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Force, Navy, and Marine Corps will be able, as in the past, to meet their military manpower requirements on the basis of volunteer three-year enlistments. The Army will have to rely on a mixture of volunteers and those procured by the lottery system.

The majority of enlisted men, including volunteers, do not re-enlist. For example, in 1964 only 25 percent of all armed services regulars re-enlisted. The armed services, because of the realities of the market place, still tend to lag behind civilian pay, especially for trained technicians. Some improvement in re-enlistment rates might be expected, especially in second and subsequent reenlistments, by improving the conditions of work. But a high rate of personnel turnover at the enlisted level still is to be expected, and is in fact desirable.

If the situation were otherwise, it might be a dangerous indication that the armed forces did not have flexible polices and were being burdened with personnel who could not find comparable positions in civilian life. Moreover, it should be recognized that the men who do not re-enlist bring back into the civilian sector crucial skills required for economic growth and personal mobility. This training proceeds with a high degree of effectiveness because of the organizational environment. Perhaps one of the most important changes would be to reduce the first term of voluntary enlistment in the ground forces to two years so it would be comparable with those procured under the draft. Specialized training would come wherever possible after the first period of two years of service.

An additional 40,000 young men would be taken on a volunteer basis into the Army for the proposed specialized training program designed to supply remedial education and health services. This would amount to only 10 percent of those eligible for such training-the remainder would be allocated to the National Job Training Corps.

To meet officer manpower needs, 75,000 men would have to enter the various procurement programs. This would include new entrants into the military academies and into the various college ROTC programs. This does not include the 90,000 students in the high school ROTC since the bulk of these cadets would enter service as volunteers and become non-commissioned officers or, in a minority of cases, participate in an officer training program.


In the United States there are various national programs which operate as substitutes for service in the armed forces. These include the Coast Guard, the Merchant Marine, and the Public Health Service. In all, approximately 10,000 men each year are involved. Entrance into these has been and should be considered substitute service for involvement in selective service. A police cadet corps could be established as another type of substitute service.

Police Cadet Corps

One hundred thousand young men could be given a substitute service in some form of police work. Increasing the number and quality of police officers is a pressing issue in the United States and bears a resemblance to the issues of military manpower procurement. Police departments require a broader base from which to recruit personnel, and professionalization would be enhanced by an increase in the flow of personnel in and out of the lower ranks. The op portunity for promotion of career police personnel would also be increased. Such service would exempt the person from selective service.

In addition, a number of federal programs could be established as part of the national service. Young men would have the opportunity to enlist after exposure to the lottery.

National Teachers Corps

One hundred fifty thousand teachers could be recruited annually for work in the inner city. Present policies and resources make it impossible for the inner city to have an adequate supply of teachers and teaching personnel. The whole trend in teaching is to make use of more personnel with general liberal arts background and special summer training. The Teachers Corps concept would also make use of semi-professionals with two years of college, and Teachers Aides with a high school background. Service in the national teaching corps would be an alternative for national service and would not exempt an individual from being subject to the lottery system.

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National Health Corps

Similar to the National Teachers Corps, 50,000 young men could be utilized in the health service field.

Peace corps

The present Peace Corps could be expanded to include 50,000 young men each year. The organizational procedures are well worked out and involve 27 months of service. Because of the small number involved, Peace Corps service could be either substitute service that exempts individuals from the lottery or merely alternative volunteer service which the individual would perform if he was not selected by the lottery system. In addition, opportunities could be created for 20,000 men annually in private equivalents of Peace Corps operations abroad. Domestic VISTA programs

Domestic equivalents of the Peace Corps under government sponsorship could employ 70,000. Private voluntary national service, under the auspices of church groups, voluntary associations and the like, would involve another 30,000 young men in the United States.

Conscientious objectors

Conscientious objectors, in effect, constitute a very small proportion of the population, even if present Supreme Court definitions are used which include both political and religious opposition. At a maximum, 10,000 men per year would be involved under the broadest definitions.

National Job Training Corps

Of special importance in a national service program is a National Job Training Corps along the lines of the Civilian Conservation Corps which would annually accommodate up to 400,000 young men. The United States is witnessing a crisis in the ability of its educational institutions to meet the needs of low income groups. During the last three years we have witnessed an increase in social tension in the inner city to the point of outright explosion. It is unlikely that the schools can handle these problems. A National Job Training Corps under civilian jurisdiction, with clear paramilitary elements, would supply an opportunity for fundamental education and satisfactory interpersonal experience for achievement during the difficult years between dropping out or being forced out of school and being available for employment. In the past, the armed forces performed some of this job. But this becomes, impossible as war becomes more automated and as the weapons of the military become more destructive. Service in a National Job Training Corps would be a substitute for military service; upon successful completion, the young man would be in a position to volunteer for the armed services.


For the next five to ten year period, the national service concept must be evaluated against a purely voluntary armed force based upon competitive economic compensation. From an economic point of view, an armed force based on "competitive" salaries is not a real possibility because of the imperfections of the market place. The military would always be disadvantaged relative to the private sector which could raise its prices and salaries at a more rapid rate. Each official inquiry into these topics produces higher and higher cost estimates. The counter argument to a purely volunteer force is not merely economic. It is also political and professional. An armed force reflects the social structure and the basis of its recruitment. The effectiveness of the armed services is linked to its social composition and its ties to civilian society. In a communist society, professional standards and political control are maintained by a system of party control. It should not be overlooked that this system operates with a considerable degree of effectiveness, although it is incompatible with the standards of a democratic society. By contrast, the armed forces in a political democracy cannot operate without a variety of social links to civilian society. ▾ Executive and Congressional control at the top level is not sufficient. The military must find its place in the larger society through a variety of contacts and : points of interaction and control. A wide degree of representativeness of its * personnel contributes to a willingness to accept the controls of the outer society. A long-term and highly professionalized force, especially at the enlisted man's level, is likely to be less representative and have weaker civilian ties.

But the case for national service is not to be based on a refutation of the volunteer force concept. The arguments for national service involve positive ideas of institution building and facilitating social change, although they fundamentally must deal with the task of selecting men for the armed forces.

National service is an attempt of a democratic society to find an equitable approach to sharing the risks of military service without disrupting the management of its universities. The present system is unfair because of its reliance on educational deferments and inefficient because of the exclusion of those who do not meet contemporary standards. The present system is dangerous because of the disruptive impact on the administration of higher education. It has led students into post-graduate study as a basis of avoiding military service. Universities and colleges can best perform their educational functions if they are free from excessive involvement in the administration of selective service.

The present system cannot long endure regardless of the projected size of the military establishment. The United States is faced with the prospect of a segregated Negro enlisted men's ground force if the present trends are permitted to continue. In fact, the strongest argument against a volunteer force is that such a procedure would merely hasten this transformation. A lottery system is an initial step toward the control of this form of disequilibrium. A national service system would be another important step, for it would both make the lottery system more meaningful and help bring the Negro into the mainstream of American life. To the extent that Negroes become integrated into the larger society and have the same physical and educational qualifications as their white counterparts, concentration in particular sectors of the armed forces is likely to be reduced.

National service is an experiment in education. National service is more than an effort at rehabilitation and a second chance for those youngsters who come from the most deprived segments of our society. It is designed to deal with fundamental problems of personal maturation for all social levels of contemporary society. The present structure of American education is unable to supply those group experiences required for the socialization of successive generations. The search for personal development and individual identity in a social setting which has a narrow emphasis on individual classroom performance leads all too often to various forms of rebellion and withdrawal.

Also, there is every reason to believe that the recent increased academic effectiveness of the American educational system, especially at the high school level, has been purchased at the price of complicating the process of personal development. In a democratic society it is particularly dangerous to make school and academic performance the exclusive route to mobility into adult society. The results of this danger are already clearly manifested by the existing level of hostility, negativism, and apathy toward school.

National service is designed to make contributions to the educational objectives of all social strata. National service is designed to interrupt classroom experience at appropriate points, so as to give the young man alternative educational experiences. These experiences are designed to develop intense and close group solidarity, based on collective rather than individualistic goals.

National service is an effort at "institutional building" to assist social change both at home and abroad. At home, it is an expression that traditional methods in educational and social welfare need drastic revision. We are dealing not only with the results of restrictive policies in the education and training of professionals, but with the inescapable fact that many operational tasks are better performed by persons who do not have trained incapacities. One way of organizing these work situations is to have persons perform them for short periods of time without having to confront the issue of a career in that particular vocation. Such experience is also vital preparation for more fully trained professional careers. The national service concept is designed particularly to meet this need, recognizing that there are limitations to the allocation of labor by economic incentives. Abroad, national service is part of the growing realization that United States foreign policy requires new approaches to produce economic, social, and political development. It is also a device for making service abroad part of the education and responsibility of each generation of highly training professionals.

In the last analysis, national service is a form of enlightened self-interest on a world-wide basis.

[From the Wall Street Journal, Mar. 8, 1967]


(By Frederick C. Klein, Staff Reporter of the Wall Street Journal)

ITHACA, N.Y.-Kenneth Hill is looking for a job.

The 22-year-old chemical engineer will get his master's degree from Cornell University here in June. Then he wants to go to work near San Francisco for a major U.S. company that is making fat profits, has a relatively young technical staff, offers plenty of opportunity for quick advancement and provides generous fringe benefits.

Ken, who is married, expects a starting salary of about $900 a month and interesting work. "I want as little routine work as possible; I want problems where I have to stretch to get answers," he says.

He probably will get everything he desires, and perhaps even a little more. Ken Hill "can go to work for any company he wants to," says a corporate personnel man who interviewed the earnest, bespectacled student during a recent recruiting trip to Cornell.

It isn't only top students like Ken Hill who are making companies jump through hoops to hire them this year. Draft calls and graduate schools again are cutting deeply into the supply of graduating college students, and corporate personnel needs are greater than ever.

Choosy Students

"Things never have been better for students who want to go into business, and the kids know it," says John L. Johnson, a placement director at the University of Illinois. Robert C. Becker, an employment mangaer at Aluminum Co. of America in Pittsburgh, agrees. "If the job isn't where the kid wants to work he won't even take an airline ticket to come talk about it," he says.

Some experienced school placement officials are amazed at the number of job offers this year's graduates are receiving. John L. Munschauer, Cornell's placement director, says a girl who graduates in February came into his office a few days before she received her bachelor's degree in industrial relations and reported that her job hunt wasn't going very well.

“Here is a field where women traditionally hadn't been welcomed, but it turned out this gal had three offers," says Mr. Munschauer. "She had turned down General Electric at Schnectady because she didn't want to live there. She had an offer to be a salary administrator at a big New York publishing house that kids used to fall over themselves to get into, but she didn't want it because she was afraid it might involve some clerical work. She turned down a bank offer because she thought the pay was too low." The particular young lady is still looking for a job.

A study by Northwestern University reflects the hot demand for this year's crop of graduates. Northwestern surveyed 200 companies in various industries and found their hiring quotas were up 53% this year. The companies said they wanted to hire 21,251 graduates with bachelor's degrees this year and 3,741 who have master's degrees.


Frank S. Endicott, Northwestern's placement director, attributes a "good part" of this year's increased demand to the fact that many companies couldn't fill 1966 hiring quotas that were up 40% to 45% from 1965.

This year more companies are sending more recruiters to more schools to offer fatter starting salaries to more graduates. The College Placement Council, Inc., Bethlehem, Pa., a non-profit group that collects data on college recruiting, says offers to seniors who will graduate in June with technical degrees are averaging $713 a month, up 6.3% from last year's offers. Graduates with nontechnical degrees are being offered an average of $611 a month to start, up 7.2% from 1966 offers.

At the master's degree level, starting salaries are up between 3.7% and 8.6%. Average offers range from $765 a month for a person with a master's degree in business administration to $849 a month for chemical engineers.

More companies seem willing to hire graduates who are likely to be drafted soon. "Most companies will talk to a man who can go to work for them, even for a day," says Mildred Webber, a placement official at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. A drafted employe accumulates annual salary increases and fringe benefits during his military service, making him more likely to return to his job, says Miss Webber. Companies also find campus recruiting "is easier than chasing him once he gets out of the service," she says.


More companies, too, are offering summer jobs to undergraduates, figuring that giving youngsters an inside look at the company early will make them more likely to accept permanent jobs after graduation. At Cornell about half the engineering job interviews this spring involve companies seeking undergraduates for summer work that pays about $600 a month.

Ken Hill says his job hunt actually began a year ago when he talked to recruiters from a dozen companies about summer work. That round of campus interviews netted him a $630-a-month summer job at Standard Oil Co. of California's research facility near Los Angeles.

The interviews also eliminated several companies from Ken's mental list of prospective permanent employers. "A few of them sent interviewers who couldn't answer my questions," Ken recalls. "That didn't give me a very good impression of those companies."

The summer with Standard of California also convinced Ken, a native of Stony Creek, N.Y., that he would like to live on the West Coast and work for a company that has extensive petrochemical operations-as well as to keep California Standard itself high on his list of prospects. "I found petrochemicals a new field with a lot of possibilities for interesting work," he says.

When he returned to campus last fall, Ken narrowed his job hunt sharply. He eliminated companies that didn't have large petrochem operations and those whose recent earnings statements seemed unimpressive. He cut others after classmates complained about summer work at those concerns. Ken says he thinks working for a big company will provide him with more varied assignments. About 45 companies are interviewing chemical engineers at Cornell this year, but Ken is talking to only eight of them. He doesn't intend to make his final decision on the basis of a half-hour campus interview. Ken wants to meet his prospective co-workers and supervisors and see where he will be working before he accepts a job offer.

So do many others who will receive degrees this year. "We used to give general plant tours to prospects; now we have them talk to people they'll be working for and we show them where their desks will be," says Donald Irwin, as engineering recruiter at General Electric Co. "You just can't get kids with generalities these days." he says

Ken Hill's only trip so far was to San Francisco, to visit Standard Oil of California's nearby Chevron Research Co. plant. The company sent Ken airline tickets and assigned two young chemical engineers one of them a recent Cornell graduate-to guide him around the Chevron facility.

Ken says he talked to about 10 Chevron men during his day at the plant. First a personnel man talked to him about salary, vacations and fringe benefits. Then Ken spent most of the day talking to supervisors and engineers in the two departments that have job openings for him. They talked "mostly about technical things and how the work is passed around," says Ken. Before the day's tour ended, says Ken, he talked to someone "fairly high up" in the division, but he was so worn out by then that he can't recall the executive's name or title. That night Ken's two guides took him out on the town for dinner and a visit to a topless bar. Ken talked to them about how they liked the company, the work, their supervisors and the San Francisco area. He also asked them about opportunities for advancement and recognition.

The next day Ken visited a friend who drove him around suburban residential areas. Ken says that gave him some ideas of where he and his wife, Dorothy. who is expecting their first child in September, might like to live.

Ken says that. "mostly because I know the most about them." he is currently leaning toward taking a job at Standard of California-but the company must come up with a higher salary offer. Last November the company offered him $875 a month, but Ken later heard that a couple of other Cornell students got

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