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ideas, methods, techniques, and knowledge between people of different countries. The exchange programs carried out through 4-H in the past 20 years have definitely demonstrated that such programs are valuable tools in improving and expanding rural Youth educational work.

We hope to expand the International Farm Youth Exchange from the current 200 per year to 300 by 1971.

The 4-H Teen Caravan should increase in size from 150 participants to 300 by 1971.

Second. Additional private resources are needed to conduct more specialized exchanges at the professional leader level. The Foundation has experimented in this area, and results indicate the need for expanding this educational service. Few exchange programs focus on the needs of professional rural youth leaders. Most participants who receive some training in rural youth educational programs through current exchange programs must participate in a much more broadly conceived exchange program. While these render valuable service, often there is need for more specialization. Our Professional Rural Youth Leader Exchange offers practical training experience for 3 months to 1 year.

It is a two-way exchange, although a larger number of leaders come to the United States than are programed abroad.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Pardon me, Mr. Pressly, I have read through all of your statement and some parts of it twice. Let me suggest that we print it all in the record. We had set a limitation of time. We have to finish by 12 o'clock. There are two other witnesses, and we have only 20 minutes.

In addition, I have been called to the floor. The Senate is in session, and I have been asked to participate in debate over there.

Now, I note from your final conclusions you are not worried about the mix between semiprivate and semipublic or quasi-private and quasi-public. You think the two should be blended.

Mr. PRESSLY. Yes.

Senator YARBOROUGH. I want to congratulate you on the great progress the 4-H has made. Frankly, this is a valuable paper to us. I was not familiar with that. We see our 4-H winners each year, and we know of their work in the States and the combination of your IFYE and your Teen Caravan. All of these are very valuable.

Do you have anything further?
Mr. PRESSLY. No.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Thank you very much. It was very well delivered, and it is a very fine statement and will be printed in full. Congratulations on your delivery.

Mr. PRESSLY. Thank you.

(The prepared statement of Mr. Pressly follows:) PREPARED STATEMENT OF W. FRANCIS PRESSLY, LEADER, INTERNATIONAL

PROGRAMS, NATIONAL 4-H Club FOUNDATION, WASHINGTON, D.C. Mr. Chairman: I am W. Francis Pressly, Program Leader of the International Programs Department of the National 4-H Club Foundation, Washington, D.C. The 4-H Foundation is a private, non-profit educational institution of the Cooperative Extension Service of the State Land-Grant Universities and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Our mission is to “complement and assist the work of the Cooperative Extension Service, with primary emphasis on youth programs, in ways not readily supported by public funds. In so doing, the Foundation has responsibility for securing and using private funds."

4-H international programs were among the first to recognize the potential of rural youth programs in the developing countries as one of the keys in fighting the food deficit and population crisis. Agriculture is the base which developing countries must have; it depends upon an educated, motivated people. Rural young people are one of the keys to this vital action. 4-H international programs are dedicated to mutual understanding and the development of rural youth.

The 4-H "idea” is distinctively American-informal; out-of-school training; volunteer adult leaders; cooperation between local community, state and national governments; support from private as well as public institutions; and individual youth projects of "learning by doing.” This experience, principles, and philosophy are the basic elements that have been adapted in some 80 countries around the world.

A pioneer step in 4-H international programs was the establishment of the International Farm Youth Exchange (IFYE) just 20 years ago this spring. Since that time, 1,937 U.S. young people and 2,154 foreign young people have been exchanged between our nation and 72 cooperating host countries. They are between 20 and 30 years old, live with families in rural areas as they learn by doing-working, living, teaching and playing beside their hosts. Nearly every state and Puerto Rico have had outstanding 4-H members in this program.

In the U.S., IFYE is privately financed by 4-H Clubs along with business and industrial firms, foundations and individuals. Valuable assistance also has been available in recent years to assist in many of our international costs through Public Law 480 funds and State Department educational training grants. I want to emphasize that these public funds are used outside the U.S. so we may have exchanges with developing countries that cannot carry their full share of the expense of a reciprocal program. These funds have helped us to reach where the need for these exchanges is the greatest.

IFYE participants are concerned with more than mutual understanding. They are sharing ideas for a better agricultural and home life. There is emphasis on helping adapt the ideas of 4-H to the culture of a developing nation. I have some very significant new developments to report in just a few moments.

IFYĚ was one of the early international rural youth exchanges, thus it was appropriate that experience from this program should be incorporated into the Peace Corps when it was established in 1961. Hundreds of former 4-H members have shared their practical training and experience with people of other lands through the Peace Corps. The 4-H Foundation, working in behalf of the Extension Service, has administered Peace Corps projects relating to rural youth development in Brazil, Uruguay, Venezuela, El Salvador and Malaysia. Many 4-H Clubs in the U.S. assist Peace Corps volunteers by providing funds and materials to fledgling rural youth programs.

The success of IFYE and other 4-H international programs led to a demand for a short-term, family-living experience for older 4-H members (from 17 to 19 years old). This is the 4-H Teen Caravan, now in its fourth year. This program is completely financed by the participants, but is closely related to community 4-H programs.

We operate in about 40 countries per year with our 4-H exchange programs. Over the years, we have wanted to change this pattern a bit, to concentrate a large group of people in one country. The opportunity came two years ago when an agreement was signed between Japan and the United States which set up the Japanese Agricultural Training Program. About 160 to 200 Japanese young farmers come to the U.S. for two years. They receive about six months of formal training plus 18 months of practical on-the-farm or ranch experience. It is a selfsupporting program coordinated by the 4-H Foundation. While we are very proud of the program to date, the first trainees will be returning to Japan in July, so it will be at least another year before we can accurately evaluate our effectiveness. This kind of training is much needed in other lands; the Philippines and Ecuador--among others—have approached us about programs for their young farmers.

In recent years, we have given increasing emphasis to training professional rural youth leaders. These leaders hold jobs in their homelands similar to our county and state 4-H Extension personnel. The training they have is usually quite limited, as the educational systems of their countries tend to be deficient in agriculture. But there are many, many Extension workers who are capable and dedicated; what they need is practical training. This we are attempting to do. We bring them to the U.S. for about three months in the fall. While they receive some training at the national and state levels, most of their time is spent working alongside county 4-H agents-learning 4-H first hand. I believe this is one of our most significant contributions to the food and population problem.

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The most recent development in our international work has been through the Interamerican Rural Youth Program. This was established in 1960 as a cooperative effort of the Interamerican Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Organization of American States and the American International Association of Economic and Social Development. In December, we assumed the administrative and programming responsibilities for this program from AIA, receiving a three-year grant from AIĂ to get our work under way. PIJR, which are its Spanish initials, will be our 4-H international program in the Americas. It combines our IF YE, Teen Caravan and Professional Leader and other exchanges, with the already established PIJR efforts of stimulating increased enrollment in 4-H-type programs through incentives, training, and public information. Stimulating private support for rural youth programs-much as we work in the U.S.-is a keystone of this effort.

Exchanges and foreign training are important. But possibly the most important impact of 4-H international programs is on the thousands, million of people who participate without ever leaving their homes. They are the host families, the 4-H members, leaders and people of the community who take part in dozens of ways. The 4-H international program gives these people young and adult--an opportunity to have an international experience. This is a dimension in their education that is needed so very much today. Many state extension leaders have credited these programs with being an important factor in breaking down the traditional isolationism that once was prevalent in rural communities throughout the world.

Probably no bit of Americana has been more rapidly, broadly or enthusiastically accepted in so many parts of the world as has 4-H. 4-H international programs have played a part, especially IFYE and the 4-H Peace Corps projects.

These programs are an important leadership experience for thousands of young people, both those participants and those assisting. Twenty-five former participants in our program have become national leaders of their countries' rural youth program. They hold such positions in Brazil, Finland, Ecuador, India, Ireland, Peru, Uruguay, and others. Twenty-three IF YE alumni work with the Turkish Extension Service; three out of every four IF YE's from Nepal are now working with their national extension service. Whatever their life's work may be, these young people tend to have more concern for other people, and to have developed important leadership skills that make them effective and responsible citizens. They are at the forefront of the fight against hunger and starvation.

While the IFYE experience may be quite personal, the program's impact upon a community or country can be very broad:

One of the first exchangees from Nepal, Debi Prasad Thapalia, who came in 1955, was so impressed with 4-H Club work that upon returning home, he urged His Majesty's Government to adapt the idea to Nepal. This was the basis for the growing, flourishing 4-Leaf Clubs of today.

Washington Naranjo of Ecuador, a 1962 participant, developed a plan for training volunteer 4-F Club leaders. This served as the work paper on leader training at the 1964 Interamerican Rural Youth Leaders Conference. He is now Ecuador's National Director of Technical Extension, an important unit of the Ministry of Agriculture.

A recent fiscal year annual report from the American Embassy in India states: “The IF YE program was enlarged during the fiscal year to provide for 16 young American farmers to visit India and the same number of Indians to visit the U.S. This program appears to be the most successful of the youth exchanges. The Ministry of Agriculture has indicated that it makes a genuine, if limited in scope, contribution to the development of agriculture as well as satisfying cultural exchange objectives.

“The agricultural skills possessed by the American students allow them to make a technical contribution which also enhances their cultural effectiveness. On the other hand, a number of the Indian returnees have become active in farm youth work. One young coffee planter in the South has been instrumental in building a farm youth organization with nearly 3,000 participants

in his district." The Assistant Minister of Agriculture of Botswana was impressed by his observation of 4-H in the United States. Feeling that his newly independent country needed a similar program, he requested help and Lyle Murphy, an 11-year 4-H member and an agricultural education graduate of Michigan State University, was sent there in October 1967. By December, he and the local agricultural

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demonstrators had approval for organizing 4-B Clubs in rural villages. In two months, 509 boys and girls were enrolled in clubs in nine villages.

Through IFYE and other 4-H international programs, a firm foundation has been laid for increased assistance and support for the rural youth educational programs of the world. America will have made a great contribution if the ideals and principles of 4-H can make a major contribution toward correcting the world's food and population imbalance.

I want to emphasize again that all of these benefits have come about through private enterprise sponsorship of programs developed by the Extension Service and allied public educational efforts. The exception, of course, has been our contracts with the Peace Corps. But even here, 4-H members and cooperating groups around the nation have collected materials and money to help “their volunteers” develop 4-H-type programs.

The need for these programs, especially in the developing nations, is well known. The only practical limitation to expanding this work in food production is the matter of funds. Even in a country as rich and powerful as America, it is difficult to find funds to meet all of the needs we can identify and program.

There are a number of ways in which government grants could assist the private efforts of the National 4-H Club Foundation in helping to stimulate the development of more effective rural youth educational programs, particularly in the developing countries.

1. Expand 4-H's international educational exchange programs. This, of course, is one of the widely recognized methods in sharing ideas, methods, techniques and knowledge between people of different countries. The exchange programs carried out through 4-H in the past 20 years have definitely demonstrated that such programs are valuable tools in improving and expanding rural youth educational work.

We hope to expand the International Farm Youth Exchange from the current 200 per year to 300 by 1971.

The 4-H Teen Caravan should increase in size from 150 participants to 300 by 1971.

2. Additional private resources are needed to conduct more specialized exchanges at the professional leader level. The Foundation has experimented in this area and results indicate the need for expanding this educational service. Few exchange programs focus on the needs of professional rural youth leaders. Most participants who receive some training in rural youth educational programs through current exchange programs must participate in a much more broadly conceived exchange program. While these render valuable service, often there is need for more specialization. Our Professional Rural Youth Leader Exchange offers practical training experiences for three months to one year. A larger number of leaders come to the U.S. than are programmed abroad.

The Professional Youth Leader Exchange will expand to 90 participants by 1971,

3. As the rural youth educational programs have expanded around the world, one of the most efficient and effective ways in which ideas, methods and techniques can be shared is through workshops, seminars, and working conferences of the professional leadership. Because of limited financing, these have been limited in both number and scope. Additional funds are needed to initiate more training opportunities, especially through workshop types of meetings to share knowledge between programs and develop materials that might serve as guides for further development in specific areas or countries. It is proposed that such workshops be conducted on a limited geographical basis to provide an opportunity for specialization of specific practices and techniques and to allow specialists to give more individual attention to participants in such work groups. In addition, government financial resources would help initiate the establishment of regular work conferences on a regional basis for the national rural youth leadership from various countries.

In addition to stimulating and sponsoring certain key training at the international level, the 4-H Foundation proposes to expand its training of professional and voluntary leadership in the United States to improve its competency in the international area. Such conferences would be held on a regional or interstate basis and would be designed to improve leadership in local clubs, county and state 4-H programs.

Additional funds are needed to expand programs in this area which would encourage local 4-H programs to organize activities such as programming for educational television, country study, and organizing community service projects specifically related to the international area.

4. The National 4-H Club Foundation proposes to unite the private resources of the United States with the strengths of 4-H to focus on building and expanding rural youth educational programs around the world by establishing a 4-H International Development Fund. Such an effort would actively involve every 4-H members, his family and friends in this effort. Every 4-H Club would have ad international responsibility. All private entities in the U.S. could channel resources into general as well as specific projects designed to improve and expand rural youth programs and food production projects around the world.

The project can be initiated by first inviting the resources of the 4-H program at the local level to relate to specific program development abroad. Resources from the quasi-public foundation could be used to establish the administrative offices of the Fund.

5. There are a number of ways in which government grants could assist the private efforts of the 4-H Foundation in helping to stimulate the development of more effective rural youth educational programs, particularly in the developing countries. There is a need in Latin America for the private sector to become much more actively engaged in building support for many of the programs and institutions our government has helped establish and build to serve the people in rural areas. One type of institution is the Extension-type organization found in most countries which have responsibility for the informal rural youth educational programs similar to our own U.S. 4-H program. As direct U.S. Government support of these programs is withdrawn, there is a growing need to develop leadership, particularly in the private sector in these countries, to get more of their own resources (both government and private) assigned toward strengthening and expanding these programs.

We have assisted in the organization of 20 private groups at the national level in as many countries in Latin America to stimulate the further development and expansion of 4-H-like programs. Of course, there is not the great tradition of private support to such activities in most countries around the world. This must be developed. We have had good success to date but simply do not have enough private resources to get this job done as fast as it needs to be done. Grants of money from an organization such as you propose would be most useful and beneficial in this connection and would certainly help to insure the investment that our government has made in a direct way in the development of these fledgling institutions to serve rural people.

6. We would also propose to utilize funds from the source you suggest for certain kinds of developmental programs that would further stimulate and speed up the development of rural youth educational programs through pilot demonstration programs in a variety of countries. Right now, we are especially interested in stimulating a greater involvement of rural youth in agricultural productionoriented projects, especially in the developing countries. We believe that youth can make a sizeable contribution toward helping to solve our world food problems. We have some small demonstrations going in this regard in Latin America, but more sizeable resources are needed to further stimulate this development. Here, again, many of our business and industrial firms are interested in this work and supporting it where markets have developed sufficiently to warrant the investment.

Added funds at this time to simply initiate such programs would serve an immeasurable cause and I say without question, be one of the great success stories of our century. We need more programs that will involve and relate youth in effective ways to the hard tasks of building societies. Without such constructive programs, there will continue to be a growing number who settle for the easy tasks of marches, protests and carrying placards. On the other hand, they can be fully engaged in helping to build, in the rural areas, for example, a better agriculture, better communities and a more satisfying life. Our goal is two-fold-give opportunities to youth to do and learn.

I am very much in favor of the type of program you have suggested in Senate Bill No. 1779 which has been introduced to establish a quasi-public foundation to assist private non-governmental efforts to extend the dimensions of our international relations. There is little question that if we expect to move ahead, particularly with agricultural development around the world and especially in the developing countries, we must somehow join private resources with government resources to get the job done. Studies indicate in a rather substantial way, that neither government nor the private sector alone can expect to achieve international development goals. Indeed, we must some way generate greater resources to achicve success.

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