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The number of secondary students tested increased from 46 percent in 1958-59 to 68 percent in 1962–63 and declined to 67 percent in 1965–66.
TABLE 7.-RATIO OF FULL-TIME-EQUIVALENT STATE GUIDANCE SUPERVISORS TO PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY STUDENTS AND FULL-TIME-EQUIVALENT LOCAL SCHOOL GUIDANCE PERSONNEL, 1958–59, 1962-63, and 1964-651
1 The collection of FTE State guidance personnel data was discontinued in 1964-65.
The amount and adequacy of State supervision of guidance, counseling, and testing programs are determined to some extent by the ratios of State guidance supervisors to students and to guidance personnel. The ratio of State guidance supervisors to both public elementary and secondary school students in 1958 was 1 to 437,000. This ratio decreased to 1 to 159,300 in 1965. The State supervisorlocal guidance personnel ratio was reduced from 1:154 in 1958 to 1:135 in 1965. TABLE 8.-NUMBER AND PERCENT OF INCREASE IN PUBLIC AND NONPUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENTS, 1958-59, 1962-63, and 1965-66
Total secondary enrollments increased from 11,666,000 in 1958-59 to 17,028,000 in 1965-66 and the elementary enrollments increased from 27,815,000 to 31,716,000. The total public school enrollment (K-12) increased from 34,081,000 in 1958-59 to 42,144,000 in 1965-66 while the nonpublic enrollment increased from 5,400,000 in 1958-59 to 6,600,000 in 1965–66.
STATEMENTS ON NDEA, TITLE V-A, FROM STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PERSONNEL
"Although progress is being made in counselor qualifications, there is still an unmet need for many qualified counselors. The development of counseling related programs under other federally funded programs has drawn heavily upon counseling personnel to staff these programs; therefore, the gap between supply and demand is becoming wider."
"Although the increase in full-time equivalency of secondary school counselors was only 10 percent over that of the previous fiscal year, fiscal 1966 was a rather fruitful one with respect to the overall guidance activities. With the extension of NDEA V-A into the elementary level and the guidance implications as a result of ESEA, EOA, MDTA, and other related programs, there was stimulation of interest in elementary guidance and counseling in Arizona."
"The extension of NDEA, title V-A, to cover elementary and junior college programs as well as secondary is a worthwhile step, but this has made it difficult to meet needs without jeopardizing programs already begun at the secondary level. The number of requests from elementary schools has made it difficult to meet evident needs without a supplementary grant."
"Counseling services to high school students in California continue to move ahead in three dimensions more counseling time; the involvement of more people, particularly parents and teachers; and a deeper level of mutual communication between counselee and counselor."
"The demonstration small-school cooperative program, the High Plains guidance project, was continued through 1965-66, and application was made for continuance through 1966-67. This program is an attempt to demonstrate the effectiveness of a cooperative program for small schools in which one qualified supervisor of guidance provides regular in-service education for and close supervision of local school part-time untrained counselors."
"With the trend toward employing guidance personnel on 12-month basis, there has been the concomitant year-round opening of guidance office doors to the public. Several newly built high schools have been so planned as to provide direct access to the guidance suite, even at a time when the rest of the building is inoperative."
"The State is moving toward elementary guidance and technical institute guidance. The counselors are playing a vital role in the latter program, working with the Governor's commission to develop new schools and various facets of it." Illinois
"An increasing number of school districts are extending their guidance services into the summer school programs which supplement their regular school year operations. This trend emphasizes the concept of providing guidance services that meet the specific needs of individual children which is encouraged by the office of the superintendent of public instruction."
"*** We have seen a marked improvement in our total school program as a result of title V-A."
"Local supply of counselors is very limited at present with about 20 positions unfilled. This is in part due to the increased call for counselors in Federal programs.'
"The professional consultant services rendered by the NDEA title V State department staff has been invaluable."
'With so many elementary schools in each town or city it has been very difficult for local school authorities to provide funds for the hiring of enough counselors to meet the standards of the Massachusetts State plan and to provide services to all their elementary schools."
"Local school districts continue to report a shortage of qualified counselors in sufficient quantity to fill all positions, particularly at the elementary level. * * *” Minnesota
"It has become evident to the State staff, from the inquiries from administrative personnel concerning the addition and improvement of guidance services, that there is increasing understanding and support of these services in the school. The State PTA has taken an increased interest in guidance services particularly at the elementary level."
"We have doubled the number of elementary counselors during fiscal 1966, and will probably do the same for fiscal 1967. The shortage of classroom teachers will hinder the expansion in future years. This shortage was created, to some extent, by the increased demand for remedial specialists for Public Law 89-10, title I, projects."
"In New York as a whole, evidence of increased financial support is seen in the growth of local district expenditures for guidance of over $45 million in 1965-66. The accompanying increase in numbers of full-time counselors and the extension of services indicate a trend toward not only increased understanding and support, but also acceptance of and increasing demands for services of this type. *****
"The chief unmet need in Ohio appears to be a financial one. Programs have developed rapidly to the point where the limited State and Federal funds available are spread so thin that they may cease to provide the motivation which they have furnished during the last several years.'
"***There is a need for more qualified counselors. For example, 21 schools had reported they were searching for one or more qualified counselors just before school opened to be employed for the new school year 1966-67."
"An important need is one of continuous coordination and direction of guidance activities at all educational levels-K-12. Efforts to proliferate formal elementary guidance programs in the most effective ways are of primary concern. These elementary programs must be articulated with guidance services offered at the secondary level and the emphasis at each of these levels must be appropriately related to the diverse needs of youngsters at different maturational points." Rhode Island
"Another response which indicates increased support and understanding of guidance and counseling is the increasing demand by teachers for help to cope with and understand problem children, the requests from curriculum directors for determining the needs of students so they can construct programs to meet these needs, and from parents who are becoming more involved in the planning of the educational and vocational futures of their children."
"Texas needs leadership, standards, and resource materials for the development of pupil personnel services in the schools. Should title V-A of NDEA be expanded to encompass pupil personnel services, the needed basis for development could be provided."
"If guidance services are to be offered to elementary school children, the State allotment of title V funds must be increased. Under the present system of allocation of funds, the Vermont State department can merely partially fund elementary pilot projects. There are 378 elementary schools in the State with a pupil population of 65,644."
"The most serious unmet need is the shortage in counselor supply. The coun selor-pupil ratio is approximately 1 to 1,100. The demand for counselors is evident; inadequate salaries seem to be at the root of the problem. Our counselor educators report that most counselors prepared in the State leave for better pay elsewhere."
"Of the 124 school districts which did not participate in the guidance and counseling program, 90 percent were districts with an enrollment of less than 500 students and 76 percent enrolled less than 300 students (1965–66)."
SELECTED PROVISIONS OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT OF 1958, As
I. EXCERPTS FROM THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT OF 1958, AS AMENDED THROUGH THE 89TH CONGRESS
Enacted on September 2, 1958, as P.L. 85–864 (72 Stat. 1580). Amended on June 25, 1959, by P.L. 86-70 (73 Stat. 144); on July 12, 1960, by P.L. 87-293 (75 Stat. 623); on October 3, 1961, by P.L. 87-344 (75 Stat. 759); on October 5, 1961, by P.L. 87-400 (76 Stat. 832); on October 16, 1962, by P.L. 87-835 (76 Stat. 1070); on December 18, 1963, by P.L. 88-210 (77 Stat. 415); on October 16, 1964, by P.L. 88-665 (78 Stat. 1100); on October 9, 1965, by P.L. 89-253 (79 Stat. 879); on October 29, 1966, by P.L. 89-698 (80 Stat. 1066); and on November 3, 1966, by P.L. 89-752 (80 Stat. 1240)
AN ACT To strengthen the national defense and to encourage and assist in the expansion and improvement of educational programs to meet critical national needs; and for other purposes
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act, divided into titles and section according to the following table of contents, may be cited as the "National Defense Education Act of 1958".
SEC. 101. The Congress hereby finds and declares that the security of the Nation requires the fullest development of the mental resources and technical skills of its young men and women. The present emergency demands that additional and more adequate educational opportunities be made available. The defense of this Nation depends upon the mastery of modern techniques developed from complex scientific principles. It depends as well upon the discovery and development of new principles, new techniques, and new knowledge.
We must increase our efforts to identify and educate more of the talent of our Nation. This requires programs that will give assurance that no student of ability will be denied an opportunity for higher education because of financial need; will correct as rapidly as possible the existing imbalances in our educational programs.
The Congress reaffirms the principle and declares that the States and local communities have and must retain control over and primary responsibility for public education. The national interest requires, however, that the Federal Government give assistance to education for programs which are important to our defense.
To meet the present educational emergency requires additional effort at all levels of government. It is therefore the purpose of this Act to provide substantial assistance in various forms to individuals, and to States and their subdivisions, in order to insure trained manpower of sufficient quality and quantity to meet the national defense needs of the United States.
FEDERAL CONTROL OF EDUCATION PROHIBITED
SEC. 102. Nothing contained in this Act shall be construed to authorize any department, agency, officer, or employees of the United States to exercise any direction, supervision, or control over the curriculum, program of instruction, administration, or personnel of any educational institution or school system.