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Project and Sponsor: 1. Rehabilitation Research Foundation, Elmore, Ala. Draper Correctional Center.

Duration: August 31, 1964 to February 31, 1968.

Description: Selection, testing, counseling, pre-voc and vocational training for prisoners before release. Job placement after release. Programed instruction and incentive awards.

Result: Approx. 300 completed to date. More than 200 released and placed in jobs, 80% plus, training related. Trainee group 65% recidivist before training. Current recidivist rate after training 27%. Successful systematic use of programed instruction and materials development. Many measurements of value and guidelines for replication.

2. National Committee for Children and Youth (Lorton) Wash. D.C. "Project Challenge."

June 30, 1966 to August 29, 1967.

Selection, testing, counseling, and vocational training of inmates. To develop positive social attitudes and motivation, and train for civil service eligibility.

Result: Have served 260, placed 124. Highly successful use of VISTA volunteers. Succeeds in training to civil service standards in office occupations and industry or trade standards elsewhere. The D.C. Dept. of Corrections has committed itself to assume expense of all positions for training and to carry on the program.

3. Springfield Goodwill Industries, Springfield, Mass. February 11, 1965.

Training and employment of unemployed and academically retarded youthful offenders referred from court probation depts.

Result: Sixty-seven youth started in first cycle, and 48 finished. (Current cycle will handle 100 more). All who finished 1st cycle were placed in jobs. Marked reduction of recidivism rate in those who completed over those who did not. Developed model guidelines for rehabilitation programs involving DOL, and State agencies. Asked to advise and assist State of Connecticut in similar program.

4. Archdiocesan Opportunity Program, Detroit, Mich. Project: "Fresh Start." July 1, 1966 to June 30, 1967.

Job training in institution to enable imprisoned women to get stable positions in the community. Use halfway house support after release.

Result: Projected for 120 women, has served 172. Placed 107 in jobs. Some others still in halfway house support. No information yet on follow-up. 5. New York Division of Parole, Albany, N.Y. Project "Develop." June 15, 1966 to December 15, 1967.

Education and vocational training, counseling and selective job placement for illiterate and underachieving parolees with normal or above normal intelligence. Goal: reduce delinquency and recidivism, raise achievement and enhance employability.

Result: Projected 400. Overambitious-took time to develop a job placement staff and coordinate with ES. Has served 160 in this post-release program of 4-6 week training (on $42 per week allowances) with intensive support counseling. Has placed 137 in jobs or advanced training programs. Recidivism rate on trainees is 7% and considered to be very low for the group.

6. South Carolina Dept. of Corrections, Columbia, South Carolina. June 30, 1966 to June 30, 1968.

Investigate stability and benefits to come from utilizing halfway house in connection with pre-release vocational training program.

Result: Projected service to 200 in 2 years. Has served 215 in program during first year. Forty one have been placed in jobs to date. Some complex comparative service measurements are being made and it is too soon to have taken and analyzed all of these. Is having marked result however in stimulating use of state resources, and making innovations in state correctional system.

7. Correctional Programs of the United Planning Organization, Wash. D.C. September 1, 1965 to August 31, 1966.

To prepare youthful misdemeants with rehabilitation services not previously available because of their short-term incarceration.

Result: Has given service to more than 500. Lagging in reporting so there is no detail on this yet.

8. Phila. Youth Treatment Center, Phila., Penna. June 27, 1966 to March 27, 1969.

To demonstrate new services, concepts and procedures for rehabilitation outside the institution, for delinquent youth.

Result: This is an OMPER contract with BES. Recently extended a year. Had a long time in getting off the ground. A Supreme Court decision requiring youth to be treated as adults required some redesign. Neighborhood difficulties over school selected for training (these were youths judged guilty by the court but remanded for treatment in community as opposed to jail) required search for another school. These problems now solved, OMPER and BES like development. That is reason for extension, but not enough time yet to accumulate data. 9. The Vera Institute of Justice, New York, N.Y.

An experiment in getting youth immediately after arrest but before adjudication to see if a remedial program can help them avoid a record. Result: This is just funded, and is in developmental stage with a feasibility grant.

10. The Youth House, Inc., New York, N.Y.

June 30, 1966 to December 31, 1967.

To demonstrate the application of primary and vocational life skills to an out-of-school, out-of-work delinquent population.

Result: Has served 251 youngsters, and placed 105 in jobs. Dept. is seeking more qualitative information on this.

11. Villa Loretta, Peekskill, New York.

June 30, 1967 to June 15, 1968.

A residential treatment program for 15-19 yr. old girls. To train socially maladjusted girls, referred by the courts to the Sisters of the Good Shepherd. Result: Just starting.


1. Ryker's Island.

December 23, 1963 to June 30, 1964.

Controlled experiment to measure effect of training for IBM occupations plus supportive counseling.

Result: Used 137 experimental youth and 127 in control group (only normal prison services). The group trained were easier to place, in higher average salaried jobs, with more in white collar category, and recidivism rate in experimental group 18% less than in control group.


1. Archdiocesan Opportunity Project, Detroit, Mich. Project Identity. Summer work experience for juvenile offenders who had violated parole one or more times. Extensive counseling support and job rotation.

Result: Sixty youth were served. An independent evaluation (A. L. Nellum Associates) rated it successful. Twenty of the group were over 16 years of age, and had dropped out of school. Seventeen of these were persuaded to return to school. No data yet on the follow up through last school year.

2. Metropolitan Action Committee, Nashville, Tenn.

Work experience, counseling, tutoring of 50 youth on parole. Work experience in local, state, and federal agencies.

Result: Fifty youth got 30 hours a week of regular employment and 10 hours a week of individual and group counseling and planned activities, and supportive services such as medical care, home readjustment, relocation, etc. Girls did better than boys, but majority of both showed gains on tests of personality adjustment and other scores indicating potential for success.

3. Archbishop Toolen's Anti-Poverty Committee, Mobile, Alabama.

An NYC type program for 60 youth confined to a detention home, plus special counseling support.

Result: A total of 89 teenagers participated to varying extents. A 31% dropout rate overall. 97% returned to school in Fall. By trainee reaction most important aspects were helping to keep off streets and out of trouble, how to handle money, aid in getting an employable skill.

5. Harris County NYC, Houston, Texas.

An NYC type program for 40 youth on parole from State penal institutions.

Result: No law violations committed by any subjects, including dropouts while in project. Only 1 of 24 who finished was returned to state school (normal recidivism rate is 25%-30%. 82.5% of those finished able to return to school, further training or work-force.

5. Experiment in Self-Reliance, Inc., Winston-Salem, N.C.

An NYC type program for 25 youth from welfare rolls or referred by project officers. Emphasis on home and work-site adjustment and development of youth's educational and vocational plans.

Result: Limited information. Appeared to be successful in getting returns to school. Good community reaction to project.


The combined Federal-State employment service network includes almost 2300 local offices. Practically all of these offices, to varying degrees, give special service to youth.

Since the inception of the Federal-State employment service system under the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933, which specifically provided for special services to "men, women, and juniors," the U.S. Employment Service has been actively concerned with the employment problems of beginning workers. When the Employment Service counseling program was established on a nationwide basis in 1945, much of the work for youth was included as an integral part of that program. During the fiscal year 1966-67, more than 4 million new youth applicants sought assistance from local offices of the Federal-State network of the public employment service system. These applicants were chiefly youth 16 through 21 years of age and represented 39.5 percent of the total new adult and youth applicants.

To provide employment assistance for all youth, the Bureau of Employment Security has established a network of Youth Opportunity Centers. At the end of the fiscal year 1967, 168 Youth Opportunity Centers were operating in 129 areas, with 146 of the centers in quarters separate from those of the local public employment service office.

In addition to the Youth Opportunity Centers, there are over 700 youth units in other local offices in areas not served by the YOC's. One or more trained counselors and other youth employment specialists are available in these offices to help youth with employment problems attain employability and find suitable jobs. Cooperative ES-school program and program with school dropouts

A formal agreement was developed between State directors of guidance in State departments of education and State supervisors of counseling in the Employment Service. As a result of this agreement, State Employment Service agencies provide counseling, testing, and job placement services to graduating students on school premises as well as in local offices. All seniors who plan to enter the job market after graduation may take advantage of these services provided by Employment Service personnel at the schools. Actual and potential dropouts are referred to the Employment Service by the schools for appropriate action. During the 1965-66 school year 82.553 dropouts were reached through formal ES programs with the schools. Of this number, 32,737 (39.7 percent) were placed in jobs. Services to rural youth

The Employment Service has developed a variety of techniques for reaching rural youth. In many States, Employment Service area counselors provide counseling and placement service. Mobile units provide a wide variety of services comparable to those provided in local offices to rural areas.

The Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 and the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) as amended, enable the Employment Service to evaluate the skills of job-seekers of all ages in rural areas of substantial unemployment, to recommend the establishment of training courses, and to take other action as needed to increase the employability of people and increase their opportunities for gainful employment. Referrals to MDTA training courses are made by the Employment Service. In addition, the Employment Service is the major source of recruitment, screening, and referral to the Job Corps and the Neighborhood Youth Corps.

Neighborhood Youth Corps

The Employment Service provides NYC youth with counseling and testing services both before and after their enrollment in an NYC project, as well as

during enrollment where staff resources permit. From October 1, 1966, through June 1967, the Employment Service referred 114,200 youth to NYC projects. Over the same period some 39,000 youth who had completed their NYC enrollment period applied at the Employment Service for assistance. Of these, approximately half were placed in jobs or referred to further training, either in MDTA, Job Corps, apprenticeship, or in another NYC project.

Job Corps recruitment and placement

By agreement with the Office of Economic Opportunity, the Employment Service provides recruitment, screening, referral and placement services for Job Corpsmen. Since the inception of the Job Corps program, the Employment Service has been responsible for the recruitment, screening, and referral of about 90 percent of all male Job Corpsmen. In April 1967 the Employment Service was given the further responsibility of assisting in the referral of women to the Job Corps. In fiscal year 1967 the Employment Service referred 60.947 males to Job Corps and 4,367 females (from April through June).

The Employment Service also provides its full range of services to those returning from Job Corps, both male and female, who are in need of these services.

Work with juvenile courts, police, and juvenile delinquency institutions

Youth services activity of the Employment Service has always included work with Juvenile Court personnel, assisting them in the prevention of juvenile delinquency by placement of youth who have been in trouble. Many State agencies have developed formal working plans with State institutions or training schools. Many city Employment Service offices have worked with the Juvenile Court Judges and social workers in trying to help youth who had a record to get employment, as part of a program of rehabilitation. Vocational guidance materials prepared by the Employment Service and others have been made available by local offices to Juvenile Court workers.

Placement of youth in summer jobs

Local Employment Service offices conduct special job campaigns for students wanting summer jobs. Such programs are usually carried on aside from the regular counseling and placement of youth in permanent jobs. Often citizen groups sponsor the campaign and do the job promotion connected with it.

Since 1965, the President's Youth Opportunity Campaign has been instrumental in obtaining large numbers of summer jobs for youth. This campaign has been spearheaded by the USES, and local offices have been referral agencies. Some 1.250.000 placements of youth were reported for the summer of 1967 by State agencies, in addition to the many youth who were assisted in finding work and training with private and public agencies.

Occupational information

Furnishing of occupational information has been an ongoing service of BES, and over the years a wealth of material has been provided of interest also to youth or directed specifically to them.

The Employment Service, and its affiliated State agencies, publish a great deal of occupational information useful to youth. "Job Guide for Young Workers", a long-time best-seller at the Government Printing Office, provides information for youth entering the job market, particularly those having, or planning to get, no more than a high school education. "College Courses and Beginning Jobs", another publication, was prepared to meet special guidance needs of youth seeking information concerning the relationships between college majors and career fields. "Choosing Your Occupation" and "How to Get and Hold the Right Job", also Government Printing Office best-sellers, continue to provide basic guidance information and job-seeking advice of particular relevance to young people preparing for and entering the job market.

Services to handicapped youth

The usual difficulties posed by lack of training and experience are compounded in the case of the young handicapped job-seeker.

In addition to the assistance provided handicapped youth by the selective placement specialist in the Employment Service office, special effort is made to provide such youth with services outside the scope of the Employment Service to help them compete in the job market.

Selective service rehabilitant program

One month after the President's Task Force on Manpower Conservation published its findings in January 1964, the Employment Service began a special program for Selective Service rejectees.

In agreement with the Department of Defense, Employment Service staff have been assigned to each of the 73 Armed Forces Examining and Entrance Stations (AFEES) in order to provide increased services to Selective Service rejectees. At these stations, rejectees are given information concerning assistance that the Employment Service can provide and are urged to report to their local Employment Service offices. Wherever possible, efforts are made to follow up on those who do not report.

Volunteer military rejectee program

This program is being conducted in seven cities under YOC direction. It is designed to assist youth who want to enlist for military service but who fail to meet military requirements, usually the Enlistment screening test. The program provides for a coach class, from Adult Education or other sources, to provide necessary remedial education. This is coupled with Employment Service counseling and the development of part-time jobs for trainees to enable them to support themselves while in training. Rejectees who cannot be expected to meet military requirements are provided counseling, job training, and placement services. Also. Selective Service Rehabilitants interested in availing themselves of the intensive services provided the volunteer military rejectees, including coaching services, may do so.

Apprenticeship information centers

AIC's were established to meet the need for providing an easily accessible source of information, counseling, and guidance to youth, particularly minorities, regarding apprenticeship requirements and opportunities. As of FY '67 the Employment Service had established 26 AIC's in major metropolitan areas. They are based in local offices, and the responsibility for their operation is shared jointly by the Employment Service and the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

College youth

The responsibility of the Employment Service to insure that all potential workers have the opportunity for assistance in obtaining career employment includes the college and university-trained, as well as the industrial worker.

Although the Service does not attempt to assume the college's responsibility to provide vocational guidance and placement assistance to its students, it can, however, supplement those services through its occupational information, testing, counseling, and placement activities, particularly for smaller general colleges which do not have comprehensive student personnel services.



Since its inception in late 1964, the Neighborhood Youth Corps has provided 1,427,093 job opportunities for disadvantaged boys and girls 14 to 21. at an obligation by the Federal government of $821,497,182. In fiscal 1967, NYC provided 512,727 job opportunities in 1,438 hometown projects. The Federal government obligated an additional $14,092,188 for 8.418 job opportunities in 21 projects under the Concentrated Employment Program.

NYC projects, sponsored by local organizations other than political parties and operated under U.S. Department of Labor guidelines, have resulted in new or expanded community services that would otherwise not be provided. Enrollees do not displace regular workers. They work as aides in libraries, school, cafeterias, museums, art galleries, housing projects, hospitals, parks, forests, old-age and nursing homes and municipal buildings.

NYC's in-school and summer programs give financially-distressed youths, working for $1.25 to $1.40 an hour, that extra bit of cash that often means the difference between completing their high school educations or becoming dropouts. The out-of-school program aims to give dropouts the work experience and training necessary to find permanent jobs, and to motivate the youngsters to complete their high school educations. In-schoolers can spend up to 15 hours a week, and out-of-school and summer enrollees up to 40 hours in NYC activities.

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