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Psyche, Vol. XX, No. 1, February, 1913, pp. 38-40. Description and notes on a parasite reared from housefly pupa.
STALLMAN, G. P. Ants destroying larvæ of flies. Mil. Surg. 31, No. 3, September, 1912.
TEBBUTT, HAMILTON. On the influence of the metamorphosis of Musca domestica upon bacteria administered in the larva stage. Jour. Hyg. Vol. 12, No. 4, December, 1912. pp. 516–526. Concludes that "The possibility of flies becoming infected from the presence of pathogenic organisms in the breeding ground of the larvæ may be considered as very remote."
TERRY, C. E. Extermination of the housefly in cities, its necessity and possibility. Amer. Jour. Pub. Health, Vol. II, January, 1912, pp. 14-22. Danger in cities without good sewage systems. Ground floors of stable stalls often worst breeding places, sometimes two or more inches deep. Eggs and larvæ under 14, 26, 36, 41 and 48 inches sterilized sand produced flies which harbored bacteria with which the food of the larva was infected.
THOMPSON, F. W. Housefly as carrier of typhoid infection. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg. XV, No. 18, September 16, 1912.
TORREY, JNO. C.
Bacteria and flies.
Jour. Infec. Dis. March, 1912. The fly as an agent in the spread of disease. Four hundred and seventy to 4,400,000 organisms on surface of fly, 16,000 to 28,000,000 organisms in intestine. Some of these were fecal bacteria of the colon type; 13.1 per cent on the surface, 37.5 per cent in the intestine.
TORREY, J. C. Numbers and types of bacteria carried by city flies. Jour. Infec. Dis., 10 (1912), No. 2, pp. 166–177. Record of numbers and kinds of bacteria found.
WASHBURN, F. L. The Minnesota fly trap. Circ. No. 24, August 12, 1912, State Ento. Minn. Description of this trap in which bread and milk was used for bait. (See also Jour. Eco. Ento. V, October, 1912, and Sci. N. S. 36, October 18, 1912.)
How to make a flyless town. World's Work, 24: June, 1912, pp. 176-179. Things necessary in a successful fly campaign.
The fly and the surface privy. Comment in Cal. Sta. Bd. Health. Vol. 7, May 1912, pp. 228-229. The danger from this source.
Transmission of Trypanosoma hippicum by the housefly. Rep. Dept. Sanit. Isthmian Canal Com. 1912, April, p. 41.
AUSTEN, ERNEST E. British flies which cause myiasis in man. Rept. Loc. Gov., Bd. Pub. Health & Med. Sub. (n. s. No. 66) 1912, pp. 5-14. Notes on ten or more species. Bibliography.
BUSCK, A. On the rearing of a Dermatobia hominis. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 14 (1912) No. 1, pp. 9-13. Records the breeding of this fly in human host.
COCKAYNE, Intestinal myiasis. Lancet, January 20, 1912. Larvæ of M. domestica and Fannia (Homalomyia) canicularis found in bed where child slept. HEWITT, C. G. Fannia (Homalomyia) canicularis and F. scalaris. Paras. 5 (1912) No. 3, pp. 161-174. Bionomics of these flies and their relation to myiasis. HEWITT, C. GORDON. An account of the bionomics and the larvæ of the flies Fannia (Homalomyia) canicularis L. and F. scalaris Fab. and their relation to myiasis of the intestinal and urinary tracts. Rep. Loc. Gvt. Bd. Pub. Health & Med. Sub. (n. 8. No. 66) 1912, pp. 15-22, same in Parasit. V, No. 3, September, 1912. Gives reason for change of generic name. Descriptions of the stages of the two species and
notes on their habits. Often found in alimentary canal and sometimes in urinary tract. References to literature.
KNAB, FREDERICK. The habits of flies of the genus Cordylobia, parasitic on man in Africa. Sci. N. S. XXXV, April 26, 1912. p. 662 Review of an article by Roa baud in Compt. Rendus Hebdom. des Seances de l'Acad. des Sci. October 23, 1911. The larvæ of C. anthropophaga found under skin of man and domestic animals, larve hatch in sand or elsewhere and later penetrate their host. Natives who sleep on the ground more apt to be infected. Another observation by von Pelser-Berensterg (Soc. Entomol. Vol. 26, p. 34, July 29, 1911) on C. rodhaini showed that these fles laid their eggs on his underclothing while he was bathing. The larvæ hatched and penetrated the skin.
SINGLETON. Dermatobia noxialis infection in man. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. April 27, 1912. A larva called ver macaque occurring under skin of a man.
FORBES, STEPHEN A. On black flies and buffalo-gnats (Simulium) as possible carriers of pellagra in Illinois. 27th. Rep. Sta. Entom. of Ill., pp. 21-52. 1912: Habits and life history of the group; description of Illinois species. possible relation to pellagra; no definite data.
GARMAN, H. A preliminary study of Kentucky localities in which pellagra s prevalent. Kentucky Agric. Ex. Sta. Bull. 159, January, 1912. The following fats were observed which indicate that the disease might be insect-borne; eruptions in the cases noted, first appeared on the hands, arms, neck or legs, portions of the body exposed to insect bites. The disease becomes most prevalent just after Simulium appear in greatest numbers. It often attacks children who go bare-footed and bare-legged and who wash in streams. List of insects and other animals studied A summary of Dr. Sambon's findings. HUNTER, S. J. Sand-fly and pellagra. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. LVIII, February 24, 1912. Discusses theories as to cause, particularly Sambon's theory and records experiments, not yet completed, to test this theory.
HUNTER, S. J. Pellagra and the sand-fly, II. Jour. Econ. Ent. Vol. 6 No 1, February, 1913, pp. 96-101. Notes on the distribution and life history of these flies in Kansas. Investigators have not been able to inoculate monkeys with the disease. Some of their findings seem to favor Sambon's theory, but anything like definite proof is still lacking.
LAVINDER, C. H. A report of the second triennial meeting for the study of pellagra, held at Columbia, S. C. October 3-4, 1912. Pub. Health Rpts. Vol. 27, No. 44, November 1, 1912, pp. 1776-1778. Notes on papers presented. In one of these Jennings and King suggested that Stomoxys may possibly act as a carrier.
NICHOLLS, LUCIUS. Pellagra: "Sand-fly Protozoon" versus "maize "theory Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg. Vol. 15, No. 20, October 15, 1912. pp. 305-306. Author not an ardent supporter of either the maize or Sambon's theory of infection.
ORMSBY, OLIVER S. (Med. Secty. Ill. Pellagra Comm.) Jour. Cutaneous Is Vol. 30, No. 10, October, 1912, pp. 589-607. Believe that the disease is due to mie tion with some living micro-organism, possibly in the alimentary canal of man. They found but little to support Sambon's theory.
RAVITCH, M. L. A plea for an earlier diagnosis of pellagra. Jour. Amer. Med Assn. Vol. LIX, July, 6, 1912, pp. 33-35. Discusses causes and transmitting agents Believes that corn theory is most plausible. Does not believe that Sambon's theory
in regard to the sand-fly or that Garman's theory in regard to the buffalo-gnat can be proved.
ROBERTS, STEWART R. Pellagra,-history, distribution, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, etiology. C. V. Mosby Co. St. Louis, 1912.
Literature on pellagra and hookworm. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. Vol 59, No. 13, September 28, 1912, p. 1205. A list of recent books and papers on these subjects.
PHLEBOTOMUS OR SAND-FLY FEVER
ROBINSON, S. C. B. AND BLACKHAM, R. J. Sand-flies and sand-fly fever on the North-West frontier of India. Jour. Roy. Army Med. Corps, Vol. 19, No. 14, October, 1912, pp. 447-452. Includes notes on Phlebotomus; the flies are sometimes so numerous as to make evacuation of barracks necessary.
SEIDELIN, HARALD. Pappataci fever. Yel. Fev. Bur. Bul. Vol. II, No. 1, July, 1912, pp. 74-84. A full discussion of this disease and the fly (Phlebotomus pappatacii) which transmits it.
Pappataci fever. An. Rep. San. Com. with Gov. India, 1910-12, pp. 59 and 25. Includes an account of life history of Phlebotomus.
ANDERSON, JOHN F. Transmission of poliomyelitis by means of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans). Pub. Health Rep. Vol. 27, No. 43, October 25, 1912, pp. 1733– 1735. Stomoxys allowed to bite infected monkeys and then transferred to uninfected monkeys which later died of the disease. These experiments confirm those made
BISHOPP, F. C. The stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) an important livestock pest. Jour. Econ. Ent. Vol. 6, No. 1, February 19, 1913, pp. 112-126. Importance of the pest, life history and habits and methods of control.
BOUET, G. & ROUBAUD, E. Expériences de Transmission des Trypanosomiasis animales de l'Afrique Occidentale française, par les Stomoxes. Bul. de la Soc. Path. Exot. Jouillet V. No. 7, 1912, pp. 544-550. It is demonstrated that certain trypanosomes, particularly those of surra, are transmitted by Stomoxys.
BRAIN, C. K. Stomoxys calcitrans Linn. Annals Ento. Soc. Amer. Vol. 5, No. 4, December, 1912. pp. 421-430. Compares M. domestica, H. canicularis, and S. calcitrans and gives notes on structure and feeding habits of the latter.
BRUES, C. T. AND SHEPPARD, P. A. E. The possible etiological relation of certain biting insects to the spread of infantile paralysis. Jour. Econ. Ento. Vol. 5, August, 1912, pp. 305–324. Data which suggests that insects may be the carriers. Table of diseases that are insect-borne, record of investigations.
FLEXNER, S. Infantile paralysis: Problems in infection and its control. Sci. n. s. 36, November 22, 1912, pp. 685-702. A discussion of the progress made in the study of this disease.
FROST, WADE H. Notes on the discussion of poliomyelitis at the fifteenth international Congress of Hygiene and Demography. Pub. Health Rpts. Vol. 27, No. 41, October 11, 1912, pp. 1661-1664. Includes brief review of Rosenau's findings. HOWARD, C. W. AND CLARK, P. F. Experiments on insect transmission of the virus of poliomyelitis. Jour. Exp. Med. Lancaster, Pa. 16, No. 6, December, 1912. RICHARDSON, MARK W. Recent contributions to our knowledge concerning infantile paralysis. Amer. Jour. Pub. Health, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1912, pp. 141-144. Review of some recent observations and experiments.
ROSENAU, M. J. AND BRUES, C. T. Some experimental observations upon monkeys concerning the transmission of poliomyelitis through the agency of Stomoxys calcitrans, a preliminary note. Psyche, Vol. XIX, No. 6, December 1912, pp. 191194. Gives reasons for suspecting these flies and records the experiments by which
they apparently transmitted the virus of poliomyelitis from monkey to monkey. (See also Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. October 12, 1912, November 2, 1912, Pub. Health Rpts. September 27, 1912 and several places for comment and reviews of the experiments.
Poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis).
Pub. Health Rpts. Vol. 27, No. 35, August 30, 1912, pp. 1412-1413. A summary of the outbreaks in United States during the past few months.
Poliomyelitis. Bulletin for information of health officials. Cal. St. Bd. of Health October 15, 1912. Summaries of the theories in regard to this disease and suggests measures for control.
CLELAND, J. B. Memorandum on surra. Sec. Rep. Gov. Bur. Microbiol. N S. Wales, September, 1912, pp. 71-72. Notes the presence of Stomorys calcitrans which is regarded as the transmitter of surra.
CRAGG, F. W. Studies on the mouthparts and sucking apparatus of the bloodsucking Diptera, (No. 1 Philamatomyia insignis). Sci. Mem. Govt. India, No. 54, 1912. Structure of the mouth parts of this fly which is closely related to Musca.
CRAGG, F. W. The structure of Hæmetopota pluvialis. Sci. Mem. Govt. India, No. 55, 1912. A good discussion of the external and internal anatomy of this Tabanid.
KNAB, FREDERICK. Blood-sucking and supposedly blood-sucking Leptide. Proc. Ent. Soc. of Wash. Vol. 14, No. 2, April-June, 1912, pp. 108-110. Some species of Leptidæ that bite man and animals. Discussion of other species.
KNAB, F. AND COOLEY, R. A. Symphoromyia as a blood-sucker. Proe. Ent Soc. Wash. 14, 3, September, 1912, p. 161. Notes on this Leptid which Professor Cooley found biting in Montana.
LEESE, A. S. Biting flies and surra. Jour. Trop. Vet. Sci. 1912, January 7, No. 1, pp. 19-32. Believes that mechanical transmission is the usual way in which these flies transmit this disease. Lyperosia, Stomoxys and Tabanida may be concerned.
TRYPANOSOMES, TSETSE FLIES AND SLEEPING SICKNESS
BLACKLOCK, B. The vitality of and changes undergone by Trypanosomes in the cadaver of the animal host. Ann. Trop. Med. & Par. VI. No. 1 B. May, 1912, pp 55 68. (Abs. in S.S. Bull. 38, p. 125.) T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense can remain infective in the blood of a dead animal host for 48 hours.
CARPENTER, G. D. H. Progress report on investigations into the bionomies of Glossina palpalis, July 27, 1910 to August 5, 1911. Rep. of Sl. Sickn. Com. of Roy. Soc. No. 12, 1912, pp. 79-111.
DARLING, S. T. Experimental infection of the mule with Trypanosoma hippicum by means of Musca domestica. Jour. Exp. Med., 15 (1912), No. 4, pp. 365–366
DUKE, H. L. Antelope and their relation to Trypanosomiasis. Proc. Roy Soc. ser. B. Vol. 85, May, 1912, pp. 156-169. (No. B 577.) Antelope act as reservous for T. gambiense.
FELL, T. E. Notes on tsetse flies and on prophylactic measures against sleeping sickness in the western province of Ashanti. Bull. Ent. Res. Vol. 3, pt. 3, November, 1912, pp. 227-231.
FRASER, A. D. AND DUKE, H. L. The relation of wild animals to Trypanosomiasis. Proc. Roy. Soc. March, 1912, B. 85 No. B 576. T. uniforma was the only trypanosome obtained from wild animals as a result of this study.
JACK, RUPERT W. Observations on the breeding haunts of Glossina morsılans Bul. Ent. Res. Vol. II, pt. 4, January, 1912, pp. 357-361. Records finding of pupa.
KINGHORN, ALLAN. Notes on the preliminary stages of Glossina morsitans Westw. Bul. Ent. Res. Vol. 2, pt. 4, January, 1912, pp. 291–296. Description of larva and pupa.
KINGHORN, ALLAN AND YORKE, WARRINGTON. On the transmission of human trypanosomes by Glossina morsitans Westw.; and on the occurrence of human trypanosomes in game. Amer. Trop. Med. & Par. 1912, March 2, No. 1, A. pp. 1–23. Conclude that the human trypanosomes in some regions are transmitted by G. morsitans. They may become infective 14 days after feeding on infected animals; they remain infective for life. Mechanical transmission does not occur after a period of 24 hours. Some of the native wild and domesticated animals have been found infected with the same trypanosome.
KINGHORN, ALLAN AND YORKE, WARRINGTON. A further report on the transmission of human trypanosomes by Glossina morsitans Westw. Ann. Trop. Med. & Par. 1912, July 31, 6, No. 2, pp. 269-285. Confirms their earlier observations.
KINGHORN, ALLAN AND YORKE, WARRINGTON. On the influence of meteorological conditions on the development of Trypanosoma rhodesiense in Glossina morsitans. Brit. Med. Jour. October 5, 1912, pp. 835–837; Ann. Trop. Med. & Par. October 18, 1912, Vol. 6, No. 3, B. pp. 405-413. High temperatures most favorable.
KINGHORN, ALLAN, YORKE, W., AND LLOYD, L. On the development of Trypanosoma rhodesiense in Glossina morsitans. Ann. Trop. Med. & Par. Vol. 6, No. 4, December 30, 1912, pp. 495-503. The trypanosome was found in the salivary glands of all flies capable of infecting animals.
KLEINE, F. K. The identity and mode of transmission of trypanosomes. Brit. Med. Jour. November 2, 1912, pp. 1183-1185.
LAFONT, A. Note on a Trypanosome from Conorhinus rubrofasciatus and its inoculation into the rat and mouse. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 72 (1912), No. 9, pp. 380-382, abs. in Sl. Sickn. Bur. (London), Bul. 4 (1912), No. 36, pp. 140141.
Low, G. C. Progress in sleeping sickness investigations in Nyassaland and Northeastern Rhodesia. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg. Vol. 15, January 15, 1912, pp. 26–27. Discusses the probable results of the recent investigations which show that G. morsitans carries T. rhodesiense which may prove to be the same as T. gambiense.
MACFIE, J. W. SCOTT. Tsetse flies and their bionomics. Bull. Ent. Res. iii, pt. I, May, 1912, pp. 61-72; abs. S. S. Bur. 38, p. 231. The dissemination of the number of tsetse flies in northern Nigeria during the dry season is due to the dryness of the atmosphere and the burnt-up condition of the country.
MESNIL F. Trypanosoma rhodesiense and Trypanosoma gambiense. Brit. Med. Jour. November 2, 1912, pp. 1185-1186. Compares the two species.
NUTTALL, G. H. F. Trypanosomiasis. Parasit. 5, No. 4, January, 1913. One of the Hector lectures. Particular attention paid to the forms transmitted by Arthropods.
ROBERTSON, MURIEL. Notes on certain aspects of the Trypanosoma gambiense in Glossina palpalis. Proc. Roy. Soc. Ser. B, 85, No. B. 578, pp. 241-248. Experiments concerned with the proportion of flies in which the trypanosomes will develop. ROBERTSON, MURIEL. Notes on the life history of Trypanosoma gambiense. Abs. Proc. Roy. Soc. 1912, December 17, Ser. B. Vol. 86, No. B 584, pp. 66-71. A brief synopsis of experiments.
STEPHENS, J. W. W. AND FANTHAM, H. B. Trypanosoma rhodesiense (Stephens & Fantham) a second species of African trypanosome producing sleeping sickness in man. Brit. Med. Jour. November 2, 1912, pp. 1182-1183. Reasons for regarding this as a distinct species.
The sleeping sickness reservoir. Comment in Brit. Med. Jour. April 27, 1912, p.