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lecture by W. S. Patton in which he discusses the relation of the parasite that causes the disease, to its hosts.

Kala-azar and the bedbug. Lancet (London), 1912, I, No. 8, p. 520. Discussion of recent investigations.

Sensational aspects of the bedbug peril. Cur. Lit. 53; October, 1912, pp. 420421. Refers to the papers of Manning and others showing the possibility of this insect carrying disease.

Mode of propagation of infantile paralysis: the bedbug as a spreader of disease. Sci. Am. S 73, May 11, 1912. p. 229. Review of Dr. Manning's article in Medical Times in which he gives reasons for believing that the bedbug may spread this disease.


ANDERSON, JOHN F. The relation of so-called Brill's disease to typhus fever An experimental demonstration of their identity. Pub. Health Rep. 27, No. 5' February 2, 1912; also in Hyg. Lab. Bul. No. 86, October, 1912, pp. 25–35. Concludes that the two diseases heretofore considered as distinct are the same.

ANDERSON, JOHN F. Studies on immunity and means of transmission of typhus. Hyg. Lab. Bul. 86, October, 1912, pp. 81-138. Experiments relating to the hereditary transmission of the virus in the body louse gave negative results. A few experiments relating to the transmission of this disease by bedbugs also gave negative results.

ANDERSON AND GOLDBERGER. Demonstration of the identity of the so-called Brill's disease with typhus. Pub. Health Rep. February 2, 1912, p. 149, Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. February 10, 1912, p. 414.

BIRT, C. Typhus fever. Jour. Roy. Army Med. Corps. Vol. 19, No. 5, November, 1912, pp. 521-529. Summary of our present knowledge of this disease and the methods of transmission.

GOLDBERGER, Jos. Studies on the virus of typhus. Duration of the infectivity of the blood. Hyg. Lab. Bul. No. 86. October, 1912, pp. 49-80. Reprinted from Pub. Health Rpts. 27, No. 22, May 31, 1912. Includes account of some experiments with the virus of the louse.

GOLDBERGER, JOS. AND ANDERSON, JOHN F. The transmission of typhus fever, with especial reference to transmission by the head louse (Pediculus capitis). Pub. Health Rep. Vol. 27, No. 9, March 1, 1912, pp. 297-307. Review of our present knowledge in regard to the spread of the disease and record of experiments. Conclude that the virus may be transmitted by lice.

GOLDBERGER, JOS. AND ANDERSON, J. F. Some recent advances in our knowledge of typhus. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. 5, 59, No. 7, August 17, 1912. pp. 514-517. Among other things they discuss the transmission of this disease by body lice and possibly by head lice and show that Brill's disease is the same as typhus, thus this problem is of direct interest to Americans.

HEWITT, C. GORDON. Transmission of typhus fever by lice. Can. Ent. XLIV 4, April, 1912, p. 103. Refers to Goldberger and Anderson's paper (Pub. Health Rep. March 1, 1912) in which they show that P. capitis as well as P. vestimenti may carry typhus fever and points out the importance of this.

Collected studies of typhus. Hyg. Lab. Bull. No. 86, October, 1912. A bringing together of a series of papers on this disease published in 1911-12. Those published in 1912 are listed above.

Typhus fever. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. Vol. 59, No. 25, December 21, 1912, pp. 2258-2260. Editorial reviewing the recent work by various investigators of

this subject.


FANTHAM, H. B. Herpetomonas pediculi, nov. spec. tract of Pediculus vestimenti, the human body louse.

Parasitic in the alimentary Proc. Roy. Soc. ser. B Vol.

84, February 14, 1912, pp. 505–517. (No. B 574.) also in Ann. Trop. Med & Par March 29, 1912. Attempts to introduce this parasite into vertebrates failed. It shows no connection with any vertebrate trypanos me.

GIRAULT, A. A. Notes on Pediculus vestimenti Nitzsch, the body louse of man. Ent. News 23, No. 8, October, 1912. Notes on feeding habits of certain reared broods. McCoy, G. W. AND CLEGG, M. T. A note on acid-fast bacilli in head lice. Peshe ulus capitis.) Pub. Health & Mar. Hos. Serv. U. S. Pub. Health Rep. 27, 1912 No. 36, pp. 1464-1465. Lice that had fed on leprous patients showed organisms indistinguishable from the leprosy bacilli.

NICOLLE, C. BLAIZOT, L. AND CONSEIL, E. I. Etiologie de la Fièvre Récurrente Son Mode de Transmission par le Pou. II. Conditions de Transmission de la Fièvre Récurrente, par le Pou. Compt. Rend. de l'Acad. Sci. Vol. 154, No. 24. – June 10, 1912, pp. 1636-1638 and also Vol. 155, No. 9, August 26, 1912, pp. 481-484; also (i) in Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis, No. 3, 1912, pp. 110-112. Records the first actual experiments to show that the relapsing fever may be transmitted by body lee. Typhus fever and the head louse. Note in Amer. Jour. Pub. Health, 1912, 2 No. 3, pp. 215-216. Believe that the fever may be transmitted by the bite of the insect


BANKS, NATHAN. The structure of certain dipterous larvæ with particular reference to those in human foods. Bur. Ent. Tech. Ser. No. 22, January 10, 1912 Gives a synopsis of such flies and note on the life history of many of them.

BLUE, RUPERT. The problem of the public health. Jour. Amer. Med Asst. Vol. 59, No. 6, August 10, 1912, pp. 413-415. Refers to the gradual development of the various organizations to promote public health and shows the necessity of working together.

BRUES, C. T. Blood-sucking insects as carriers of human diseases. Proc. Ent Soc. Wash. 14, No. 3, September, 1912, p. 180. Notes on Dr. Knab's article same vol. p. 79-81) pointing out certain conditions that Knab seems to have overlooked BRUES, C. T. Insects as agents in the spread of disease. Pop. Sei. Mon. December, 1912, pp. 537-550. A comprehensive review.

CASTELLANI, ALDO. Note on Copra itch (with report on the mite causing it, by Stanley Hirst) Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg. Vol. 15, No. 24. December 15, 1912, pp. 374-375. A variety of mite, Tyroglyphus longior var. castellanu, found commonly in copra dust often causes an eruption on people handling copra.

CASTELLANI, A. Copra itch. Brit. Med. Jour, 2, No. 2705, November 2, 1912. CLELAND, J. B. The relationship of insects to disease in man in Australia. See Rep. Gov. Bur. Microbiol. N. S. Wales, September, 1912, pp. 141-158. Many interesting notes on the insects of the various orders. List of flies caught on breakfast tables.

DOANE, R. W. An annotated list of the literature of insects and disease for 1911. Jour. of Econ. Ent. June, 1912, pp 268 285.

HERMS, W. B. Economic entomology from the viewpoint of the sanitarian. Jour Econ Ent Vol. 5, No. 4, August, 1912, pp 355 357. The importance of a knowledge of entomology in dealing with many sanitary problems.

HOWARD L. O. AND POPENOF, CH. Hydrocyanie-acid gas against household insects US. Bur Ent. Cire. No. 163, November 20, 1912. Directions for use. HOWARD, C. W. Insects directly or indirectly injurious to man and animals

in Mozambique, East Africa. Bul. Ent. Res. Vol. 3, pt. 2, August, 1912, pp. 211218. An annotated list.

HUNTER, W. D. American interest in medical entomology. Jour. Econ. Ent. Vol. 6, No. 1, February, 1913, pp. 27-39. Points out the importance of the work and the desirability of more entomologists devoting their time to it.

KNAB, FREDERICK. Blood-sucking insects as transmitters of human disease. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 14, 1912, p. 219. Replies to Brues' criticism of one of his

former papers.

KNAB, FREDERICK. Unconsidered factors in disease transmission by blood-sucking insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. Vol. 5, April, 1912, pp. 196-200. Points out that an insect must be more or less closely associated with man and habitually suck his blood if they are to be factors in the transmission of human blood diseases.

NEAVE, S. A. Notes on the blood-sucking insects of Eastern tropical Africa. Bul. Ent. Res. Vol. 3, pt. 3, November, 1912, pp. 275-324. An annotated list. M. NEVEU-LEMAIRE. Parasitology of domestic animals. Par des Animaux Domes. Maladies Paras. non Bacter. Paris, 1912, pp. 1257. Vegetable and animal parasites of domestic animals, host lists and short bibliography.

NICOLL, W. Flies and other insects as carriers of infection. Brit. Med. Jour., 2, No. 2704, October 26, 1912.

Novy, F. G. Disease carriers. Science, July 5, 1912, pp. 1-10. Four pages devoted to discussion of insects and disease.

RUCKER, W. C. Insects and disease: the mechanical and biological methods of transmission. Sci. Am. 107, July 13, 1912, pp. 34-35. Setting forth the dangers from the presence of certain insects.

SERGEOIS, E. The role of insects as carriers of disease. Abs. in Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. 58, (1912), No. 8, pp. 594-595. A study of the bedbug and its possible relation to disease. Ordinarily plays the part of carrier only, seldom a host. Such diseases as relapsing fever and kala-azar probably remain epidemic in certain places on account of the bedbugs.

SIMPSON, JAS. J. Entomological research in British West Africa. II Northern Nigeria. Bul. Ent. Res. Vol. 2, pt. 4, January, 1912, pp. 301-356. Includes records of blood-sucking insects and other arthropods. Native names for insect and diseases carried by them. Protozoal diseases in man and other animals; remedial measures.

SNYDER, C. Reservoirs of contagion. Harpers 125, November, 1912, pp. 832838. Many different kinds of animals have been shown to act as reservoirs in which are stored germs that cause disease in the same or other animals.

TIDSWELL, F. A review of the present situation as regards infectious protozoa. Sec. Rep. Gov. Bur. Microbiol. N. S. Wales, September, 1912, pp. 62-70. Important. List of parasites-hosts and carriers.

WILLIAMS, H. A. Messengers of death. Cosmop. 53, 724-735, November, 1912. Popular notes on several insects that carry disease.

Insects. The common forms in relation to public health and methods for their destruction. Pa. Health Bull. No. 32.

Insects as carriers of infectious diseases. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. Vol. 59, No. 20, November 16, 1912, p. 1798. Editorial pointing out the importance of the recent discoveries.

Two pictures a contrast. Comment Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. Vol. 59, July 6, 1912, p. 43. January 1 to June 1, 1912, Guayaquil had 147 cases yellow fever, 124 cases of bubonic plague. This is the "Pest hole of the Pacific." No cases of yellow fever or plague and but comparatively little sickness in Panama Canal Zone during the same period; used to be as bad as Guayaquil.


AUGUST, 1913

The editors will thankfully receive news items and other matter likely to be of interest to subscribers. Papers will be published, so far as possible, in the order of reception. All extended contributions, at least, should be in the hands of the editor the first of the month preceding publication. Contributors are requested to supply electrotypes for the larger illustrations so far as possible. The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged.—EDS.

The Entomological Society of Ontario will be celebrating its semicentennial about as this number appears. The half century has been a period of progress and much of accomplishment must be credited to the residents north of a line political-not racial, social or fauna! Their problems are our problems. The long series of reports of this society and the numerous volumes of Canadian Entomologist contain a host of records concerning American insects, data of great value to all students of entomology. The organization may rightfully claim the honor of founding and supporting the oldest regularly issued entomological serial in the New World. This achievement alone is worthy of high praise. We are quite certain that all active entomologists, both economic and systematic, would gladly join in the felicities of the occasion and congratulate most heartily our Canadian friends on the record of the past and the even more brilliant prospects of the future.

There was a time when an entomologist was regarded as a man of limited outlook or at least a trifle narrow and inconsequential. Now certain entomological specialists appear to look upon the general student of insect life as a somewhat trifling jack-of-all-trades who accomplishes little of real value. There is more or less truth in both of these attitudes. American entomologists of the practical persuasion are mostly specialists and perhaps never happier than when learning new life histories or ascertaining hitherto undreamed of biological relationships. Such investigations, limited as they are to individual insects or more or less natural groups add, and add greatly to the sum of human knowledge and do much to increase the honor accorded the profession both in this country and abroad. There is such a thing as getting too close to a problem. It is possible to spend all our energy fighting an insect or studying individual pests so that no time or strength can be given to the broader prophylactic measures. International quarantine is excellent as a preventive though of little service after a pest has become well established. Why is one insect

a pest and a close ally insignificant? What are the determining factors in the case of either chronic or periodically injurious species? May any of these factors be modified to the practical advantage of man? Some men are giving more or less time to such problems, though usually in an incidental way and generally in relation to individual pests. Are not some of these broader questions worthy of the same concentration so frequently given problems of pressing practical importance?

Current Notes

Conducted by the Associate Editor

Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury) died May 28, aged 79 years.

A new fou brood law has been enacted in Connecticut, becoming operative August 1.

Columbia University recently conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Science upon Wm. C. Gorgas.

Professor George H. Parker was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences at Washington, April 22–24.

Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, Dominion Entomologist of Canada, was recently elected a Fellow of the Royal Soc ́ety of Canada.

Professor T. D. A. Cockerell has received the honorary degree of Doctor of Science from Colorado College.

Mr. William Harper Dean, assistant and instructor in Entomology at the Texas College and Station, resigned April 1.

Professor S. W. Williston receiv.d the honorary degree of Doctor of Science from Yale University, June 18.

Mr. A. J. Mutchler has been appointed as-istant in the department of invertebrate zoology at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City.

At the ecological conference at the University of Chicago this summer, Professors S. A. Forbes and Wm. M. Wheeler are to give illustrated lectures.

Dr. E. P. Sansten, recently appointed horticulturist of the College and Station at Auburn, Alabama, has resigned to accept a similar position at the Colorado State College.

W. E. Dove, a recent graduate of the Mississippi Agricultural College is now employed by the United States Bureau of Entomology and is located at Dallas, Texas.

Dr. M. W. Blackman, of the zoological department of Syracuse University, has been made associate professor of entomology in the New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse University.

Mr. W. F. Fiske, who has been connected with the gypsy moth parasite laboratory for several years, has resigned from the Bureau of Entomology and is spending the summer in Europe.

Assistant Surgeon General Wm. C. Gorgas, Professors J. H. Comstock and C. E. McClung, were elected members of the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, on April 19.

Mr. Benjamin W. Douglas, formerly state entomologist of Indiana, has started in business as a landscape gardener in Indianapolis,and will take charge of the planting of several large estates.

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