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Mr. DANIELS. About half and half. Some people feel he is stupid, he is being a sucker for the Government, they want to send him to Vietnam. Others feel, "Yes, well, that is the thing to do."

So many people eventually wind up in there, you usually do not count them.

Senator PELL. I have two specific questions for each of your reactions.

First, I would like to talk to Roland.

Why do you specifically prefer the administration bill to the House


Mr. BRITT. Well, the administration bill would, let us say, give 100 percent of this money to the juvenile delinquency agent. When they take out this 25 percent, this other portion has to be made up by the people involved this has helped the juvenile delinquency agent. I feel if the administration bill is passed, there is no problem.

Senator PELL. My other question is a personal question and do not answer if you feel it to be too personal. What are your own aspirations? Where do you see yourself 10 to 15 years from now? What would you like to be doing?

Mr. BRITT. I am planning on going into commercial art and I am studying that.

Senator PELL. I address to you, Bruce, the same question. Why do you prefer the administration bill?

Mr. DANIELS. This House bill is ridiculous. It is not helping nobody. Senator PELL. But why specifically?

Mr. DANIELS. You can read title I, part (d). It is only for youths in danger of becoming delinquent. You never know who is in danger of becoming delinquent. One day he can be staying home, the next day he can be long gone.

Senator PELL. My other question, again, is a more personal one. What is your own personal aspiration 10 or 15 years from now? Mr. DANIELS. I would like to be involved in law or writing.

Senator PELL. As you said earlier, newspaper writing or the law? Mr. DANIELS. Right.

Senator PELL. Cynthia, you have already given us your reason why you prefer the administration bill. Your own thoughts on the future, do you see yourself having working responsibilities as well as being a housewife and mother?

Miss BOSTON. I would like to be a nurse. I feel I will always be working in the movement, helping black people. As long as they need help, I will be there to help them. But my ambition is to be a nurse.

Senator PELL. I notice in the panel that you use the word "black" as opposed to "Negro." Is "Negro" objectionable in any way? Are we wrong in using the term "Negro"?

Miss BOSTON. To me it is.

Senator PELL. I see. What would Bruce and Roland say to that? Mr. DANIELS. Well, actually "Negro" is supposed to be Spanish for black. I never had any preference.

Senator PELL. How about you, Roland?

Mr. BRITT. I have no preference.

Senator PELL. Thank you very much.

Harold, what would be your view as to the reason why you prefer the administration bill?

Mr. PRESTON. The reason why I prefer it is because youths that are dropouts and running the streets and things have a chance to advance, a chance to recuperate and advance themselves in some way, rather than be looked down upon as nothing.

Senator PELL. But have you studied the two bills?


Senator PELL. What is the specific difference between the two that you see?

Mr. PRESTON. Well, in one, like I said, the youths have a chance to recuperate and advance themselves. In the other bill, where they are going to take away the money and things, they will always be down. Senator PELL. Thank you.

What is your own aspiration? What would you like to do with yourself?

Mr. PRESTON. Myself, I want to be an architect.

Senator PELL. Thank you all very much.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Thank you very much.

Our third panel will be Miss Gilda Terry from Bridgeport, Conn.; Sherilyn Henderson from Bridgeport; and Aubrey Randall from San Francisco. Then we have a witness from Wilmington.

We will just take a 2-minute recess where everyone can stand up and stretch.

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken, after which the hearing was resumed.)

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Come to order, please.

In place of Aubrey Randall, we have Louis Elisa from New York. I would appreciate it if before your statement, you could give your age and where your home is and also your degree of education. Why not start from left to right?


Miss TERRY. My name is Gilda Terry of Bridgeport, Conn. I graduated from high school in Muncy, Ind. I will be attending the University of Bridgeport for Registered Nursing beginning in February. I represent an organization called New Breeds in Motion. As far as the kind of youth we are interested in are concerned, we are interested in all kinds of youth, especially minority groups. We have a group that started about 6 months ago. We dealt with the people that we knew real well, the ones that needed help. We are mainly trying to get our program together so we can help these people and understand their problems and help them work out their problems and their situations.

We went up to the mayor, Mayor Curran of Bridgeport, Conn., and had a conference with him in July, the 28th of July, to discuss a petition the city had set up, or we had set up for the city to approve of, for playgrounds and the different facilities provided for the playgrounds.

As far as membership and things like this are concerned, we have at least 95 members of our organization, with membership cards and all this. We have been organized for 6 months. It has really been helpful to me, because I was new with them when I first came to Bridgeport, Conn., from Indiana. I have only been here since July. They introduced this to me and it was very new to me. But, nevertheless, I tried to understand it and I tried to make the best of it that I could. Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Miss Henderson?

Miss HENDERSON. My name is Sherilyn Henderson. I come from Bridgeport, Conn. I graduated from Warren G. Harding School and am attending Housatonic Community College in a secretarial course. I wanted to bring the fact that we, the youths of Bridgeport, Conn., New Breeds in Motion, feel that youth involvement would be a big step toward our helping youth become responsible citizens in our community. By creating new training skills such as lathe operators and teachers aides and by occupying some of the valuable time the youths spend out in the streets.

I know that this will not keep youths out of trouble, but we have 150 kids in school and about 50 that are out of school. Of the kids that are in school, most of them are seniors and in the senior year, they have a whole lot of things they would like to participate in. They work about 2 hours a day. This helps them like if they want to go to a show or things like that, they will have the money and these are hours that they do not waste in the street.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Mr. Hammond?

Mr. HAMMOND. My name is Eugene Hammond. I am from Wilmington, Del. I come for the organization WYAEC.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. How far in school did you go? Mr. HAMMOND. I went to the 10th grade.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. How old are you now?

Mr. HAMMOND. Nineteen years old.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Are you in school now?

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Are you employed?

Mr. HAMMOND. I am a youth worker for WYAEC.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Would you tell us about your organization?

Mr. HAMMOND. Our organization is to reach the grassroots, people down in the ghetto area, to try to bring them up, to help them, to try to get them back in school, because most of them were forced out of school. We try to get them back in.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. How do you do that?

Mr. HAMMOND. Well, first, we find out their problem. Most of them were not interested in school. They had a lack of interest. So then we find out how their grades were in school. Then WYAEC goes to the school and takes them with us and finds out why they were forced


Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Could you tell us a little bit about the kind of programs your organization runs?

Mr. HAMMOND. Well, in certain areas there are stores that have high prices. Well, our organization gets together and goes around in the neighborhood to get a petition. We get some names and then get the prices that are high. We go to the man and tell him if the man does

not reduce the prices, then we picket. Then we have a basketball league we got started.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. How many young people participate in the program?

Mr. HAMMOND. About 300. It is a citywide movement now. Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Where did they get the funds for the program?


Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. OEO funds the program?

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Mr. Elisa?

Mr. ELISA. My name is Louis Elisa. I am from the Lower East Side, president of the Young Adult Action Group which operates in Manhattan. I am 18 years of age. I attend New York Community College in the State University Urban Center, and I am a youth social worker. I have a statement.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Proceed.

Mr. ELISA. Our major purpose today is to point up the need for year-round part-time jobs for young people who are in school. While this is but one of the problems confronting us these days, it is certainly of major significance. For, after all, the whole search for satisfaction in this society depends to a large degree on getting a job.

Particularly for young people, there is a need for a positive identification with the economic world which we must grow into. Our feeling is that the Federal Government must take long strides toward getting us into the mainstream of the economic life of the world we will inherit.

We had high hopes that legislation would be developed which would deal with this problem. However, we feel that the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control Act of 1967 as passed by the House falls far short of the mark.

Members of Congress have done a great deal of hand wringing about the horrors of juvenile delinquency, but given the opportunity to do something constructive about it, they have come up with watered down legislation which does not even scratch the surface of the problem.

For example, title I, part C of the administration bill correctly took note of the need for public or private agencies to provide a full range of services and opportunities for youth development. Very importantly, the administration bill also recognized the validity of youth participation in the formulation and operation of these programs. Unfortunately, however, the House-passed version of the bill dropped both of these provisions. How can we possibly have adequate delinquency prevention if we do not have programs designed for youth development? And even if we had a sufficient number of these youth development programs, how can they operate successfully if the people for whom they are to operate, the young themselves, have had no hand in developing them?

We understand very clearly that there is a direct link between employment and delinquency. Why are there not enough programs operating to deal with this link? Some estimates indicate that in areas with high tendencies toward delinquency and crime, a 10-percent rise in income would produce a 20-percent drop in delinquency. Would

America not prefer that her young people be on a job rather than in jail? If young people are forced farther and farther from the values of our society and money is certainly one of those values-then it should be no surprise that they will become more alienated; it should be expected that they will have to make it the best way they can on the fringes of society where they have been placed.

While some of us here are involved in programs which are on-going, others of us are in programs being phased out. And even worse, it is still difficult to reach the guys on the street, some of whom are in school or who have graduated, but who still have no port of entry into the economic mainstream. Meaningful part-time jobs on a year-round basis would persuade many of these youngsters to continue their education and they would refrain from dropping out of school because of financial hardships. These are people who really need help.

To sum up, we are suggesting that if Congress is really concerned about juvenile delinquency-or better yet, if it is concerned about young people-then Congress must realize that the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control Act of 1967 as passed by the House just will not do. Young people must have more of a voice in programs designed to help them, and there must be more of these programs. Last, but not least, there must be more meaningful part-time jobs available on a year-round basis provided for in-school people.

Here are but a few ways these things can be accomplished:

1. In some parts of the country it has been reported that businessmen have taken the initiative. They have counseled with young people in school, and they have coupled this counseling with part-time jobs. The counseling is designed to assure these young people that society does want them and can use them. On graduation, they are then absorbed into the economy into meaningful jobs which lead somewhere. These kinds of efforts need to be refined and expanded.

I am saying there are agencies outside that do not receive Federal funds, that take youth in. They give them meaningful jobs, jobs they can use once they graduate from school. They do not give them jobs that have no meaning such as newspaper boy or delivering letters or telegrams, because that has no future in it. Youth cannot progress, a race of people cannot progress on meaningless jobs.

2. Federal and local government agencies must be prepared to take on young people, while they are in school, for the many services which are needed, such as child care, health care, school aides, transportation aides, and a host of other jobs which would provide facilities so desperately needed in our communities, but not presently provided. These jobs should not afford prospective employers with cheap labor, but should fall within a minimum salary scale of $1.50 an hour.

I am referring specifically to the Neighborhood Youth Corps, but after summer, that has continued for most of those out of school, but the rate has dropped below the national level. They receive $1.25 an hour for most of them. I feel it is inadequate and I as a youth would not work for $1.25 an hour. I would call it slave labor in a sense.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. You are interested in the young people going back to school. Do you think if they raise the wage rate this might induce young people to leave school?

Mr. ELISA. I feel that young people who are in school and want to go ahead, they are going to stay there. We are asking for part-time

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