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discovered that each of our final choices had to undergo a security clearance. Although the applicants to the delegation had been made aware of this, it still put us in a somewhat awkward position. Were we running our own program, or a State Department program? Our concern increased when one of our final designations-a good friend of ours-decided to withdraw his name in protest against this procedure's use in connection with a presumably independent delegation. Subsequently, the board of NSA voted to refuse sponsorship of any future delegation abroad wbich included security clearances.

I supported that vote, and I support it now. If the U.S. Government sends its employees abroad, or sends Peace Corps volunteers to other countries, then it has a legitimate right to undertake security precautions against those who will represent it. Support for private citizens-students or otherwise is another matter. If the delegation is to be independent, even the most precusory check becomes illegitimate. I cannot speak for other constituencies on this matter, but I can say that you will lose some of your most able student travelers if the security check becomes a part of the foundation's procedures.

These, then, are my concerns—a concern for the relevance of the programs undertaken by the foundation; and a concern for the independence of these programs from governmental control. I do not know whether either concern can be met, but I hope that they can. I am not an isolationist; I do favor increased contact between students of all countries. If such a foundation were created, I would like to be among its supporters. I could be counted as such, however, only if it represented a new start in the Government's work in this area.

Again, I thank you for your invitation to make these remarks, and wish you the best of luck in your deliberations.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Thank you, Mr. Schwartz, and I want to congratulate you for spelling out in these five points as you have in your statment; areas which you think this support will make a meaningful contribution to.

You point out you are not concerned merely with travel money to send students to some international conference to pass a meaningless resolution. I think you reach into areas that would result in this money having a more far-reaching effect.

These are very valuable suggestions, and valuable information from the student's standpoint. I would like to ask if counsel has any questions to ask the witness, or any suggestions. If there are no questions from counsel who have worked on it, we have your statement and we will consider it.

I would like to introduce a person who has just come in the room, whom I have not seen since last year, a man who worked on this bill. We have heard President Beirne compliment the bill. We had aid from a good many groups working on it.

The man coordinated that bill, working with the Senate Legislative Drafting Service, with different branches of the Government, and with private groups—this bill wasn't hastily thrown together-left us shortly afterward. He is a graduate of Harvard from San Antonio, Tex., and he said I talked about education so much that it took on him, and he is now working on his doctorate in economics at the University of Michigan.

Allen Mandel, will you stand up. You have done so much work on this bill over many months in my office.

Mr. SCHWARTZ. Senator, I would just like to thank you for your personal interest in this whole area. It is sometimes very difficult to get Senators interested in areas that we seem to think are important, and I think your contributions here have been widely appreciated.

Senator YARBOROUGH. I learned of your organization some years ago through a president or two that we had from my home State, the first one, Ray Farrabee, of Wichita Falls. He was president of your student group, national president.


Senator YARBOROUGH. And through that I began to learn of the contributions which you are making in the field of international goodwill and understanding. I am glad to have your very positive recommendations here for progress in this field. We invite your continuing recommendations, letters, suggestions, or whatever you have to offer through your organization. Thank you.

Mr. SCHWARTZ. Thank you very much.

Senator YARBOROUGH. We will recess this hearing. The time of the next hearing is tomorrow morning, Friday, April 26, at 10 o'clock.

(Whereupon, at 11 a.m., the subcommittee recessed until tomorrow, Friday, April 26, 1968, at 10 a.m.)



FRIDAY, APRIL 26, 1968



Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10:15 a.m., in room 4232, New Senate Office Building, Senator Ralph Yarborough, chairman of the special subcommittee, presiding.

Present: Senator Yarborough (presiding).

Also present: Robert Harris, counsel; and Roy Millenson, minority clerk.

Senator YARBOROUGH. The Subcommittee on International Health, Education, and Labor Programs will come to order for a continuation

а of hearings on S. 1779, to establish an international health, education, and labor program to provide open support for private, nongovernmental activities in the fields of health, education, and labor, and other welfare fields.

Mr. Nagle is chief of the Washington Office of the National Federation of the Blind. We welcome you to this committee. This is a subcommittee of the full Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, which includes the Health Subcommittee, the Education Subcommittee, the Veterans Subcommittee, and a number of other subcommittees that deal with welfare of the people.

You have been before several of our subcommittees before, and we welcome you back again and ask for your advice, counsel, and expertise on this bill. You may proceed in your own way. STATEMENT OF JOHN F. NAGLE, CHIEF, WASHINGTON OFFICE,


Mr. NAGLE. Thank you, Senator.

Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, my name is John F. Nagle. I am chief of the Washington office of the National Federation of the Blind. My address is 1908 Q Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.

Mr. Chairman, the National Federation of the Blind is appearing here, today, to give its endorsement and support to S. 1779, a bill introduced by the able and distinguished Senator Ralph Yarborough, of Texas, to establish an international health, education, and labor program to provide support for private nongovernmental activities in the fields of health, education, and labor, and other welfare fields. The National Federation of the Blind is a nationwide organization with a membership primarily of blind men and women, joined together and working together, to secure, for all who are blind, a fair and equal opportunity to live worthwhile lives.

By our organized efforts and individual example, we strive to eradicate misinformation about blindness and false notions about blind people.

We reject the inferior, demeaning, and sterile status of benevolent custodialism—our lot by custom and tradition-and we assert the right of all blind people to determine their own destiny, to direct their own lives, to share fully in the hazards and responsibilities, as well as the rights, privileges, and opportunities of constructive and contributory living.

We, the organized blind, do not limit our concerns or our efforts only to our members, but we seek and we work for improved conditions and equalized opportunities for all without sight in America, for all without sight in the world.

We, the organized of America, know that blind people can live independent, interdependent lives, for we are doing so.

We know that blind people, themselves, are best qualified to solve the problems of blindness, and we assert the right to do so, we assume the responsibility for doing so.

We assert this right, and we demand this right, individually and as members of the National Federation of the Blind.

We assume this responsibility as individuals and as members of the National Federation of the Blind.

In 1940, Mr. Chairman, a dozen blind men and women representing seven statewide organizations of blind people, met in Wilkes-Barre, Pa. and formed the National Federation of the Blind.

Today, with a membership of more than 40,000 sightless Americans, combined in some 300 local chapters, which, in turn, are federated in 37 State organizations, all merged at the national level in the National Federation of the Blind.

Today, Mr. Chairman, the organized blind movement in America is an irrefutable demonstration of the normality of blind people, of their capacities and capabilities, it is a conclusive demonstration of the possibilities of achievement attainable by blind men and women joined in common cause and working together toward shared objectives.

In furtherance of our desire and our determination to encourage and assist the blind of other nations to achieve fulfillment in their lives, to help them realize their potentialities as human beings, we the organized blind of the United States, were instrumental, several years ago, in the creation of the International Federation of the Blind- a worldwide organization of affiliated national organizations of blind people.

In the years prior to the founding of the International Federation of the Blind, and in the subsequent years, we blind Americans have gained a greater understanding of the sorry plight of the blind in other nations, of their great need for help and encouragement.

As we, blind Americans, have become more familiar with the distressing conditions of blind people in other nations, as we have become better acquainted with blind people of the Near and the Far East, of

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