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with water and brush alone. The result, as seen in Fig. 37, was a thoro cleansing of the tooth and a slight amount of wear. A similar test was made with vinegar, 12 sirength. The effect as seen in Fig. 38 was to reduce the thickness of the enamel about 1-1000 of an inch by actual measurement. In addition to this it left the surface of the enamel in a corrugated condition as shown in the cut, which seemed to indicate an uneven decalcification of the enamel. As a further test of the action of vinegar we subjected one-half of a tooth to vinegar onehalf strength for 30 minutes, at the end of which time it, together with its control were put thru the silver nitrate test. This was done with several teeth with the result in each case that the silver penetrated to a greater depth and to a considerably greater amount in the case of the half which was treated with vinegar. We do not claim that these are conclusive evidence but we feel that there is reason to believe that vinegar in 12 strength will have a decalcifying action upon the enamel of the teeth and aid in its being worn away by the brush.
The next specimen as shown in Fig. 39 was brushed with one of the pastes containing a fine grit. It did not seem to clean the teeth as well as did the water or vinegar, but rather gave them a smeary and yellowish appearance. The result obtained was far from satisfactory.
Figs. 40 and 41 were of teeth brushed with abrasive preparations which sulted in the cutting of deep grooves thru the enamel and into the dentin. They both bore a striking resemblance to the cases of severe "tooth-brush erosion” which are frequently seen in the mouth. The former of these which contained a coarse grit cleaned the teeth without polishing, leaving a dull surface, while the latter which had a fine grit gave the enamel a high polish and a white appearance.
The last of these series was made with the Dr. Jungman formula given above.
The teeth as shown in Fig. 42 show no wear but have taken on a high polish which is probably due to the tin oxide which it contains.
In concluding this work we feel that dentists should make a more close study of the properties of dentifrices which they are prescribing, and also the needs of the mouths in which they are to be used. In cases in which the saliva is viscous and deposits form upon the teeth with great rapidity making it difficult to keep the mouth clean, then a more abrasive dentifrice might be used to advantage. But in those cases in which the saliva is thin and the deposits few, an abrasive powder or paste is clearly not indicated. Rather should a fine and hydroscopic preparation be employed which will polish and clean the teeth without wear. The results which we have obtained serve also to call attention again to the importance of brushing the teeth in a vertical rather than a horizontal manner. Especially is this true in the case of the sharp preparations, which would have produced no such pronounced results as seen in the experiment had they been brushed lengthwise of the teeth. Let us then teach the people how to properly brush their teeth and then advise them as to the particular dentifrice which best suits their needs.
CONCLUSIONS. The density of the external ename! surface of the teeth is capable of change.
This change may be co-incident with the changes in bodily health and the calcium content of the saliva.
A consolidation of the enamel surface may be induced by continued polishing and rubbing in prophylactic treatment extended over a considerable space of time.
Results so far obtained warrant a further study and investigation of the calcium content of the saliva in its relation to the condition of tooth tissues and their susceptibility to dental caries.
THE DENTAL DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN
By Herbert L. Wheeler, New York City.
ETTERS from American dentists who are doing such noble work for
humanity, at the American Hospital of Paris reminds us that a few words telling of the efforts of such men as Drs. Geo. Hayes, W. B. Davenport, Isaac Davenport, of Paris, D. O. M. LeCron and C. W. Roberts of London, and others may be of interest to their colleagues in America who are members of the N. D. A.
This hospital was organized with a dental service under the direction of Drs. Hayes and Davenport at the beginning of the war. Under their skillful guidance the dental department began immediately to make its usefulness felt. Supported entirely by voluntary donations from Americans, its service for fractured jaw cases and kindred injuries is not excelled by any hospital in Europe.
Those serving there give their services and support themselves. An object lesson of the willingness of the American to sacrifice both time and money in the cause of his profession when occasion requires it.
With the settling down of the conflict on its western arena, to a system of trench warfare it has been discovered that a large number of those who are wounded in the trenches are shot in the left arm or in the face or jaw. This has increased the demand for dental service far beyond the ability of the available number of dentists to cope with it.
The work of the dental department of the American Hospital of Paris has been of such a character that ten other hos
pitals in Paris have made application to send Jaw Cases to this dental department. The service
started with chair, there are now six and six more are to be put in in order to meet the demands made upon it.
These American dentists who are carrying on this roble work are giving their time, while their practise is being neglected. They are not only doing a great service for humanity, they are at their own personal expense, contributing to keep up the standard and reputation of American dentistry abroad.
For this every dentist in America should feel a deep sense of gratitude.
Let us show our appreciation by contributing of our means to help keep up this service.
Last winter the First District Dental Society of New York City, instead of holding its annual banquet, gave a reception at which admission was charged, and the proceeds, some $300.00, was sent to this hospital in Paris.
Money for the dental service should be sent: For the Dental Department, American Hospital of Paris, Ambulance Lycee, Boulevard d'
Neuilly Sur Seine, Paris, France. Unless specified especially, red cross funds do not reach the Dental Department.
PROGRAM PANAMA-PACIFIC DENTAL CONGRESS.
San Francisco, Cal., August 29 to September 9, 1915.
(This is only a partial list of the papers, essayists and clinicians.)
The Evolution and Development of the Mandible.
Kansas City, Mo.
.Chicago, Ill. Research on the Resistance of the Red Corpuscles of the Blood of the Human
Gums (normal and pathological) to the Diluted Salt Solutions.
.Rome, Italy A Brief Synopsis of a Paper Entitled An Investigation of Mottled Teeth; an en
demis affection not heretofore known. By Dr. Fred S. McKay, of Colorado, in Collaboration with Dr. G. V. Black,
Chicago, Ill. The Value of Bacterial Vaccines in the Treatment of Pyorrhea. By Dr. Geo. B. Harris..
Detroit, Mich. Radiograph in Dentistry and Orthodontia. By. Drs. Brownlie and Ketcham....
Chicago, Ill. The Etiology of Dental Abscesses, Acute and Chronic. By Thos. B. Hartzell...
. Minneapolis, Minn, Acidemetris Study of the Saliva and Its Relation to Diet and Caries. By John S. Marshall..
.. San Francisco, Cal. An Investigation of the Character of the Various Dental Cements. By Dr. Marcus L. Ward......
. Ann Arbor, Mich. Some Regractory Materials Used in Dentistry. By Dr. Guy Stillman Millberry..
San Francisco Report on Dental Clinical Work in the Hospitals, Schools and Prisons in Ma
nila, P. I.
.Manila, P. I.
United States Army The Agencies in Ohio Co-operating in a General Hygiene Educational Campaign. By Dr. Homer C. Brown...
. . Columbus, Ohio. Hygiene of the Bucco Dental Cavity as an Important Auxiliary for the Prophy
laxis of Incipient Bucco-Pulmonary Tuberculosis. By Dr. Ernesto A. Dam......
.. Lima, Peru Bad Root Canal Work-What Shall We Do About It? By Howard R. Raper, D. D. S......
.. Indianapolis, Ind. Pain—Its Significance and Value as a Diagnostic Symptom-Its Advantages and
Disadvantages, and the Importance of Its Alleviation and Prevention.
.Ann Arbor, Mich.
... Pasadena, Calif. Therapeutic and Surgical Treatment of Roots and Their Adjacent Tissues. By Dr. I. F. Biddle....
. Pittsburg, Pa. The Therapeutic of Radicular and Fallicular Dental Cysts. By Prof. Dr. Rudolph Weish.....
. Vienna, Austria A Few Thoughts on the Comparative Anatomy of the Maxillary Sinus, Its Rela
tion to the Teeth Mandilcular Enticulation and Alimentary System. By Dr. Matthew H. Cryer....
Philadelphia, Pa. Radium Treatment of Carcenoma. By Dr. Oscar Strauss..
Milwaukee, Wis. A Case of Acromegaly. By Dr. P. Gaad..
. . Helsingford, Finland Etiology and Treatment of Oral Tumors. By Dr. Fulton Risdon...
.Toronto, Canada What is the Line of Occlusion. By Dr. R. Ottolengui.....
New York, N. Y. An Attempt Toward Automatic Connection. By Dr. Sulucana
. Spain Some Practical Uses in Dental Practice for Tungsten and Molybdenum. By Dr. W. A. Price....
.Cleveland, Ohio A Method of Surveying and Mapping the Dental Apparatus.
By Dr. F. L. Stanton..
...Dubuque, la, The Recessional Lines of Pulps in Their Relation to Operative Dentistry, By Dr. H. G. Chappel...
...Oakland, Cal. Operative Procedures in Relation to Dental Caries and Diseases of the Investing
. . Chicago, Ill. Anoci-Association in Dental Operations. By R. H. Reithmuller, ...
. Philadelphia, Pa. Technics in the Treatment of Pulps, Root Canal and Pericytical Area. By Dr. M. L. Rhein....
. New York, N. Y. Peridental Anesthesia, Intraosseous Method. By Dr. Frank L. Platt...
. San Francisco, Cal. The Successful Scientific Treatment of Periodontal Diseases. By Dr. T. Sydney Smith .....
...Palo Alto, Cal. Pyorrhea Alveolaris Showing the Pathological Changes Occurring in the Alveolus
Based on Microscopic Observation.
.Kansas City, Mo. The Entameba Buccalis as Seen Thru the Microscope Illustrated by Moving Pic
ture Film and Lantern. By Dr. Geo. H. Neilson..
.Cleveland, Ohio Crown & Bridge.....
H. J. Goslee, Chicago Some Fundamental Things in Dental Prosthesis. By Dr. J. Leon Williams...
. New York, N. Y. Some Grave Errors in the Practice of Crown and Bridge Work. By Dr. Vincenzo Guerini...
.Naples, Italy Indications and Construction of a Rubber Obturatoa that is Retained Only by the
Action of the Soft Tissues.
... Chicago, Ill. Some Educational Topic. By Dr. Edw. C. Kiels..
.Philadelphia, Pa. The Development of Dental Service in the Navy. By Dr. Emory A. Bryant.
.U. S. A. Nomenclature. By Dr. Arthur D. Black..
...Chicago, Ill. Dental Society Organization. By Dr. E. S. McCard...
Dr. Geo. H. Wilson...
. Chicago, Ill. New York City Philadelphia, Pa. . Cleveland, Ohio. London, England . Dubuque, lowa
Chicago, Ill. .... Atlanta, Ga. Minneapolis, Minn. Minneapolis, Minn. . Indianapolis, Ind.
. Stevens Pt., Wis. San Francisco, Cal. .Los Angeles, Cal. Philadelphia, Pa. .Seattle, Wash.
Denver, Colo. .Los Angeles, Cal. San Francisco, Cal.
...Oakland, Cal. San Francisco, Cal. . San Francisco, Cal.