Global Climate Change: Hearings Before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, on the Science and Energy Policy Implications of Global Climate Change and International Agreements Regarding Greenhouse Gas Emissions, May 6 and 12, 1992, Volume 4
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992 - 427 pages
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actions activity addition aerosols agree Answer areas Assessment assume atmosphere average believe benefits billion calculations carbon dioxide cause century CHAIRMAN climate change Committee compared concentration convention cooling cost countries decade developing economic effect efficiency effort emissions energy environment environmental estimates example factors forcing fuel future global climate change global warming going greenhouse gases Hemisphere impacts important improve increase indicated industry IPCC issue less limited magnitude major Marshall Institute mean measures models natural observed occur ocean ozone Panel past percent possible potential predict present problem production projected Question radiative radiative forcing range recent record reduce regional require response rise scenarios scientific scientists sea level Senator significant solar statement suggest surface temperature tion uncertainties understanding United
Page 200 - Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
Page 39 - There are many uncertainties in our predictions particularly with regard to the timing, magnitude and regional patterns of climate change, due to our incomplete understanding of: • sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, which affecl predictions of future concentrations.
Page 39 - ... the size of this warming is broadly consistent with predictions of climate models, but it is also of the same magnitude as natural climate variability. Thus the observed increase could be largely due to this natural variability; alternatively this variability and other human factors could have offset a still larger human-induced greenhouse warming • the unequivocal detection of the enhanced greenhouse effect from observations is not likely for a decade or more.
Page 354 - The most significant uncertainty arises from the effects of clouds. The actual rate of warming over the next century will be...
Page 354 - Observation of this effect may be obscured temporarily by the larger natural variability and slower responses in these regions relative to lower latitudes. Rise in Global Mean Sea Level (very probable) — A further rise of 4-12 inches in mean sea level by the middle of the next century is generally estimated due to thermal expansion of sea water in the warmer future climate. Far less certain are the contributions due to melting and calving of land ice. Predictions of actual rise rates for mean sea...
Page 40 - Increases in the concentration of the greenhouse gases will reduce the efficiency with which the Earth cools to space and will tend to warm the lower atmosphere and surface. The amount of warming depends on the size of the increase in concentration of each greenhouse gas, the radiative properties of the gases involved, and the concentration of other greenhouse gases already present in the atmosphere. It also can depend on local effects such as the variation with height of the concentration of the...
Page 43 - Scenario A (SA90) events and new information have emerged which relate to that scenario's underlying assumptions. These developments include: the London Amendments to the Montreal Protocol; revision of population forecasts by the World Bank and United Nations; publication of the IPCC Energy and Industry Sub-group scenario of greenhouse gas emissions to 2025; political events and economic changes in the former USSR, Eastern Europe and the Middle East; re-estimation of sources and sinks of greenhouse...
Page 171 - Department of Commerce. The Department of Commerce, through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the...
Page 353 - My name is Jerry Mahlman. I am the Director of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) , in Princeton, New Jersey.
Page 39 - There are also a number of significant new findings and conclusions which we summarize as follows: Gases and Aerosols • Depletion of ozone in the lower stratosphere in the middle and high latitudes results in a decrease in radiative forcing which is believed to be comparable in magnitude to the radiative forcing contribution of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (globally-averaged) over the last decade or so. • The cooling effect of aerosols (*) resulting from sulphur emissions may have offset a significant...