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cardinalis, and that, on the contrary, this method is, in most cases, connected with great difficulties. What enormous amount of the most serious scientific work on the part of the investigators to place the introduction of the parasites of the Gypsy moth on a sure basis! It is only when the life-histories of the parasites in all their peculiarities are fully studied and when their mode of attacking and the degree of attack on the host have been exactly ascertained-only then the practical utilization of parasites can be thought of. This is the 'Axiom' of the biologic warfare which today

is strictly adhered to by Howard and his school.

"If there were many errors committed at first, and if many costly experiments were failures-this is only natural. Through Error to Victory! Most of our modern roads do not lead to their destination in a straight line, and frequently it is through failures that we advance the farthest! [P. 131.] We should rejoice that the Amercans have gone through the most difficult part of this road, and we should none must longer hesitate to join them and, for the benefit of forestry and agriculture, to folurs them, shoulder to shoulder, on the road which they have conquered after such a hard struggle. For it can not be doubted that the biologic method has still a promising future and that it will occupy a constantly broadening part in the warfare against insect pests."

The author gives an excellent historical summary of the development of applied entomology in this country, taking the work of the Federal Bureau of Entomology as a criterion and discussing activities of other entomologists wherever necessary to round out the account, and finds much to commend. The illustrations are mostly from the publications of the Bureau of Entomology. The author was so deeply inpressed with the soundness of our methods that he advocates for Germany a similar system with some modifications and has taken preliminary steps for the formstion of an Association of Economic Entomologists similar to that in this country.

Current Notes

Conducted by the Associate Editor

Mr. A. B. Shaw has resigned as assistant in entomology at the California University and Station.

The appropriations to the Ohio Station for 1913, made by the legislature, include $8,000 for entomology.

Mrs. Anna Botsford Comstock has recently been appointed assistant professor of entomology and nature study in Cornell University.

Mr. H. L. Viereck was with the Minnesota State Entomologist during August and September.

At the California University and Station, G. A. Coleman, E. C. Van Dyke and L. J. Nickels have been appointed instructors, and R. E. Campbell as assistant in entomology.

Mr. Charles W. Howard was promoted from instructor to assistant professor of entomology, University of Minnesota, by the Board of Regents, at the June meeting. Mr. Harry Pinkus, an agent of the Bureau of Entomology and an associate member of this Association, died, August 27, at Dallas, Texas.

At the Ohio State University a new biological building is being erected. It will house the departments of zoology and botany and will be provided with greenhouses and an insectary.

Professor J. S. Kingsley, for twenty-one years professor of zology in Tufts College,

has recently been appointed professor of zoology at the University of Illinois. He will there have charge of the vertebrates.

Mr. Dayton Stoner, instructor in zoology at the State University of Iowa, spent the summer in the insectary of the Iowa Experiment Station at Ames.

Sir Patrick Manson, at the recent International Medical Congress, was presented with a gold plaque symbolical of triumph over tropical diseases.

Dr. W. L. Tower, of the University of Chicago, has been made curator of the new bionomic laboratory, and has gone to South America to collect material for it.

Professor Ernest Walker, formerly of the University of Kansas, has recently been appointed head of the horticultural department of the Alabama College and Station. Professor T. D. A. Cockerell, professor of zoology at the University of Colorado at Boulder, was given the honorary degree of Sc.D. by Colorado College at its last commencement in June.

Colonel William C. Gorgas has been invited to visit Johannesburg, South Africa, to advise regarding sanitary conditions there. He has asked for a leave of absence that he may accept the invitation.

Professor C. E. Bartholomew of the Agricultural College at Ames, Iowa, had charge of the instruction in entomology at the Macbride Lakeside Laboratory on West Lake, Okoboji, Iowa, during the summer.

Mr. M. P. Somes, assistant entomologist of the South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, has been appointed entomologist of the Missouri Fruit Experiment Station at Mountain Grove, Mo., where he should now be addressed.

Professor H. A. Morgan, Director of the Tennessee Station, visited Europe in the summer as a member of the Southern Commercial Congress, to study the rural credit systems there.

Mr. G. P. Weldon has resigned as assistant entomologist of the Colorado Station and instructor in the college, to accept a position as Chief Deputy Commissioner of Horticulture in California, succeeding Mr. Geo. E. Merrill.

Mr. Irving W. Davis, B.S., a graduate in 1911, of the Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst, Mass., has been appointed assistant in entomology at the Connecticut Station at New Haven, and has taken up his work there.

Mr. A. C. Mason, B. S., a graduate of the Michigan Agricultural College, class of 1913, has been appointed laboratory assistant in entomology under Professor J. R. Watson, at the Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla., and began his work July 1.

Dr. A. D. Ihms has been appointed Reader in Agricultural Entomology in the Victoria University of Manchester, England. He was formerly professor of biology in the University of Allahabad and afterwards Forest Entomologist to the Government of India at the Imperial Research Institute, Dehra Dun, India.

Mr. W. O. Ellis, instructor in zoology at the Iowa State College, has gone to Washington State College as instructor in zoology and assistant in entomology in the experiment station. Mr. Ellis served as an insectary assistant at the Iowa station during the past summer.

According to Science Dr. J. E. Wodsedalek, formerly of the zoological department of the University of Wisconsin, has been appointed professor of zoɔ̃logy and head of the department of zoology and entomology at the University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, as a successor to J. M. Aldrich.

Professor C. T. Brues, Bussey Institution, Forest Hills, Mass., was a member of a special expedition to Peru led by Dr. Richard P. Strong, from the Harvard Medical School, to study infectious diseases of South and Central America. The party sailed from New York April 30th and will return in the fall.

Paul S. Welch Ph. D. has been appointed instructor in the college and assistant

in the Station in the department of entomology, Kansas Agricultural College, z place of Dr. M. C. Tanquary, who resigned to accompany the Crocker Land Exper tion.

Dr. John W. Scott, assistant professor of zoology, Kansas Agricultural Col-ze, has resigned to become professor and head of the department of zoology and parasitology at the University of Wyoming. His place at Kansas has been filled by the appointment of Dr. J. E. Ackert, of the University of Illinois.

H. F. Wilson has been appointed head of the entomological department at the Oregon College and Station, and hereafter Professor A. B. Cordley will give entire time to his work as dean of the school of agriculture. A sub-station has beg extablished at Hood River for the purpose of studying the fruit insects and diseases

Mr. James F. Zimmer formerly in charge of the Insecticide Testing Laboratory of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology at Vienna, Va., has resigned to accept a pse Htion as Assistant State Leader in Farm Management, at Manistee, Mich duties will be to Assist the fruit growers and farmers along the eastern, så ore oẪ Lake Michigan.

Professor A. G. Ruggles, who was granted leave of absence that he might serve as entomologist for the Pennsylvania chestnut tree blight commission, has returned fo his work at the University of Minnesota. The Pennsylvania work was stopped because the appropriation was considered inadequate and was vetoed by the Governor.

Mr. W. F. Fiske, formerly of the Bureau of Entomology and with headquarters at the Gypsy moth parasite laboratory, Melrose Highlands, Mass., is now employed in connection with investigations into the Trypanosome diseases of man and domestic animals in Africa. His address is, Care of Tropical Diseases Committee, Royal Society, Burlington House, London, England.

Professor A. J. Cook, horticultural commissioner of California recently had to face charges of incompetency made by a self appointed body called the Horticultural Welfare Committee. This committee claimed that Professor Cook's administratan has been injurious to the fruit industry of the state. No case was presented, however, against Professor Cook, who was wholly and emphatically vindicated by Goverter Hiram Johnson.

Mr. E. P. Van Duzee, formerly of Grosvenor Library, Buffalo, N. Y., is now at Scripps Institution, La Jolla, California, where he divides his time between library work and in studying the hemiptera. Mr. Van Duzee will probably remain on the Pacific coast, and will continue his work in entomology, being now engaged in preparing a catalogue of North American Hemiptera. Correspondents should send letters and specimens to the address given above.

According to Science "Mr. C. W. Mason of Wye, England, and Mr. Donald M Gregor of Oxford, have been appointed Carnegie scholars in entomology under the Imperial Bureau of Entomology. Mr. Mason arrived in the United States early in July and is now studying at the laboratory of parasitology of the Bureau of Entomol ogy of the United States Department of Agriculture at Melrose Highlands, Mass He will study in this country for one year. Mr. McGregor will arrive in New York soon and will probably join Mr. Mason at Melrose Highlands "

The American and the Pacific Coast Associations of Nurserymen, which met n joint convention at Portland, Ore., passed resolutions and appointed a committee to aid in bringing about more uniform legislation regarding inspection and certificatra of nursery stock in the different states The following standing committee was appointed to take charge of the work: William Pitkin, Rochester, N. Y., Chairman; Peter Youngers Geneva, Neb, Treasurer; M McDonald, Orenco, Ore.

Professor W. T Shaw, zoologist of the Experiment Station, professor of Zoology

and Curator of the museum in the college, Pullman, Wash., will be acting head of the department of Entomology and Zoology for the coming year, during the absence of Professor A. L. Melander, who has been granted a year's leave of absence for research work at Harvard. Mr. M. A. Yothers, Assistant Entomologist of the Station, will have charge of entomological investigations. Mr. E. O. Ellis, who this spring received his Master's degree from the Iowa Agricultural College, has been elected to the position of Instructor in Entomology, and Assistant in Entomology in the Station.

The apicultural department of the Agricultural College at Amherst, Mass., has been strengthened by increasing the apiary and by appointing a superintendent in the person of Mr. John L. Byard, of Southboro, Mass., formerly a deputy apiary inspector in the state. Mr. Byard is now president of the Massachusetts State Beekeepers' Association and for three years was president of the Worcester County Beekeepers' Association. He has a wide acquaintance with the beekeepers of his state and a good knowledge of his subject, having been generally recognized as a successful apiculturist. Mr. Byard will assist in laboratory and demonstrational work with students and at institutes and conventions, but his services will be chiefly confined to the maintenance of the college apiary and its equipment.

Science is responsible for the statement that "Mrs. A. H. Clarke, of Earl's Court, has given to the University of London the collection of continental and exotic macrolepidoptera made by her late husband, who was one of the senior fellows of the Entomological Society. The section of exotic butterflies consists of nearly 6,000 specimens from all parts of the world, and is particularly valuable as a reference collection, not merely from the number and careful selection of the forms represented (some being of great rarity), but from the perfect condition and beauty of the specimens themselves. The whole donation comprises over 12,000 specimens all carefully set, arranged and labeled; and to it Mrs. Clarke has added her husband's working library of entomological literature. After the work of arranging and cataloguing has been concluded, the collections will be available for reference by entomologists generally upon application to the professor of zoology at the university.”

According to Canadian Entomologist, Mr. John D. Tothill, B. S. A., a graduate of the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, has been awarded the Carnegie Scholarship in Entomology in order to enable him to take a year's post graduate course at Cornell University. The value of the scholarship is $625.00 and includes traveling expenses. These scholarships are somewhat similar in character to the Rhodes scholarships at Oxford and are intended to enable qualified young men in various parts of the British Empire to spend a year in study at some University in the United States. Mr. Tothill is a field agent of the Division of Entomology at Ottawa, and is at present carrying on investigations under the direction of Dr. Hewitt, on the work of parasites of the Brown-Tail Moth in N. B., his headquarters being at Fredericton. The Division of Entomology of the Minnesota Experiment Station has adopted the Sectional plan. All sections are of equal rank. One section, comprising spraying and shade tree and forest insects, is under the direction of Mr. A. G. Ruggles. Mr. William Moore of Cornell, just returned from South Africa, has charge of the section on Greenhouse and truck crop insects. Mr. C. W. Howard, from South Africa, also a Cornell graduate, has charge of the section on Forage crop insects and also insects and diseases. Mr. A. J. Spangler is chief nursery inspector under the direction of the State Entomologist who has, by law, that work in charge.

Mr. Charles H. T. Townsend, Government Entomologist and Director of Entomological Stations, was some time ago especially charged by the Peruvian Government with the investigation of the insect transmission of verruga. On the 30th of June, he announced, from the entomological evidence alone, the practical certainty that

Phlebotomus was the verruga vector. On July 11 he injected a dog with triturated bodies of females of the Phlebotomus, and secured the verruga eruption on July 17 a result. This is the first case of experimental transmission of the disease through the medium of insects. Details of the case are being published. This investigation ha furnished another striking illustration of the value of expert entomological werk For thirty years the medical fraternity of Peru has labored to solve the mystery of the origin and transmission of verruga. Yet six months' work by a practical entomos ogist has definitely indicated the carrier. The result is that the disease loses ta mystery and can be confidently guarded against. It was possible to draw up a pras tical demonstration of Phlebotomus as the transmitting agent from the entomologi investigation alone, without waiting for the transmissional proof. The Peruvian authorities are fully alive to the importance of the discovery.

Mr. D. L. Crawford, Entomologist and Horticulturist of the Mexico Gulf Coast Citrus Fruit Association, located at Apto. 293, Tampico, Mexico, has just issued a circular on the Control of the Orange Maggot. This is the first of a series which may appear at regular intervals and also embody the results of his investigations of other insects. Mr. Crawford will gladly supply this circular upon applicates by interested parties.

The Ohio State University has established a course in Applied Entomology and announces a course of study, leading to a Bachelor of Science degree, to cover four years of under-graduate work, including such subjects as Modern Language, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Geology, Horticulture and Agronomy, besides a number in strictly technical Entomological works. It is intended to fit students for technical work in the Bureau of Entomology, Experiment Stations, State and Federal Quarantine Service or as Investigators in Boards of Health or other professional positions.

The following notes are copied from The Review of Applied Entomology for August, page 304:

Mr. R. H. Deakin has been appointed as Assistant Entomologist at Nairobi, Fast Africa Proctectorate. Mr. F. P. Jepson, Government Entomologist of Fiji left Java in July, having been there to search for parasites of the Banana Weevil (Cor mopolites sordidus, Germ.). Dr. W. A. Lamborn has been appointed as Entomologist of the Department of Agriculture, Southern Nigeria, in the place of Mr. A. Peabody (invalided). Mr. Gilbert Storey has been appointed as Assistant Entomologist to the Egyptian Department of Agriculture. The appointment of Mr. F. W Unch as Entomologist to the Board of Agriculture has been renewed for a further period of two years. The vacant Carnegie Scholarships of the Imperial Bureau of Entomol ogy have been allotted to the following g ntle nen: Mr. R. E. McGregor, Trinity College, Cambridge, for two years; Mr. A. R. Ritchie, Glasgow University, for two years; Mr. C. Mason, South-Eastern Agricultural College, Wye, for one year; and Mr. J. W. Tothill, Assistant Entomologist, Dominion of Canada, for six months. The Sleeping Sickness Commission of the Royal Society have arranged to send Mr. W. F. Fiske (lately of the U. S. A. Bureau of Entomology) to East Africa in September, for the purpose of studying the bionomics of Glossina.

Mailed October 29, 1913.

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