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Dr. Edward C. Mills, Columbus, Ohio.

Discussions. Dr. L. M. Weaver, Philadelphia, Pa.

As the essayist has said-and this exonerates us for not being prepared to discuss this valuable paper-he has not submitted a copy to us for our consideration. I have had the greatest respect and honor for Dr. Black and his work in the organization of dental societies, and I am pleased that he is still carrying the work forward and is the live wire of instruction for those of us who need it. I would say that in Pennsylvania we have received valuable assistance from Dr. Black in his suggestions and have modified them to suit our requirements in organization, and I want to give Dr. Black due credit for what we have been able to accomplish. (Applause.)

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Dr. M, N, Forbes, Atlanta, Ga.

The method of conducting State Societies has been gone over very thoroly, and also the matter touching upon the units of strength in state organizations. As chairman of the organization committee, I have done some little field work in Ohio during the past year, and have had experience in some sections of the state where few, if any, men have ever attended more than one or two sessions of the State Society. Before an organization was attempted educational campaign was started, explaining our purpose and aims thru

an initiatory letter in substance as follows: Dear Doctor:-We expect the dentists

counties to organize a local dental society. A meeting of all the ethical dentists in this section will be called in the near future and we hope you will signify your willingness to co-operate in the work by replying on enclosed postal.

Organizations are being made thruout the state and in those counties which have local societies, where the men get together and talk over matters of mutual interest, both from a business and professional standpoint, there has been a decided improvement in conditions.

Some of these societies have for their object protection against people who think the world owes them a living; others for the advancement of good fellowship with an occasional dinner; others, scientific work; but most of them, a combination of these.

The plan on which the work is being carried on is as follows: All local societies to be made component parts of the State Society. The local society is the representative of the State Society in that district and a practitioner becomes a member of the latter only by being elected a member of the former. The entire membership of the State Society is thus composed of the membership of the local societies; each member to pay

Inasmuch as we were not enabled to read Dr. Black's paper, as Dr. Weaver says, it exonerates us. I would like to say this, as of everything else concerning Dr. Black's work and papers, they are well worthy of any consideration. Everything that he does, says or writes is worth while, and I am going back to Georgia and try to stimulate to some extent the officers of the Georgia State Dental Association in some of the work that he has told of today. After seeing what is being done by our research men, which proves to us and corroborates Dr. Black's statement that this is an era of new dentistry, we who have graduated previously must have some schooling after we leave college in order to practise this new dentistry, and

get this thru societies, the meetings and clinics. I want to thank Dr. Black for his excellent paper. I am only sorry that I did not have an opportunity to read it and study it, and I wish to thank him personally for the good service he has brought about. (Applause.)

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dues covering membership in the Local, State and National Societies, to the local society; the Treasurer of which is to forward to the Secretary of the State Society the State and National Societies' shares of the dues paid by each member. For the portion of dues sent to the Secretary of the State Society a member is entitled to all the privileges of membership in the State and National meetings, receives monthly the Dental Summary and the Journal of the National Association to be published in the near future.

The State Society furnishes, at its own expense, an essayist or clinician from its own membership, once a year, to a Component Society, on some subject the latter may select.

By this plan, men of each local organization pass on the qualifications of applicants to their own, the State and the National Associations and a forfeiture of membership in the former causes him to be dropt in the others.

This plan is increasing the membership of the existing local societies, the number of Components, the membership in the State and National organizations and the effectiveness and power of all dental organizations.

In union there is strength and an opportunity for the dissemination of new thought and professional progress; also, for an united effort on matters of importance to the profession.

Our committee desires your co-operation. Please assist us by a prompt reply. Yours very truly,

Chairman.

you expect it to develop into a unit of strength of the State organization. No State Society can afford to start a new society and then neglect it, to reorganize a society that has died is most difficult. Illinois State Society sends one clinician or essayist a year. In Ohio we have an understanding to that effect, but for the best interests of the cause we have been pursuing a more liberal policy, especially in some of our newly organized societies. One of these got three clinicians at its last meeting in June. That was the first meeting of the society since its organization in December. Why was that done? That society covered five counties in some of which the State Society had no representative. It was impossible for those men to come together oftener than twice year. There were forty-seven eligible men in those counties, and when the society was organized we had seventeen men in attendance. There is a possibility there for representation not only as an organized constituent of the State society but also for effective action on legislative matters, and that is a factor that must not be overlooked when we speak of our organization. Such society must have the careful attention of the State society or it will not live. We will give them another meeting in the fall and a better one than they had last spring.

When this society was organized there were seventeen men present and there were only two men who knew any of the others present or living in those five counties. One of the advantages of these societies is to get men together and get them acquainted, and after a while the men will come to these conventions to see those whom they know whether they hear or see anything else.

There has been a plan suggested that our state society provides that a legislative committee be appointed in each component society. At present we have but one legislative committee of three members in the State society, and all the

Little remained to be said in way of explanation as to the purposes of the meeting, after this notice, but it was not uncommon for the officers elect to inquire “What shall our duties be and how are we to conduct a dental society?" When you have organized a new society, you have planted there a tender plant-a plant that needs care and attention, if

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talk on the importance of organization, and what it means to have the men who represent them in Columbus know what their interests are." That gentlemen came down at the appointed hour, while the Constitution was being read for adoption. He gave a very interesting talk, after which he remained until the organization was completed, the papers read, and seemed greatly interested in the clinics. On leaving at close of the meeting he said: “This is one of the nicest meetings I have ever attended. These are representative men in this section, and their presence here indicates that they stand for the best interests of their profession, and I shall feel safe in supporting any legislative measure they indorse."

work in legislative matters devolves upon that one committee. No matter how strong or how weak they are, these component societies will take pride in the fact that they are are doing their part to help in the advance which we making.

Members of these legislative committees will feel the responsibility of bringing their section of the state into line on all matters of progress. They are personally acquainted with the representatives and senators of their section. They were boys together, used to swim in the same old swimming hole, and the friendships and associations of youth have become closer in the years of greater responsibilities. Alive to each other's interests, it is a mild request to ask their support of a bill for the promotion of their professional interests.

At present, it is up to the legislative committee of the State society to get acquainted with the legislators, timidly approach matters of legislation pertaining to dentistry, and in asking their support of a bill, they think you are trying to put something over on them, because the boys back home have not exprest themselves on the subject,--one man back home can do more with his representation than a hundred men present legislative committee, and we propose to try it out in Ohio this winter - so please watch results.

Last spring we went to a locality to form an organization. The interest was so luke warm that we felt our attempt would be a dismal failure. Before meeting any of the local men I called on the Senator of the district, who had an office there, and talked to him as tho acquainted with him thru his work at the Capitol. I said, “Now these men down here haven't the interest that they should have in the organization of a dental society, and I want you as a personal friend, and for the importance of the cause, to come to this meeting at three o'clock this afternoon, and give them a

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DR. C. R. E. KOCH, Chicago, Ill.

There can be no possible objection to every component society having a legislative committee, provided that committee works in subordination to and cooperation with the legislative committee of the state society. I think that unless there is solidarity there is great danger of some one in one section of the state going off with an idea and working it up without consulting the committee whose business it is to look after the general proposition, and in place of creating strength that would encourage weakness by bringing about confusion of ideas in place of concentration.

Several years ago the legislative committee of the Illinois State Dental Society had a proposition of this kind to handle. The legislative committee consisted of three men. A bill was introduced before the Senate and House which did not meet with a great deal of approbation on the part of the legislators, by reason of their lack of acquaintance with the subject matter. The legis. lative committee sent a letter to each of the 1700 members of the State society at that time, telling them, “You live in such and such an assembly district. Your

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senator and your representatives are thus and so. Write a letter to each senator and to each of your members in the House telling them to support this meas

Enclosed find a postal card. Advise the legislative committee on it that you have done so. The time to do it is now." Inside of seventy-two hours the legislative committee had 1200 of those cards back from members reporting that they had complied with the request. The legislative committee went to Springfield, and were met there by a number of members of the legislature who said "For Heaven's sake, pull off your dogs. We will give you anything you want, but don't send us any more letters, because we don't want to spend our time in answering them.” And our bill past (Laughter).

If there is a legislative committee in each component society, and every component society has a scheme of its own, it is clear that nothing worth while would be accomplished. I thank you. (Applause).

consolidation of societies in places where that seemed best, but practically we have maintained now, during a period of ten years, the component organizations as formed in 1904.

The dues of our society were $5 before we reorganized. We proposed to drop them to $2, in order to get in the large membership which we wanted. Many members of the Society were very skep. tical as to the future financial problems of our Society, but the result has been the same as it has been with every other society that has been reorganized, that once we were well organized, there was no trouble to get all the money we needed for every legitimate problem that was presented to our Society. There has been no time from that day to this when our Society has been seriously in need of funds; in fact, for some years we have had more than $5,000 out at interest, aside from paying the regular expenses of our Society.

Dr. Koch and Dr. Mills have spoken of some of the possibilities of such an organization. There is almost no limit. The basis, however, of all of the possibilities under any form of organization is that one thing Dr. Mills referred to, and that is, the establishment of a proper feeling of good fellowship among the men in each community thruout the state. When that is once done, there is absolutely no trouble to handle any other proper problem presented. In conclusion I want to say that I would not have you think from what was stated in my paper, that I think it advisable for a society to take up any one of these propositions which has for its main object the encouragement and development of every individual member of that society, to the exclusion of the present plans of conducting society programs.

The one thing which should be kept uppermost in the minds of the men in charge of the programs, is to nurse along the idea of individual study at every opportunity which presents, so that there

DR. BLACK: I was very glad that Dr. Mills presented the proposition of the management and encouragement of component societies, as I will have little to say on that subject. When we reorganized the Illinois State Dental Society in 1904, we jumped our membership in one year from 276 to 1250 and since then it has gradually increased until this year our Society has paid the dues of more than 1750 members into this Association. I would like to impress the fact especially upon those men who come from states which have recently organized, or are now considering the organization of their societies on this plan, that they have not before them a perfectly simple and easy problem, to keep all of these component organizations going along in nice and harmonious fashion. We have today 28 component societies in the State of Illinois. We organized the State into 30 districts in 1904, and the number has now been reduced by the

will be a gradual development to the end that more and more members will take up study problems. Committees which undertake this type of work expect to meet with a good deal of discouragement because of the difficulties involved, and they must feel encouraged

if they are able to carry along problems of this kind and make any reasonable progress with them, because there is no more difficult proposition for the dental society, and yet to my mind none more important. I thank you very much. (Applause.)

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