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GWS Sea...

GPW

GC

GPW 1929..

GWS 1929.

H. III...

H. IV.

HR

H. V....

H. IX.

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UCMJ...

ABBREVIATIONS

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 12 August 1949.

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 12 August 1949.

Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Pris-
oners of War, 12 August 1949.

Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civil-
ian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949.
Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Pris-
oners of War, 27 July 1929.

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condi-
tion of the Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field,
27 July 1929.

Hague Convention No. III Relative to the Opening of
Hostilities, 18 October 1907.

Hague Convention No. IV Respecting the Laws and
Customs of War on Land, 18 October 1907.

Annex to Hague Convention No. IV, 18 October 1907,
embodying the Regulations Respecting the Laws and
Customs of War on Land.

Hague Convention No. V Respecting the Rights and
Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of
War on Land, 18 October 1907.

Hague Convention No. IX Concerning Bombardment
by Naval Forces in Time of War, 18 October 1907.
Hague Convention No. X for the Adaptation to Mari-
time Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Con-
vention, 18 October 1907.

Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific
Institutions and Historic Monuments, 15 April 1935.
Uniform Code of Military Justice (64 Stat. 108; 50
U.S. C. 551-736).

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Section I. Persons entitled to be treated as prisoners of war;

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VIII. Religious, intellectual, and physical activities. 110-114

44

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XIV. Relations of prisoners of war with the exterior. 145-153
XV. Relations of prisoners of war and the authori-

55

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XVIII. Information bureaus and relief societies for pris-
oners of war..

203-207

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60

62

72

83

84

*This manual supersedes FM 27-10, 1 October 1940, including C 1, 15 November 1944.

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parties to the conflict and to occupied terri-
tories__

IV. Aliens in the territory of a party to the conflict. 274-285
V. Regulations for the treatment of internees____ 286-342
VI. Information bureaus, central agency, and relief

266-273

106

108

112

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III. Rights of the population of occupied territory. 379-387
IV. Relief____

144

388-392

147

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wounded and sick in neutral territory------ 532–546
V. Neutral persons-

188

547-551

191

VI. Railway material..

552

192

APPENDIX: INDEX OF ARTICLES OF THE 1949 GENEVA CON-
VENTIONS AND THE 1907 HAGUE CONVEN-
TIONS..

INDEX..

194

198

CHAPTER 1.

BASIC RULES AND PRINCIPLES

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1. Purpose and Scope

Section I. GENERAL

The purpose of this Manual is to provide authoritative guidance to military personnel on the customary and treaty law applicable to the conduct of warfare on land and to relationships between belligerents and neutral States. Although certain of the legal principles set forth herein have application to warfare at sea and in the air as well as to hostilities on land, this Manual otherwise concerns itself with the rules peculiar to naval and aerial warfare only to the extent that such rules have some direct bearing on the activities of land forces.

This Manual is an official publication of the United States Army. However, those provisions of the Manual which are neither statutes nor the text of treaties to which the United States is a party should not be considered binding upon courts and tribunals applying the law of war. However, such provisions are of evidentiary value insofar as they bear upon questions of custom and practice.

2. Purposes of the Law of War

The conduct of armed hostilities on land is regulated by the law of land warfare which is both written and unwritten. It is inspired by the desire to diminish the evils of war by:

a. Protecting both combatants and noncombatants from unnecessary suffering;

b. Safeguarding certain fundamental human rights of persons who fall into the hands of the enemy, particularly prisoners of war, the wounded and sick, and civilians; and

c. Facilitating the restoration of peace.

3. Basic Principles

a. Prohibitory Effect. The law of war places limits on the exercise of a belligerent's power in the interests mentioned in paragraph 2 and requires that belligerents refrain from employing any kind or degree of violence which is not actually necessary for military purposes and that they conduct hostilities with regard for the principles of humanity and chivalry.

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