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COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas, Chairman HENRY M. JACKSON, Washington

KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota SAM J. ERVIN, JR., North Carolina

CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska HUBERT H. HUMPHREY, Minnesota JACOB K. JAVITS, New York ERNEST GRUENING, Alaska EDMUND S. MUSKIE, Maine

WALTER L. REYNOLDS, Chief Clerk and Staff Director

SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL POLICY MACHINERY

HENRY M. JACKSON, Washington, Chairman
HUBERT H. HUMPHREY, Minnesota KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakots

J. K. MANSFIELD, Staff Director
ROBERT W. TUFTS, Chief Consultant
DOROTHY FOSDICK, Professional Staff Member
GRENVILLE GARSIDE, Professional Staff Member
HOWARD E. HAUGERUD, Professional Staff Member

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FOREWORD

The Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery was established in July 1959 to make the first full-scale review of the national security policy process since the discussion and debate preceding passage of the National Security Act of 1947.

The subcommittee's goal is twofold: (1) to review the effectiveness of our present policymaking organizations and methods against the background of the changed perspectives and problems of the last 12 years; and (2) to make such recommendations for improvement of the policy process as are appropriate.

Shortly after its creation, the subcommittee undertook to determine how certain other countries, including nations of the Communist bloc, organize their governments for the making of national policy. Its staff, in cooperation with the executive branch, was requested to prepare appropriate studies. The first of these, dealing with national policy machinery in Communist China, was published earlier this month.

This present study of national policy machinery in the Soviet Union further underscores the contrasts between the democratic and Communist systems. It describes “the Soviet apparatus in both a static and a dynamic sense" in order to "interweave what it is with how it works.” The study should help promote a better understanding of the challenge confronting free societies.

HENRY M. JACKSON, Chairman, Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery. JANUARY 20, 1960.

NOTE

Certain very recent changes in appointments and governmental structure, such as the decentralization of the central Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), have occurred since the completion of this study. However, these do not alter the basic findings contained in this report.

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CONTENTS

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Foreword...

I. Introduction..
II. Policymaking machinery:
Chapter 1. The Soviet state system.

Territorial-administrative structure.
The government hierarchy -
The party hierarchy -

The interlocking directorate
Chapter 2. Party Congress and Central Committee..

Congress.

Central Committee
Chapter 3. Presidium..

Organization.--

The functioning of the Presidium-
Chapter 4. Secretariat.

Organization --

The functioning of the Secretariat.
Chapter 5. Supreme Soviet and Council of Ministers.
Chapter 6. Presidium of the Council of Ministers..
Chapter 7. Ministries, state committees, and other agencies of the
Council of Ministers.

Ministries..
State committees.

Specialized agencies.
III. Foreign policy:

Chapter 1. Introduction..
Chapter 2. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Organization..
Foreign missions.

Personnel.
Chapter 3. State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations-

Organization..

Functioning
Chapter 4. Ministry of Foreign Trade-

Organization
Functioning -

The foreign trade plan
Chapter 5. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.

Organization.
Functioning.

Soviet control..
Chapter 6. Foreign Communist Parties -

Direct contact..
Bloc parties.
Central Soviet organs.
Training and guidance.
Diplomatic channels
Front organizations.

Effectiveness
IV. Economic policy:

Introduction
Central organs
Republic and lower level.
The planning operation.
Periodic plans..
Effectiveness..

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Role of the party Presidium

Functioning of the mechanism.

Role of the Council of Ministers.

VI. Military policy:

Introduction..

Organization.

Interservice problems.

Relations with the party

Influence on policy

Execution of policy

Annex: Organs and media for disseminating policy decisions:

Party control and guidance..

Media of mass communication

Controlled dissemination.

CO!!!

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