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the Board of Estimates was extremely antagonistic to the cause. He stated the people wanted a lower tax rate. "When I speak of Oral Hygiene you think in dollars and cents. Dollars and cents do not enter a cause where humanity's welfare is at stake."

The day before this request went to a final vote Dr. Brophy read a paper in Detroit before the Wayne County Medical Society. Being noted thruout the world famous oral surgeon

and earnest worker in the field of Oral Hygiene, an interview was sought by the press and I am pleased to state that his remarks were a great help to the cause. The following day I had the pleasure of wiring him that the appropriation had been allowed unanimously.

In reverting to the methods used to win over some of the Estimators, on one occasion we took to a meeting of the Estimators, children, one who had undergone a surgical operation for resection of the lower jaw where an unsightly scar was apparent, another, a child who had part of his palate removed for cancer; a water color having been made by an expert artist at time of operation. This picture together with the little fellow was shown and they had an opportunity to see the child in good health, due solely to an early operation made possible by dental inspection in the schools.

Just before the meeting was called a woman appeared at the Board of Health clinic suffering with septicemia.

It OCcurred to the writer that she should be presented with the others. She scarcely able to lift her feet from the ground. Her mouth was a sight to behold. Pus was oozing from her gums. When these cases were presented the Estimators who opposed the appropriation sat up and took notice. One Estimator stated

they were in the habit of having people come there and talk upon subjects of which they knew little and it appeared as words, words, words.

Many of these Estimators were worried now and when they saw these little children who had gone thru pain and disfigurement for life it appealed to their sympathies and they then saw plainly it really was a humanitarian work.

After the meeting the chairman congratulated the writer on the part he played in securing the appropriation. He stated that he never had antagonized an item in the budget as he had this one but as he had seen tangible evidence of the necessity for this work he was now a firm believer in our claim for Oral Hygiene and next year he hoped again to be an Estimator and if so he said, “I hope you will come to me early and I will give my voice for anything you ask.” It is gratifying to know that those who were the greatest enemies to the cause we were promulgating are now our staunchest friends.

Another salient feature of this propoganda was the fact that we had a united profession and our medical friends also loaned a helping hand. This year we have a dentist on the School Board, Health Board and now a dentist on the Board of Estimators whereby team work can accomplish much.

Dr. Ebersole said that some people have stated that they were tired of Oral Hygiene. "If you are tired of it it is because you haven't been active and haven't studied this thing or because your environment is not the proper one at this time." But go ahead with it for it is coming to be a living thing.

The appropriation asked for 1915 is thirty thousand dollars. (Applause.)






HE special researches that are be. ing conducted this year by the

Scientific Foundation and Research Commission of the National Dental Association are progressing very favorably. They are being made in the following places on the following subjects:

In the hospitals of the University of Minnesota, at Minneapolis, on the "Relation of Mouth Infections to Systemic Infections," under the direction of Thos. B. Hartzell, M. D., D. D. S., assisted by Harold J. Leonard, D. D. S., Arthur Henrici, M. D., and Miss Ruby Wilson.

In the University of Illinois, under the direction of Frederick B. Noyes, B. A., D. D. S., working on the problem of “The Dental Pulp and the Peridental Membrane."

In the University of Michigan, under the direction of Russell W. Bunting, D. D. Sc., assisted by U. G. Rickert, B. S., M. A., working on the problem of "Saiivary Analysis and Dental Caries."

In the same institution, under the direction of Marcus L. Ward, D. D. S., assisted by Ralph M. McCormick, B. S., on the problem of “Dental Cements.”

In Cleveland, and in the University oi Michigan, “Metallurgical Researches,' under the direction of Weston A. Price, D. D. S., M. S., assisted by Frank A. Fahrenwald, E. M., M. S.

In the Columbia University in New York City, under the direction of Williain

J. Gies, M. D., Ph. D., assisting him in researches on "The Relations of the Glands of the Internal Secretion to Dental Problems."

In Cleveland, under the direction of Weston A. Price, "Studies on the Identification and Differentiation of serious Mouth Infections," assisted by LeRue P. Bensing, A. B. (These studies are being made for the Commission, but owing to the limitation of the Commission's funds are being paid for by the Chairman.)

No money is paid to the directors of research for their time or services. The budget for this year's researches calls for $8,000.

The Research Commission has practically completed the details for the incorporation of "The Research Institute o! the National Dental Association." At a joint meeting of the trustees and officerz of the National Dental Association and the Scientific Foundation and Research Commission, held in Ann Arbor, on January 26th, those bodies unanimously endorsed the Certificate of Incorporation as prepared for the incorporation of "The Research Institute of the National Dental Association" and the proposed By-Laws for the working of same. We expect, in the near future, to be able to publish these documents in full with the announcement of the completed organization and its officers.

At the above mentioned joint meeting in Ann Arbor, it was voted to give the Research Commission and Institute a department of the “Journal of the Nationai Dental Association" in proportion to their needs. It is probable that in addition to the Research reports, this department will carry digests of the most recent researches being conducted outside our Commission's work which are of interest to the Dental Profession. It is also probable that a Scientific Question and Answer Department will be established. The members of the Commission will not presume to answer all these questions, but will undertake, if possible, to find some one who can, and the questions and answers will be published in this special department.

The responsibility of this Research Department, both to humanity and to the Dental Profession is enlarging at a very rapid rate. The large number of requests for information relative to our researches that are coming from the Medical Profession indicates that they are deeply anxious for all possible additional information bearing on oral problems at the earliest possible moment. The demands from the laity for medical and dental service involving the knowledge of the relation of dental infections to bodily diseases, emphasize the imperative need for more comprehensive and worthy effort for the securing of this information. The present scope of researches is so utterly inadequate to the present demand and need, that we cannot hope for worthy results without increasing the corps of workers. There are many good and competent workers available and ready if we had the money to pay them. We must earnestly appeal to those who have not made contribution to the support of the

research work, that they do so immediately. We have undertaken to get a fund equal to as many dollars per ar for five years as there are dentists in the United States, or $40,000.00 a year, or $200,000.00 for the five years. We have already secured between 1-5 and 14 of that amount from the dental profession and we are planning for at least 2-5 of it by July 1st. To accomplish this, it will be necessary that the subscriptions average between $5.00 and $10.00, since the great majority of the profession cannot be reached directly or indirectly. A great many mein. bers of the profession have already doubled their subscriptions. It is necessary for the dental profession to establish and carry on this work for a period of time while the endowments are being secured because endowments cannot be made available for some time.

The unprecedented support th: the dental profession has given to this great humanitarian movement is the strongest possible argument that can be had for securing en. dowments.

In behalf of the Commission, the Dental Profession, and Humanity, we wish to most cordially thank the members of the dental profession for their liberal support and increasing interest in this research movement.

Respectfully submitted,

THE EXECUTIVE BOARD, Weston A. Price, Chairman, Cleveland,

Ohio. Thomas P. Hinman, Vice-Chairman,

Atlanta, Ga. Clarence J. Grieves, Sec'y-Treas., Balti

more, Md. John Conzett, Dubuque, Iowa.' Eugene R. Warner, Denver, Colo.



Being a Report of Further Studies from the Scientific Foundation

and Research Commission of the National Dental Association.

By Weston A. Price, D. D. S., M. S., and Frank A. Fahrenwald, E. M., M. S.





HIS report has to do with the adaptability of these metals for

orthodontic appliances, bridge skeletons, or frames for casting or fusing upon, removable bridge wearing parts, connecting bars for saddles, crown posts and broaches for root canal work, and strengthening bars in cast compound inlays,etc.

Tungsten with its elastic content about twice that of steel, its melting point nearly twice that of platinum, its stiffness about six times that of 30% iridium in platinum, and with the remarkable property that it does not anneal or lose its stiffness and elasticity even when heated to the melting point of gold, makes it particularly adaptable for many parts of orthodontia appliances. We shall not presume to advise what principle of application of force shall be adopted what particular design of appliance will best secure its application but will suggest how we may adapt ourselves to some of the properties of these new metals and, in part, to what extent we may adapt them to our needs. After testing tungsten in practical use in expansion arches for about a year, and after extreme laboratory tests, we believe it to be superior for various forms of expan

sion arch to any metal that we have heretofore found for the following reasons. The required elasticity and rigidity can be secured with smaller sizes. Attachments of any kind may be made to it with pure gold or with any karat of gold solder, without changing its stiff

at the point of attachment, in the retracting arch shown in Fig. 1 C. The entire appliance and its connecting parts can be of such noble metals that not only is there practically no discoloration or oxidation of the appliance, but also with very slight electrolytic potential difference between the various parts, thereby reducing the electrolysis. A tungsten bow arch of .030 inch diameter, or approximately 21 guage, (See Fig. 1 B.) will have ample elasticity and rigidity for expansion arches for practically all children, with an efficiency equal to a gold clasp metal, iridio platinum or German silver bow arch of much larger size shown in A. When the threaded sections are used, they will be gold soldered to the bow or telescope, its squared ends as in the later forms of Angle appliance as shown in B.

This great elasticity of tungsten makes it particularly desirable and adaptable for the new type of adaptation ex



pansion arches, which are bent to conform accurately to the irregularities of the teeth and to which are attached fin. gers or pins, which enter into tubes on the teeth and thereby move them at will. (See Fig. 1 D.) A much smaller size of tungsten can be used for this purpose than.may be in the other metals and still have a large factor of stiffness for expanding the arch. The pins can be attached with any gold solder without dan. ger of softening or annealing the arch and the bends can later be taken out cold, if not sharp and if sharp by heating to a dull red while bending. We believe that

use smaller sizes and therewith secure even greater rigidity. It does not crystalize and break like gold clasp bar, and similar metals, under the strain of mastication, which force produces slight spring or bend continually. All orthodontists are familiar with this embarrassment.

Fig. 1 E. shows two pieces of tungsten under strain, demonstrating that they do not bend where they were soldered with 22k gold solder.

Tungsten is also particularly well adapted for all sorts of auxiliaries such as fingers, springs, supports and alignment arms, all of which may be attached with any of the gold solders, and their factors of strength is so large that they withstand the strain much better than ordinary metals. The tungsten is particularly well adapted for certain parts of removable orthodontie appliances, in which case it has several distinctive advantages, among which are the following:

Relatively less bulk for the same strength.

High elasticity for clasping over teeth.

Great strength for clamping parts; soldering with pure gold or any gold solders.

Easily cleansed.

We believe this type of orthodontic appliance will greatly increase in favor because of the particularly adaptable qualities of the tungsten and molybdenum. Tungsten is also well adapted for retainers for various forms of orthodontic plates, as well as for retainers of all other kinds of plates. While tungsten has

some very distinctively desirable qualities, it has some others to which

are compelled to adapt ourselves. Gold and gold solders do not readily flow on tungsten and molybdenum in an ordinary oxidizing atmosphere (See closing sentence), because while these metals resist oxidation at ordinary temperatures, they oxidize readily at high tem

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with this metal, with its very high factor of strength and elasticity, the orthodontic appliances of the future will be modified to place more of the appliance out 27 sight, with slender arms attached, passing over the proximal contact points to their points of attachment, producing practically the same effect mechanically that is obtained at present, but with much more sightly appliances. Where the pins on the adaption arch require elasticity the small sizes of tungsten are particularly suitable.

The tungsten will prove particularly advantageous for anchorage retainers of all kinds, after orthodontic movement, for the following reasons. Its very large factor of strength makes it possible to


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