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My experience in life is that it is very difficult to get people to miss either a meeting of the board of trustees of their university or a State board of higher education. He is missing such a meeting. There is an attraction for Americans to serve on these boards. They have a desire to do something about education, particularly about higher education, and we thank you for taking the time, Mr. Golin, to give up that important meeting to come here to testify on this bill. Proceed in your own way. STATEMENT OF EDWIN GOLIN, CHAIRMAN, INTER-AMERICAN

PARTNERS OF THE ALLIANCE BUSINESS COMMITTEE; PRESIDENT, THE GAUGE CORP., WILMINGTON, DEL. Mr. Golin. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am faced with a classical nightmare. I was going to say I would, for the sake of brevity and coherence, stick close to the script which is the same that you have in hand. And then in casually looking at it, I find my stenographer had mixed the paragraphs, and hence it will be impossible for coherence's sake to read it as it is. I would like to ask that I reassemble the paragraphs for the permanent record, and that I ad lib from this point on.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Yes, proceed in your own way, Mr. Golin.

Mr. Golin. I would like to testify in support of S. 1779 from the experience gained in Partners for the Alliance as well as my experience prior to the Partners program. I have been on two trade missions as an area redevelopment specialist for the U.S. Department of Commerce, as well as the State of Delaware, in such countries as Greece, Spain, Yugoslavia, and Poland, and I know the need for economic development in relatively undeveloped areas.

I also come as a former State economic development director for Delaware, and know the problems involved in striving for economic stability, both in the Unitee States and abroad.

My experience as a statewide school board member also alerts me to the many problems in education as well as health. But I find it most effective to express my feelings through the Partners of the Alliance, an all-encompassing type of program in the fields of health, education, agriculture, and business. I have been with the program for over 3 years.

The Partners of the Alliance typically exemplify the need for a bill such as S. 1779. Here we have some 36 States in a person-toperson, private sector partnership with 16 countries or areas of Latin America trying to help the people; trying to do what can't be done at the higher governmental levels.

We are a very prosperous nation. We are among the privileged few very wealthy nations, and as such we have been watching the spreading gap between the haves and the have-nots develop into a potentially explosive world problem. This major gap exists at the very level that the partners of the Alliance work best at: the peasants, the workers, the students, the small business people, the average citizenry of these areas—the vast majority of the population that most deeply feels and resents this widening chasm. For example, we have seen how much good the contribution of a one-room health center or a one-room school represent in a desperately poor village, and their value for the

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relationship between the peoples of the United States and Latin America.

One of the problems that we have found in the partnership program is the need for administrative funds to keep these programs moving. It is amazing how much has been accomplished so far in the partnership program. I must diverge momentarily to congratulate Mr. James Boren, who is here with us today; the originator of the partners program and present Director, and his very accomplished associates, one of whom is also here, Wade Fleetwood.

Senator YARBOROUGH. I concur in your commendation for Mr. Jim Boren. In my visit in 1960 through 1962 to a number of countries in South America, I saw him in action in Peru when he was the deputy administrator of the mission there, the AID mission.

Í saw how they, in the early years at least, were trying to get around the bureaucracy of ambassadorial techniques through the State Department, and they were having quite a problem of getting it straight. They were trying then to put in people-to-people programs.

Having seen his work there and observed it for some days, during the succeeding years in his work with the partners of the Alliance, I think he is a typical example of those who are trying to make these programs moye. They are not trying to build themselves an empire, as Senator Javits described, but are trying to get something done with these laws.

I think Vír. Boren was faced with frustrations to the point that he has an organization of bureaucrats here. We poke fun at bureaucrats for their slowness in affairs, but we will not put his organizational chart in the record at this time.

Mr. Golix. Thanks to such individuals as you, who have been such a great help to the partnership program, and to Jim Boren, I think the current benefit-ratio, Mr. Chairman, between the amount of participation by the private citizenry and the input by Mr. Boren's group, is something like 10 to 1.

There has been over $10 million of participation by the private sector for an investment, so to speak, of approximately $1 million by the Agency for International Development. Therefore if we project the budget requested in S. 1779, we would hope that $100 million on your part would generate a minimum of $1 billion in private citizens' participation. Our experience in the Delaware-Panama partnership indicates that at least 95 percent of those funds would be expended in the United States or through U.S. owned firms.

Senator YARBOROUGH. I want to commend you for your examples in your statement, how so little money can do so much, such as the example you give, $200 revitalizing å whole fishing village on the Pacific.

I know in talking with Mr. Boren, working with him over the years on Partners of the Alliance, $200 can build a road for miles. People put in their labor, and get a well for a whole city. President Beirne mentioned the fact that sometimes for just a little money, crayon for blackboards in schools can be purchased.

I visited with Mr. Boren and he pointed out schools in Peru, where the only books in the classroom would be the books the teacher had. and there was no pupil in the room that owned a book, and none of their families owned a book or had ever owned a book.

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We were talking about trying to get some second-hand American textbooks down there, textbooks in English for a child in the third or fourth grade, with color pictures, and Latin alphabet characters, secondhand books cast off by American schools, whether in their language or not, which would be helpful just to meet the bare needs of the students.

Mr. GOLIN. Yes.
Senator YARBOROUGH. Such a little money would do so much. You

a say why don't we do it. There are so many square miles and so many hundreds of millions of people. All of this is needed in my opinion, every effort.

Mr. Golin. Here, too, is an example I think of Senator Javits' question concerning the Ford Foundation. We also spoke of a small agricultural village which based an entire economy on onion seeds, amounting to a contribution of $350 worth of seeds.

The answer, in part, to whether there is a conflict between Ford Foundation and that of the foundation suggested by your bill and also by the work of the partnership is no. I don't believe the Ford Foundation is geared to search out, underwrite and follow through on the very small project such as the $200 fishing net.

I spoke to one of the representatives of the Inter-American Development Bank, who said the Bank can't consider a loan under millions, and yet there is this agonizing need for the very small loan that can't possibly be administered by the Ford Foundation, various world banks, or even the Government itself.

If such a bill as S. 1779 becomes a reality, the small private efforts such as Partners of the Alliance and Peace Corps and CARE and so on will then have the opportunity to fulfill their function without having to be dragged down by administrative costs involved in conferences, meetings, and travel.

Senator YARBOROUGH. They are only concerned whether a loan is bankable or not.

Mr. Golin. That is right.

Senator YARBOROUGH. To get a village going, to get a town going, get a road out.

Mr. Golin. If there is such a thing as a soft loan, this is a mushy loan. It really goes beyond soft.

The second part of the answer to the Ford Foundation question proposed by Senator Javits, in my own thinking, is that the private citizenry does not like to feel that its donations are going toward sheer administrative, if you will excuse the expression, nitty-gritty cost. They want every donation to be meaningful, and so there is a hesitancy by the private sector to pay for postage stamps, freight, stenography, and so on. Many of the programs have been lagging for the need of this type of support, exactly the sort of thing that you are talking about.

Mr. Chairman, I don't know the amount of private participation by other international organizations, but when you consider the many fraternal, civil, religious and professional groups which encourage and support international programs, the total must be staggering to imagine.

I cannot speak for other programs, but having been deeply involved in the partners program as the State chairman, and as a cochairman of the Business and Industry Committee, the Inter-American Con

ference of the partners program, I can say that a program such as outlined in Senate bill 1779 is vital for the future of the Partners of the Alliance.

At the third Inter-American Conference in Lima, Peru, earlier this month, one of the few resolutions adopted, and unanimously, by representatives of 36 States and with the full encouragement by the 16 Latin American countries involved, the resolution was for the enthusiastic support of your Senate bill 1779, and they congratulated you, Senator Yarborough, as its author.

The funding of private, nonprofit organizations through such grants as described in the bill, would assure the continuing and expanding operation of the partners programs. It could save similar programs which may be slowly sinking through lack of such support.

Mr. Chairman, S. 1779 calls for the establishment of an international health, education, and labor program under which the foundation shall provide open support for private, nongovernmental activities in these and related fields, designed to promote a better knowledge of the United States among the peoples of the world, to increase friendship and understanding, to strengthen the capacity of the other peoples of the world to develop and maintain free, independent societies in their own nations.

I feel strongly that the passage of this bill is long overdue. I feel equally strong that continued delay of passage could be responsible for the expiration of important private citizens' efforts in the field of international relations.

Thank you.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Thank you very much for this very helpful, very interesting statement, Mr. Golin. Coming from your broad background and experience in education in your own State and in the different areas in which you have worked in economics, in education, and in other nations in Europe as well as in Latin America, I certainly want to thank you. I want to put your full statement in the record. You say that you would like to rearrange the order of the paragraphs?

Mr. GOLIN. Yes.

Senator YARBOROUGH. If you will mail that back to us, we will tell the reporter to print it in the record at this point. (The prepared statement of Mr. Golin follows:) PREPARED STATEMENT OF EDWIN Golin, PRESIDENT, GAUGE CORP.,

WILMINGTON, DEL. Mr. Chairman, I seek to add a voice from the private sector in staunch support of S. 1779 to establish an international health, education and labor program, and to provide open support for private, nongovernmental activity in these fields.

We are a prosperous, highly developed country-one of a very small group of rich nations. We are the "Haves" and, according to no less an authority than Secretary of State Dean Rusk, the expanding gap between the "Haves” and the "Have-Nots” presents a most explosive world problem.

When struggling humans in underdeveloped areas have done everything possible to attain a better way of life for themselves and their families. .

When they have pondered and labored and sacrificed meager earnings, and still cannot achieve such relatively simple goals as a one room schoolhouse or health center ... basic agricultural tools or an ambulance . . . fishing nets or schoolbooks ... to whom can they turn?

In too many cases, their national and local governments do not have the resources, motivation or understanding to ease these plights. And too often, the immense government-to-government programs exemplified by the United States' participation in the Alliance for Progress does not trickle down to the small but vital needs of the individual.


Part of this challenge has been met by the emergence of a warm and sensitive private citizenry. I take great pride in being part of a uniquely successful private citizen program through which groups and individuals in the United States can work directly with Latin American counterparts to help make a better way of life for all. It is called the Partners of the Alliance.

The ingenuity, practicality and importance of Sente Bill 1779 becomes apparent through the examination of the Partners of the Alliance program. When you multiply this example by the many excellent private groups involved in international programs, the immediate need for that Bill is overwhelming.

The Partners of the Alliance are partnerships of the citizens of the Americas. They are blended in a framework of direct and functional relationships—they are unified by a common purpose and desire to attain the goals of social and economic development through reciprocal action. They are, above all, people working directly with people for a common purpose.

To accomplish this end, the Partners of the Alliance Committees have set out to add substantially to the international dimensions of our society. Every private and public element within our local communities can only gain from this increase of knowledgeable involvement with international affairs. Our schools; professions, corporations and trades; labor unions and civic organizations must each sustain their full share of the support of international programs.

The Partners of the Alliance has already reached the citizens of thrity-three of our states and their counterparts in fifteen Latin American countries. There has been, for the past three years, a constant and practical interchange of persons and their ideas; of techniques to stimulate social change and economic growth; of funds for joint investment and community development; of language and culture-of understanding and lasting friendship.

Diligently, the Partners have pursued, through a wide range of organizations and individuals, solutions to specific projects in the fields of agriculture, education, industrial development and public health and preventive medicine. The implementation of these projects depends to a large extent upon the priorities established and then upon the proper utilization of the resources available, both human and material, within each Partners group.

The small state of Delaware, for example, enjoys a partnership with the Republic of Panama. Since early 1965, approximately one quarter of a million dollars has flowed from the enthusiastic citizens in the form of drugs and medicines, teachers salaries and student exchanges, engineering and agricultural apprenticeships, books and school supplies, agricultural and public health teams, seeds, fishing nets, tractors, crafts supplies, livestock, boy scout equipment and invalid chairs. We cannot begin to estimate the additional value of countless volunteer man-hours and administrative costs that made this program possible.

This week, a small food processing industry on a joint venture basis will begin operation in Panama solely as a result of the partnership activity. Other businesses will follow through investment conferences that are taking place this year. These partnerships between Delaware and Panama businessmen will create new employment opportunities, new skills and new products for Panama and the world.

Because of these activities, a stronger and more prosperous middle class will develop. In turn, the institutions of democracy can become more deeply entrenched, and a new era of social and economic stability will envelop our Hemisphere. It has been our experience that even a little bit can go a long way if the people's heart is behind it.

I have seen the fishing economy of Aquadulce on the Pacific revitalized by a $200 revolving fund. With this small grant by a Delaware group, a fishing cooperative was formed and nylon netting purchased to replace primitive string-and-hook fishing.

I have seen an agricultural economy revived in the politically sensitive community of Neta through the donation of sufficient seed to produce over one hundred tons of onions-a staple food in Panama.

Teachers and students have been exchanged between the two areas. They have lived in private homes and absorbed one another's culture and warm friendship. Mr. Chairman, these are the types of efforts that can be expanded by your Bill.

Beyond Delaware, the picture enlarges almost in direct proportion to the number of people involved. In education . among the more striking accomplishments, Utah, Missouri, Iowa, Connecticut, Colorado, Illinois and Florida with their respective areas of Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico and Colombia have launched projects ranging from scholarships and fellowships to vocational training and language laboratories.

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