Impediments to such interchange are especially costly to the United States, which has unusual capabilities in the practical utilization of basic discoveries. Such interchange must recognize the different potentialities of countries in various stages of scientific development. In the larger view it is not in our national interest to insist on a strict quid pro quo exchange, especially from friendly countries. Less highly developed friendly countries should receive scientific and technical documents they are capable of utilizing, regardless of their ability to supply an equal amount of information in exchange.

Russia and its satellites fall in a special category. Every effort should be made to increase the flow of scientific and technical information received from Russia on an exchange basis. However, such efforts should recognize that Russia cannot be forced into any exchange arrangement by withholding information or by insisting that official channels be utilized. It is not difficult for Russia to obtain indirectly any unclassified material which is generally available in the United States. Experience indicates that considerable benefits to the United States have resulted from informal scientist-to-scientist exchange arrangements with Russian and satellite nations.

1. Scientific and technical information, the release of which can seriously damage the national defense, or be prejudicial to the defense interests of the United States, is required to bear a security classification. Unclassified scientific and technical information should be freely available for exchange with scientists in other countries. It is difficult for other countries to understand the necessity for restrictions upon the flow of such unclassified information. Simultaneously, restrictions in this flow by the United States result in similar restrictions by other countries, especially the U.S.S.R. Also, such restrictions puzzle and irritate U.S. scientists and make it difficult to consummate effective exchange arrangements with foreign scientists or agencies who become aware of them. Accordingly, it is recom, mended that all regulations and procedures restricting the export of unclassified scientific and technical information should be reviewed, with a view toward their simplification or rescission.

2. Not all Government agencies are in a position, from the standpoint of authority or financial ability, to enter into arrangements with foreign agencies or institutions to exchange unclassified scientific information. For example, the Armed Services Technical Information Agency is not authorized to provide any documents to foreign agencies, although ASTIA is officially established as the technical information center of the Department of Defense. In the interest of effective exchange of U.S. Government-developed unclassified scientific and technical information it is recommended that all Government agencies originating scientific and technical information should be encouraged, and authorized where necessary, to exchange such information with foreign agencies and institutions.

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