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"Traité de zoologie médicale et agricole." Many of its eight hundred and ninety-two figures, largely original, have been used so frequently that the source of them is forgotten. Another French text, well known through its English translation by Fleming, is Neumann's "Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals." It is of value as a reference book, but is very much out of date, and the English translation contains many careless errors.
Of the books which might be listed as modern, one of the best-known is Braun's "Tierische Parasiten des Menschen," of which the fourth edition appeared in 1908. This edition was thoroughly revised and brought up to date. The English translation, by Pauline Falcke, is of the third edition, with considerable revision by Sambon and Theobald.
A very suggestive little volume is Braun and Lühe's "Handbook of Practical Parasitology," translated by Linda Forster, (Wm. Wood & Co). The discussion of sources of material and of the technique of examining and preserving parasites of all kinds, makes this book one which should be in every laboratory of zoology. Its consideration of the Protozoa is especially detailed.
In the line of general text-books of parasitology, the French seem to be able to maintain their supremacy. Of several recent books along this line we shall cite three which seem especially serviceable.
E. Brumpt's "Précis de parasitologie," which appeared in 1910, (Masson & Cie. 12 fr.), is an octavo volume of over 900 pages, with 683 text figures, many original, and four colored plates. Though written primarily for medical students and practitioners, it is one of the best available texts of human parasitology.
Of the same type, though not quite so recent, is Neveu-Lemaire's "Précis de parasitologie humaine," (Rudeval. 8 fr.), of which the fourth edition, greatly revised, appeared in 1908.
Of a much more general nature, and the most recent comprehensive compendium, is Neveu-Lemaire's "Parasitologie des animaux domestiques," (Lamarre & Cie., 1912; 16 fr.). In a volume of 1252 pages, richly illustrated, the author has brought together, coördinated, and presented in a clear and concise manner the latest work in his field. Not only the parasitic animals, but also the plant forms, exclusive of bacteria, are treated, though the part devoted to them covers only 182 pages. In each part, the parasites are studied in their systematic order and, following each, its pathogenic role, treatment, and especially, prophylaxis, are considered. A feature which makes it especially valuable to the non-technical worker is that, at the end of each important discussion are presented in a concise form, the most simple procedure for microscopic diagnosis. At the end of the text there are
about fifty pages devoted to a list of domestic animals and their parasites, arranged according to the organ infested. A brief bibography and a very complete index add to the convenience of the volume.
During the past year there has also appeared a general text-book of parasitology in German: Fiebiger's "Die tierischen Parasiten der Haus- und Nutztiere," (Braumüller. 1912; 17 Marks). It is fully illustrated, an unusual proportion of the figures being original. Like the preceding, it closes with an extensive list of parasites of domestic animals, but this is far from complete. The author has treated the subject more fully from the zoölogical viewpoint and while the book has much to commend it as a text, it is less satisfactory for reference purposes than is Neveu-Lemaire's.
While this review has to do primarily with general treatises, the reader should not overlook the fact that there is appearing a large amount of important research, in the form of briefer papers, in this country. The studies of Dr. Stiles and Dr. Ransom, and their coworkers in the Public Health Service and in the Bureau of Animal Industry, and the work of Dr. Ward and his students have not only added much original material but have done much to stimulate interest in the subject in this country.
AN IMPORTANT MEANS OF PROMOTING
By BURTON E. GATES, Amherst, Mass.
Apiculture, as a subject of instruction, is making rapid strides among the agricultural colleges. The majority of states are furthering the industry by the enactment and administration of laws to prevent and suppress infectious bee diseases. A further effort to promote bee-keeping comes forth in competitive displays at agricultural and other fairs. Thus far, however, these displays have been relatively meager and often without particular purpose. Not infrequently the products of the apiary are displayed as an adjunct to the floral or horticultural exhibits at fairs. It is unusual for the beekeeping section to occupy a separate building and to offer awards of premiums aggregating $500.00 as at the Hartford (Conn.) Fair.
The competitive display at Hartford is under the direction of the Connecticut Beekeepers' Association, which offers premiums and conducts the displays through its Chairman, Mr. A. W. Yates. Threefifths of the premium money are available through a state grant and
two-fifths are provided by the Fair management. The management also provides a building 75 x 50 feet, well lighted and equipped with tables. So excellent are the displays that the management regards the beekeeping show as much a feature as the poultry or floral sections. The premiums offered are large in comparison to similar premiums at other fairs. For instance, for the largest and most attractive display of honey, the first premium is $24.00, the second, $16.00 and third, $8.00. Liberal premiums are also offered for queen rearing outfits, being $16.00, $10.00 and $6.00 respectively. With these seemingly large awards, sufficient interest is aroused among the beekeepers to cause keen competition. One of the exhibitors this year realized $130.00 on premiums.
The benefits to beekeeping derived are, the results of keen competition wherein the beekeeper makes supreme effort to produce the finest sections of honey, to grade them with the utmost discretion, to clean the sections a little better than his competitor, and to pack them in the most attractive form which he can devise. In this way the methods and interest in producing and marketing honey cannot help but be improved. On the other hand, the consumer is enlightened concerning honey. One who is skeptical can satisfy himself that he is procuring the best of pure honey at the fair. He learns to know honey in the open market and acquires a taste for this most wholesome sweet. Furthermore, the public learns that honey differs,-it may be comb, extracted or candied, and how to use it, for the Fair displays an assortment of culinary products in which honey is used.
The general beekeeper is not without benefit, also, for a most remarkable display of bees is made. In 1913, approximately fifty colonies of different races were on exhibition, and the beekeepers could be seen inspecting the superiority of the premium stock. This collection. of bees, without doubt, represented the most choice material available in the country.
Novice beekeepers and the public are afforded opportunities to learn fundamental manipulations of bees, how to handle them so as to avoid stings, to know the features and construction of hives, and to see the brood, the internal features of the colony, through the numerous demonstrations given in the wire cloth-cage by experienced experts. Those who witness such demonstrations, realize how fascinating they are and what crowds are attracted.
From the educational standpoint, furthermore, a relatively unique feature of the Connecticut display is the Section entitled "Competition for Novices," in which it is prescribed that "no one previously. exhibiting or receiving premiums shall be considered in this Department." It is at once apparent what this provision affords to the new
beekeepers. While it does not prevent the novice or new beekeeper from competing in other departments, it does afford him an opportunity to display his products and to feel that he has some chance to win a premium in fair competition with similar novices. This wholesome competition, too, encourages the beginner beekeeper to enter the larger competitions in succeeding years. Such a provision in the premium list for any fair is highly commendable.
Beside the strictly competitive displays, space is provided for concessioners who have honey in all its forms, wax, and honey-sandwiches for sale. Those who have charge of the Connecticut Fair, inform the writer that this is an excceedingly important provision, being profitable not only for the concessioners, but also for the management. It is explained that the concessions attract a certain class of people who might not otherwise enter the pavilion. Moreover, it is a means of income to the beekeepers.
Combining these several features of the carefully selected schedule, liberal premiums, an attractive and ample building, classes for the professional and novice, concessions where products are for sale, and the public demonstrations of living bees, presents a most remarkable beekeeping show. Furthermore, the attendance at this Fair probably exceeded several hundred thousand. For the beekeepers, therefore, it cannot help but be a most wholesome stimulus, and a wise method of promoting interests in bees and their products among the people at large.
NEW SPECIES OF MAPLE MITES
By H. E. HODGKISS, Geneva, N. Y.
A systematic study of the Eriophyidae subsisting on maples has shown the existence of a greater variety of forms than have heretofore been known to occur on these trees. Four species of the mites have been mentioned as inhabiting maples in this country, which are included in the genera Phyllocoptes and Oxypleurites. In our later studies individuals have been discovered which belong in the genera Eriophyes and Anthocoptes, the last-named genus not before being known to occur in North America. The species which have not previously been described may be recognized by the following general characters:
Anthocoptes transitionalis sp. nov. The body is very large with a broad, beakshaped thoracic shield which projects abruptly downward over the rostrum. The dorsum is highly arched and the striæ are 21 in number, of which the anterior eight
Jour. Econ. Ent. 1:311 313. 1908.
are very long and have a distinct lateral lobe. The ventral striæ are 68 or 70 in number and are coarsely punctuated. The accessory setæ are absent. The legs are long and somewhat slender. The claw is knobbed and much longer than the feathered hair, which is 5-rayed. Length of females, 240 microns; length of males, 230 microns.
Described from individuals taken from a deformed or "pustular" area in smooth bark of the red maple, Acer rubrum L.
Eriophyes confusus sp. nov. The body is long and tapering, with a broadly flattened thoracic shield. The striæ are 65 to 70 in number and finely punctuated. The setæ are all present. The legs are long and slender. The claw is knobbed and longer than the feathered hair which is 3-rayed. Length of females, 190 microns; length of males, 150 microns.
Described from individuals found associated with P. quadripes Shimer in bladder galls on the leaves of the soft maple, Acer saccharinum L.
Eriophyes elongatus sp. nov. The body is long and narrow with a small thoracic shield. The striæ are 70 in number and coarsely punctuated. The setæ are all present. The legs are of medium size. The claw is truncate and longer than the feathered hair which is 4-rayed. Length of females, 216 microns; length of males, 150 microns.
Described from individuals found among red erineum galls on the upper surfaces of leaves of the sugar maple, Acer saccharum L.
Eriophyes maculatus sp. nov. The body is long, narrow and the posterior third is gently acuminate. The striæ are 58 in number and coarsely punctuated. The setæ are all present. The legs are short. The claw is truncate and longer than the feathered hair which is 5-rayed. Length of females, 216 microns; length of males, 150 microns.
Described from individuals found among red erineum galls on the upper surfaces of leaves of the sugar maple, Acer saccharum L.
Eriophyes major sp. nov. The body is very long, tapering and the thoracic shield is of medium size. The stria are 70 in number and coarsely punctuated. The setæ are all present. The legs are of medium length. The claw is knobbed and slightly longer than the feathered hair which is 4-rayed. Length of females, 212 microns; length of males, 206 microns.
Described from individuals found among galls of pinkish erineum on the under surfaces of leaves of the red maple, Acer rubrum L.
Eriophyes modestus sp. nov. The body is of medium length and width, with a small semi-circular shield. The striæ are 76 in number and are coarsely punctuated along the posterior margins. The coxal setæ I are indistinct; ventral setæ II and the accessory setæ are absent. The legs are of medium size. The claw is knobbed and longer than the feathered hair which is 4-rayed. Length of females, 176 microns.
Described from individuals found among greenish erineum galls on the under surfaces of leaves of the sugar maple, Acer saccharum L.,