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NCC staff either produces the necessary situational, sociological and demo-graphic analysis, or secures and coordinates similar input from agencies with competence in the subject area concerned. This sort of information is disseminated through presentations at neighborhood meetings, mailings, workshops, and through the calling of special meetings and the organization of special forums for the purpose.

Third-facilitation. Community education on issues cannot be a static operation, since many issues will not wait for a workshop or a forum. So NCC offers neighborhood organizations, separately or in coalition, a shotgun response to immediate and pressing problems. In this type of operations, staff provides all forms of analytical and logistical support service in the context of the problem involved, and the deadlines it imposes, with the aim of facilitating the solution of that problem. Such operations involve staff work directly with group leaders, and, of necessity, assistance in leadership to the extent of initiating “feelers,' contacts with agencies concerned, generation of publicity, etc. In particular, it involves backstopping with appropriate facts, figures, and strategies the contacts of the groups involved with the agencies causing their problem or capable of providing relief. In all such activity, however, NCC never becomes the leadersimply the close supporter,

Fourth-innovation. NCC invents new problem-solving approaches when existing resources are insufficient or unwilling to take up the task. Operations in this area are directed toward providing the organized community with staff and services for its programmatic use toward resolution of ongoing social issues.

One such effort is the Police-Community Relations Program, which NCC de signed from the ground up in concert with its member organizations and the Philadelphia Police Department. The Program, composed of a Training Component and a Community Organization Component, is designed to reduce tension and create working understanding and cooperation between the Philadelphia Police and the North Philadelphia community. It is funded by the Office of Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Development of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

The Community Organization Component provides staff for committees in the six police districts involved, and their derivative Steering Committee. These organizations have direct access to police commanders at all levels as recognized representatives of the community. They provide the symbols and means for redressing the perceived and actual inversion of power relationships which are at the base of tensions between police and the minority-group community.

The Training Component provides training for policemen in the patterns of ghetto life, the social forces which create those patterns, the relevance of various ameliorative programs, and the role of law enforcement in this context. The total command and patrol complement of the six area police districts receive this training as a duty assignment. Also included is a workshop program for community leaders in methods and procedures of law enforcement, police duties and responsibilities, and the working life of policemen. After the training and workshop sessions, the Program provides for a series of inter-group sessions where policemen and citizens discuss complaints and mutual problems with an eye toward cooperative solutions. Both components operate concurrently as an integrated whole.

NCC also operates an On-the-Job Training Program, funded through a contract with the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training of the U.S. Department of Labor, and is in the process of developing other community-organization-based programs in the areas of: employment, hard-core employee recruitment, and increase of family income through effective job placement; improvement in landlord-tenant and merchant-consumer relations; in-action evaluation of the community development process; use of indigenous residents as paid non-professional neighborbood problem solvers; and others. Information on these and other aspects of NCC operations can be obtained by writing North City Congress, 1616 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 19121.

SUMMARY OF PROGRAMS, ALVIN E. ECHOLS, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, NORTH CITY

CONGRESS Under the leadership of Mr. Echols, North City Congress, a genuine grass roots organization in Philadelphia, has become a model of constructive citizen action for large cities across the Nation.

North City Congress is the sum total of hundreds of neighborhood groups. civic organizations, social agencies, businessmen, parents and youth working together for a better community. Through united action, NCC has made a dif. ference in North Philadelphia. For example:

Small businesses are being established.
Old playgrounds are being improved and new ones are being developed

Vacant, deteriorated houses are being torn down to make way for Den co-op housing.

Bars that serve liquor to minor are being closed.
New street lights are helping to make city streets safer.

Citizens are working with the police to prevent street figthing and gang violence; to enforce curfew laws and to curtail the sale of narcotics. Mr. Echols is here today, as is Chief Inspector Fox to tell the Congress about the North City Congress Police Community Relations Project which is fundei by the Office of Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Development.

In every police district in North Philadelphia there is a committee of civilians (Including youth) and police working together to maintain law and order and improve police-community relations.

To date nearly 500 policemen ranging from patrolmen to captains hare met with citizen groups to discuss police-community problems and how the two groups can work to eliminate them.

The program is just about a year old, but already NCC can claim an inpressive list of accomplishments :

Workshops for high school students in the public schools in which officers and youth exchange views about the rights and responsibilities of both the police and the community.

Joint police-community action to deal with the problems created by abandoned cars and vacant houses.

Workshops in Spanish for the Spanish speaking community.

Special police patrols in areas of the city identified by citizens as danger spots.

Citizen cooperation with the police in reporting incidents of parge snatching, shoplifting, gang violence, etc. NCC has demonstrated that the best way to deal with the explosive potential which exists between the ghetto community and the police is to establish lines of communication, to help both sides see the other's point of view and to provide opportunities for both groups to work together on problems of common concern.

Mr. PUCINSKI. Perhaps you would like to very briefly highlight some of the points. Then we will either have to adjourn for the 12 o'clock bell

, or perhaps we can finish your testimony this morning Why don't you proceed in your own way, Mr. Echols?

Mr. ECHOLs. I would like to say we did anticipate some of our friends from the Philadelphia police department being here. I take it they will be here this afternoon.

One of the programs we are operating is in connection with the whole question of juvenile delinquency and law enforcement, and it has worked cooperatively with the Philadelphia police department.

I will try to quickly and briefly go through, without reading the material, the highlights of my statement here.

Basically, the north city congress takes the point of view that any program which is designed to get at the question of reducing and preventing juvenile delinquency must address itself to the entire question with which the whole matter of juvenile delinquency is a part.

That is the business of the whole social environment, the social problem, the social system, which to a large degree influences the behavioral patterns we attempt to change and in most instances look to the change without at the same time trying to effect a change in the system which we feel goes a long way into those behavioral patterns we try to change.

We feel that the act, the prevention bill of 1967, can go a long, long way in this regard, because we at least find that the programs which

can be developed under this particular bill can be developed within the context of the community development and that basically deals with the social and environmental factors which surround the business of juvenile delinquency.

In that respect, we are talking of the basic business of jobs, education, housing, and the other substantive issues which we feel, if corrected, can go a long, long way toward getting at the very heart of the question of juvenile delinquency.

We suggest that the bill provides an opportunity to develop before, during, and after kinds of approaches to this development. We can go a long way toward getting some of the coordination we need which, if not provided, might not get with the available limited resources in our cities.

We take pleasure in noting the bill provides in section 103 planning grants which certainly can assist in community action oriented approaches which, if not, can really retard communities.

Mr. PUCINSKÍ. May I interrupt at this point? You did say, if I understood you correctly, that you are going to have the police chief of Philadelphia here this afternoon?

Mr. Echols. It is my understanding they are on the way.

Mr. PUCINSKI. If it is agreeable, why don't we recess at this point, and then we will resume at 2 o'clock in this room and take your testimony along with those you want to bring in, if it is agreeable.

Mr. ECHOLs. Fine.

Mr. PUCINSKI. Thank you, and I will have more members of the committee here at that time.

The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock this afternoon.

(Whereupon, at 12 noon, a recess was taken until 2 p.m., the same day.)

AFTERNOON SESSION

Mr. PUCINSKI. The committee will come to order.
The other members will be here very shortly, I am sure.

We interrupted our hearings this morning with Mr. Echols telling us about the Philadelphia program. We will now resume hearing the testimony of Mr. Echols, and with him, I understand, we have Chief Inspector Harry G. Fox and Mr. Phillip Carroll, director of the Philadelphia Police Department, appearing for Commissioner Bell, who. I understand, is ill today.

Will you gentlemen come forward and take your place at the table?

STATEMENT OF ALVIN ECHOLS, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, NORTH

CITY CONGRESS, PHILADELPHIA, PA.; ACCOMPANIED BY CHIEF INSPECTOR HARRY G. FOX, AND PHILLIP CARROLL, OF THE PHILADELPHIA POLICE DEPARTMENT

Mr. PuciNSKI. We are delighted to have you here, Mr. Echols. Will you resume the statement you were making this morning?

We have already had your statement, in its entirety, placed in the record. For the other members of the committee, I might suggest Mr. Echols is here representing a project in Philadelphia which was funded by the Delinquency Act of 11961. It has had some significant results in deterring and preventing delinquency. We would like his views as it relates to this legislation.

Please proceed.

Mr. Echols. I believe I was talking generally of the North Philadelphia Congress viewpoint in terms of how in the end we will have to work with juvenile delinquency as a preventive and to remove it as such, and, in summary, basically our position is whenever you have a tremendous number of people at the lower economic rung of our economic ladder, which are crowded into neighborhoods which are somewhat unlivable, to say the least, you begin to perpetuate a whole series of problems about which very few programs can deal until there are very substantive programs aimed at the business of reducing population density, improving the housing conditions, improving the educational system, and improving the employment system.

In the meantime, there are methods by which we can deal with the effects of the million that we are talking about and I would suggest these kinds of programs are valuable and do tend to ease the situation somewhat.

Some of them are very, very good, in fact. I think that the program which we have been operating for a period of a year, which was funded by the Office of Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Development in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, basically, falls into two categories.

One is training and the other is demonstration. With regard to the training part of our program, it has three components. One is a 2-day institute in which our North Philadelphia policemen attend a 2-day session dealing with the history of minority groups, the history of the force and factors that went into the production and creation of the community which is sometimes referred to as the ghetto, showing its relevance to their work as professional law enforcement officers.

At the same time, there is a workshop component which is both adult oriented and it has some experimental approaches to the youth in the community.

This program basically deals with some kind of educational process for the adult dealing with police problems, police administration, civil rights, civil rights administration, a preparatory scheme that permits both sides of our community which is basically one of the community and the patrolman, where neighborhoods are worked by the policeman, they are called joint sessions or confrontation sessions and they can get off their chests things that are necessary for cooperative enterprises in terms of cooperation.

The basic operation and purpose of the program was to improve police-community relations.

We approach the youth within the context of the adult-oriented effort by involving the youth in interaction sessions with the policeman as well as involving the youngsters in community organization activities.

There is some validity, probably more than we suspected initially, to give you an example, there was a very notorious gang in our community in and about the institution of Girard College and at the time of a civil rights protest movement with respect to that institution, and this particular gang gave its efforts totally toward the movement and

the leaders and the old heads in the process committed themselves to it and after the demonstrations were over, they stayed with the movement and only recently we find the gang being activated for other reasons.

It may well be when we can find ways and means to involve youngsters in the whole business of improving the social plight of the neighborhood in constructive ways, then we may find some real opportunities to get at the basic cause and to use the energies in more constructive ways.

Within the context of the communities like Philadelphia and particularly North Philadelphia where you have comprehensive type programs trying to get off the ground, such as the demonstration city programs and the Labor Department's impact program being applied to the same given area, with a substantial part of it dealing with youth, I think acts such as this before us today can be applied in a more meaningful way, because we are dealing with a whole series of problems which have to be resolved in order to get at the system which produces the conduct and behavior patterns we want to change.

We have to do something with the system that produces those patterns. That is in brief the type of thing we are doing in Philadelphia in trying to solve our problems.

I am sure Inspector Fox and my other good friend have more to say on the city's point of view.

The point we are advancing is the grassroots neighborhood organization which has attempted to work with the local administration and the police department to resolve a problem which was mutually troublesome to both.

Mr. FORD. I think it might be productive if we went ahead with the testimony and asked questions when you finish. Without objectionthere is no one here but me to object-we will have entered into the record at this point both the prepared testimony of Chief Inspector Harry G. Fox and Director Philip Carroll that has been submitted to the committee, and ask you gentlemen to proceed in whatever order you wish and make whatever additional comments you wish to make.

(The prepared testimony referred to follows:)

PREPARED TESTIMONY BY CHIEF INSPECTOR HARRY G. Fox, PHILADELPHIA POLICE

DEPARTMENT

Gentlemen, it is a privilege and an honor to be invited to testify and to present views before the General Education Subcommittee of the House Committee on Education and Labor.

The Philadelphia Police Department is vitally concerned with problems of juvenile delinquency and how to prevent its growth. A total of 24,800 youths of our City had direct contact with the Police Department in 1966. Ten thousand nine bundred and fifty boys and girls under eighteen years of age were arrested for various crimes and thirteen thousand eight hundred and fifty-one were apprehended and remedial action applied.

Certainly, a city that sees a segment of its youth engaged in murder, rape, rohbery, burglary, aggravated assault and other serious crimes must be concerned. That concern, in turn, must be reduced to action, in cooperation with all interested and dedicated agencies in the youth fields.

We note the purpose of H.R. 7642 is to promote provision of services and development of knowledge to prevent and treat delinquency.

With this as a statement of purpose, the Philadelphia Police Department strongly supports H.R. 7642, the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Act of 1967.

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