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Consultant, Basic Social Studies Program, Scott, Foresman and Company (1959- )

Scientific Research Advisory Board, National Association for Retarded Children (1959-65)

Committee on Welfare Research, Community Service Society (1960-) Chairman, Advisory Committee on Behavorial Research, Office of Emergency Planning, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (1960-62) President's Panel on Mental Retardation (1961-62)

Chairman, Committee on Juvenile Delinquency, National Institute of Mental Health (1961-63)

Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute of Mental Health (1961-65) (Chairman 1964-65)


Divisional Committee for Social Sciences, National Science Foundation (1961

Committee on Social Science in the Secondary Schools, American Sociological Association (1961-65)

Chairman, Citizens Advisory Council to the President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime (1962-65), Crime Commission Assistance Subcommittee (1966-67)

Demonstration Project Technical Review Panel, President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime (1962- ) (Chairman 1962-65)

Dean's Advisory Council of the Graduate School of Social Work (now called President's Council on Social Work Education), New York University (1963- ) (Chairman 1964-65)

Mental Health Project Grants Delinquency Review Committee, National Institute of Mental Health (1963-64)

Committee on Use of Public Funds to Promote Social Change, National Association of Social Workers (1965-66)

Advisory Committee on the Community Organization Curriculum Development Project, Council on Social Work Education (1965– )

Board of Directors, Center for Community-Action Education (1965–66)

Chairman, Research Review Committee, Human Resources Administration, New York City (1966– )



Delinquency Areas. University of Chicago Press 1929 (with C. R. Shaw, F. M. Zorbaugh, and H. D. McKay)

Part-time Farming in the Southeast. U.S. Printing Office 1937 (with R. H. Allen and W. W. Trexell, assisted by Harriet L. Herring and A. D. Edwards) Predicting Success or Failure in Marriage. Prentice-Hall 1939 (with E. W. Burgess)

Developments in Social Psychology, 1930–1940. Beacon Press 1940 (with Ruth Gallagher)

Public Reaction to the Atomic Bomb and World Affairs. Cornell University 1947 (editor)

American Opinion on World Affairs in the Atomic Age. Princeton Press 1948 (with Sylvia Eberhart)

The American Soldier. Princeton Press 1949 (with S. A. Stouffer, et al.) Identity and Interpersonal Competence. University of Chicago Press 1955 (with N. N. Foote)

Sociology Today: Problems and Prospects. Basic Books 1959 (joint editor with R. K. Merton and L. Broom)

Juvenile Delinquency Its Prevention and Control. Russell Sage Foundation 1966 (with Stanton Wheeler)

Articles and reports

"Roles and Marital Adjustment," Publications of the American Sociological Association, 1933, 27, 107–115.

"The Prediction of Adjustment in Marriage," American Sociological Review, 1936, 1, 737-751. (with E. W. Burgess)

"Research in Causes of Variations in Fertility: Social Psychological Aspect," American Sociological Review, 1937, 2, 678–685.

"A Research Note on Differential Fertility with Respect to Birth Order," Journal of Social Psychology, 1938, 9, 49–56.

"Important Developments in American Social Psychology During the Past Decade," Sociometry, 1941, 4, 107-139; 302-324. (with Ruth Gallagher)

"The Case-Study Method in Prediction," Sociometry, 1941, 4, 358-370. "Research on Marriage and the Family (Committee Report), Marriage and Family Living, 1941, 3, 78; 1942, 4, 37-38.

"The Analysis of Situational Fields in Social Psychology," American Sociological Review, 1942, 7, 370–382.

"The Adjustment of the Individual to His Age and Sex Roles," American Sociological Review, 1942, 7, 617–620.

"Present Status and Future Orientation of Research on the Family," American Sociological Review, 1948, 13, 123–136.

"The Empathic Responses: A Neglected Field for Research," Psychiatry, 1949, 12, 355-359. (with Rosalind F. Dymond)

"Some Neglected Problems in Social Psychology," American Sociological Review, 1950, 15, 705-712.

"Basic Research Objectives as a Strategic Factor in the Advancement of the Social Sciences." Items, 1951, 5, 15-18.

"Issues of Strategy for Advancing the Social Sciences," The Social Sciences Mid-Century, University of Minnesota Press, 1952.

"Harry Stack Sullivan's Contribution to Social Psychology," The Contributions of Harry Stack Sullivan, New York: William Alanson White Association, 1952. (with N. N. Foote)

"New Directions for Research on the American Family," Social Casework, 1953, 34, 54-60.

"On the Classification of Groups," Sociometry, 1955, 18, 665-678 (with E. F. Borgatta).

"On the Dimensions of Group Behavior," Sociometry, 1956, 19, 223–240 (with E. F. Borgatta and H. J. Meyer).

"Directions for Research in Group Behavior," American Journal of Sociology, 1957, 63, 42-48. (With E. F. Borgatta.)

"Research for Psychological Warfare," Public Opinion Quarterly, 1957, 21, 147-158 (with J. W. Riley, Jr.).

"The Spectrum of Individual Interaction Characteristics: An Inter-Dimensional Analysis," Psychological Reports, 1958, 4, 279-319 (with E. F. Borgatta and J. H. Mann).

"Control-Group Experimentation in Psychotherapy," Psychiatry, 1959, 22, 97-100 (with E. F. Borgatta).

"Initial Expectation, Group Climate, and the Assessments of Leaders of Members," Journal of Social Psychology, 1959, 49, 285-296 (with E. F. Borgatta and L. Wilker).

"Social Research and Psychological Warfare," Sociometry, 1960, 3, 103-119. "Suggestions for Future Research on Childhood Accidents," Behavioral Approaches to Accident Research, New York: Asso atioicnforPqF

proaches to Accident Research, New York: Association for the Aid of Crippled Children, 1961.

"Interpersonal Competence and Preventive Mental Health," Exploring the Base for Family Therapy, New York: Family Service Association of America, 1961.

"Problems of Collaboration Between Social Scientists and the Practicing Professions," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1963, 346, 126–137 (with E. B. Sheldon).

Discussion of Richard Cloward's "Social Class and Private Social Agencies,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Program Meeting on Education for Social Work, New York: Council on Social Work Education, 1963, 138–145.

"Effective Relations Between Foundations and Grantees," in Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Conference on Charitable Foundations, New York University, edited by Henry Sellin, New York: Mathew Bender and Company, 1963, 37-52. "Social Planning, the Competent Community, and Mental Health," Urban America and the Planning of Mental Health Services, 1964, 5, 391-402.

"The Interrelationships of Law and Social Science," Paper presented at the Conference on Law and the Social Role of Science held at the Rockefeller Institute, April 8-9, 1965.

Numerous classified research and evaluation reports on attitudes and morale of troops, psychological and unconventional warfare.


Social Science Research Memoranda Series on Social Aspects of the War. (Distributed by the Social Science Research Council, 1941.)

"Research on the Effects of the War as Reflected by Vital Phenomena," by E. P. Hutchinson.

"Research on the Effects of the War on Negro and Negro-White Relationships." by C. S. Johnson.

"A Research Memorandum on Methods of Studying Public Opinion in Relation to the War," by F. L. Ruch.

"Research on Crime and Delinquency in Wartime," by T. Sellin.

"Research on the Effect of the War on Social Differentiation," by R. L. Sharp. "A Research Memorandum on Internal Migration Resulting from the War Effort," by C. Taeuber and I. B. Taeuber.

"Research on the Effects of the War on American Minorities," by L. Wirth.

Bulletin Series on the Applications of Sociology

(For the American Sociological Association and Russell Sage Foundation) Published by Russell Sage Foundation

"Sociology and the Field of Corrections," by L. E. Ohlin, 1956.
"Sociology and the Field of Mental Health," by J. A. Clausen, 1956.
"Sociology and the Field of Education," by O. G. Brim, Jr., 1958.

"Sociology and the Military Establishment," by M. Janowitz, 1959.
"Sociology and the Field of Public Health," by E. A. Suchman, 1963.


Master's thesis: "A Sociological Study of Truancy," Vanderbilt University, 1926. Published in part in W. C. Reckless and M. Smith, Juvenile Delinquency, McGraw-Hill, 1932.

Doctor's thesis: "The Reliability and Validity of a Marriage Study Schedule,” University of Chicago, 1933. Published in part in E. W. Burgess and L. S. Cottrell, Jr., Predicting Success or Failure in Marriage, Prentice-Hall, 1939. Published in summary form by the University of Chicago Press.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Our final witness this morning will be Mr. John Wallace, director of probation, New York City, representing the National Association of Social Workers.


Mr. WALLACE. Thank you, Senator. I am bringing with me Miss Tavani from our Washington office in case you throw me some questions I cannot field, and I have to turn to her.

I have the statement which has, I believe, been submitted to the committee, and I will briefly go through this. I think this will help to highlight some of the things I would like to discuss with you.

I am John A. Wallace, chairman, Council on Social Work in Correctional Services of the National Association of Social Workers. Professionally I am director of the Office of Probation for the Courts of the City of New York.

I should like to add that in addition to that experience I have previously been director of probation for the Supreme Bench of Baltimore City, Md., assistant director of probation and parole for the State of Minnesota, and executive assistant of the National Probation and Parole Association (now the National Council on Crime and Delinquency).

My remarks today stem both from my experience in the field of corrections and my affiliation with my professional organization, the National Association of Social Workers. I welcome this opportunity to present the views of NASW on S. 1248, the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Act of 1967 and H.R. 12120, the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control Act of 1967.

The National Association of Social Workers is the membership organization of the social worker profession. Our 47,000 members are in 160 chapters in the 50 States, the territories as well as one European unit. We are employed in such settings and programs as settlement houses, training schools, the "war on poverty," Department of Housing and Urban Development, the military services, the Peace Corps, schools, hospitals, prisons, and parole and probation departments.

The National Association of Social Workers has a longstanding interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. Accordingly, we have watched with interest the actions taken by the Federal Government over the years with respect to this problem. We have been encouraged by the leadership taken by the Federal Government in combating the problem of juvenile delinquency. But the evidence at hand and the testimony already presented to this committee indicates that juvenile delinquency is still a major problem confronting us.

Those of us who have struggled with inadequate resources to establish preventive and rehabilitative services on a community-by-community basis are hopeful that this Congress will provide the means for substantial Federal leadership and assistance so that significant gains can be made in combating the problem of juvenile delinquency.

A Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control Act of 1967 can provide the means by which Federal leadership provides the leadership and support essential to developing more effective preventive and rehabilitative services.

Your committee will be considering two bills-S. 1248 and H.R. 12120, the latter passed by the House on September 26, 1967. These bills have some common components and each contains some unique features as well.

I shall address four issues in relation to these two bills. These four issues, we believe, are of particular importance. These are: planning; the sum of moneys authorized and the short-term authorization of the bill; the formula for distribution of moneys within the State under H.R. 12120; and training of personnel.


Both S. 1248 and H.R. 12120 recognize the imperative need for planning if a juvenile justice system is to be developed in this country. The development of a sound juvenile justice plan within a local community or at the State level is not a simple process. There are no readymade blueprints which can be soundly imposed upon communities.

Sound planning requires evaluation of local problems, assessment of local resources, identification of gaps in services and the formulation of priorities for meeting needs. This is a task requiring substantial technical competence; indeed, we confront a serious problem in the lack of sufficient professional know-how to undertake sound planning in many communities, particularly in more rural areas.

Although H.R. 12120 would require that a comprehensive juvenile delinquency plan shall be submitted by any State desiring to receive funds, it makes no provision for Federal grants for the purpose of State or local planning. The National Association of Social Workers strongly urges that Federal funds be made available which can be channeled to both State and local levels to carry out essential planning tasks.


In view of the great needs to develop services for the prevention and control of juvenile delinquency, to provide for the necessary planning, to train personnel, and to undertake substantial construction of facilities-the sum of $25 million for the first year appears to be unrealistically small. If this money should be allotted to States on the basis of a population formula as proposed in H.R. 12120, each State would receive such a small amount that there would appear to be no hope of impact in view of the hundreds of demands that could be made upon the funds.

On the other hand, if the moneys were to be distributed through a project approach, matters would be little improved since equity requires that youth living in every State receive some benefits.

The limited funds contemplated for appropriation suggests the need for a very careful set of priorities governing the use of these funds if discernible results are to be achieved. For example, if no priorities were established the funds could be quickly drained through construction of detention home or training schools. The estimated cost for construction of a detention home in New York is $25,000 per bed which means that the construction of 100 detention beds would utilize 10 percent of the funds contemplated for appropriation.


Comprehensive statewide planning might represent a feasible matter to which top-level priority could be assigned. This would mean blueprints could be developed for those States and communities lacking them. Those fortunate enough to have acceptable plans already available might use their funds to address another kind of priority need.


The greater need for increased financial support for development of delinquency control programs in this country may lead the Congress to make greatly enlarged appropriations after the first year. But an equally serious limitation in H.R. 12120 lies in its brief 1-year authorization of support.

Assuming that several months, for some communities the first year, will be required for planning, additional time for tooling up and recruitment of personnel, only a few months may remain during which any Federal support may be severed for the operation program. This fact might lead some communities to give priority to use of Federal funds for the construction of physical facilities because time would not permit any real demonstration of the value of service projects— demonstrations necessary to the procurement of other funding. The National Association of Social Workers strongly urges that the

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