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This eleventh edition of the United States Code, prepared and published pursuant to section 285b of Title 2 of the Code, is a consolidation and codification of all the general and permanent laws of the United States in force on January 3, 1989. By statutory authority, this edition may be cited “U.S.C. 1988 ed.”. Previous editions were published in 1926, 1934, 1940, 1946, 1952, 1958, 1964, 1970, 1976, and 1982.
Because many of the general and permanent laws that are required to be incorporated in the Code are inconsistent, redundant, and obsolete, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives has been engaged in a continuing, comprehensive project authorized by law to revise and codify, for enactment into positive law, each title of the Code. When this project is completed, all the titles of the Code will be legal evidence of the general and permanent laws and recourse to the numerous volumes of the United States Statutes at Large for this purpose will no longer be necessary. Titles 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 23, 28, 31, 32, 35, 37, 38, 39, 44, 46, and 49 have been revised, codified, and enacted into positive law and the text thereof is legal evidence of the laws therein contained. The matter contained in the other titles of the Code is prima facie evidence of the laws.
The title and chapter structure of the 1982 edition, together with Supplement V thereto, has been substantially preserved, the only changes made having been necessitated by the enactment of legislation since 1982.
This edition was prepared and published under the supervision of Edward F. Willett, Jr., Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives, with the assistance of the West Publishing Company of St. Paul, Minnesota, which assisted in preparing all prior editions and supplements of the Code. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the staffs of the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, the West Publishing Company, and the Government Printing Office for their untiring efforts to make this edition as nearly perfect as possible.
Speaker of the House of Representatives
WASHINGTON, D.C., June 30, 1989.
Presidential Elections and Vacancies. Office and Compensation of President. Protection of the President; United States
Secret Service Uniformed Division. Delegation of Functions.
TITLE 4-FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOV.
ERNMENT, AND THE STATES 1. The Flag. 2. The Seal. 3. Seat of the Government. 4. The States. 5. Official Territorial Papers.
TITLE 2–THE CONGRESS 1. Election of Senators and Representatives. 2. Organization of Congress. 3. Compensation and Allowances of Mem
bers. 4. Officers and Employees of Senate and
House of Representatives. 5. Library of Congress. 6. Congressional and Committee Procedure;
Investigations. 7. Contested Elections (Repealed). 8. Federal Corrupt Practices (Repealed). 8A. Regulation of Lobbying. 9. Office of Legislative Counsel. 9A. Office of the Law Revision Counsel. 9B. Legislative Classification Office. 9C. Office of the Parliamentarian of the
House of Representatives. 9D. Office of Senate Legal Counsel. 10. Classification of Employees of House of
Representatives. 10A. Payroll Administration in House of Rep
resentatives. 11. Commission on Executive, Legislative, and
Judicial Salaries. 12. Contested Elections. 13. Joint Committee on Congressional Oper
ations. 14. Federal Election Campaigns. 15. Office of Technology Assessment. 16. Congressional Mailing Standards. 17. Congressional Budget Office. 17A. Congressional Budget and Fiscal Oper
ations. 17B. Impoundment Control. 18. Legislative Personnel Financial Disclosure
Requirements. 19. Congressional Award Program. 20. Emergency Powers To Eliminate Budget
Deficits. 21. Civic Achievement Award Program in
Honor of Office of Speaker of House of
Representatives. Page 1x
TITLE 5-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES
PART 1—THE AGENCIES GENERALLY
RESPONSIBILITIES 11. Office of Personnel Management. 12. Merit Systems Protection Board and Spe
cial Counsel. 13.
Special Authority. 15. Political Activity of Certain State and Local Employees.
TITLE 5-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION
55. 57. 59.
SUBPART F-LABOR-MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEE
RELATIONS 71. Labor-Management Relations. 72.
Antidiscrimination; Right to Petition Con
gress. 73. Suitability, Security, and Conduct. 75. Adverse Actions. 77. Appeals. 79. Services to Employees.
Plant Pests. 8. Nursery Stock and Other Plants and
Plant Products. 8A. Rubber and Other Critical Agricultural
Materials. 9. Packers and Stockyards. 10. Warehouses. 11. Honeybees. 12. Associations of Agricultural Products Pro
ducers. 13. Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges. 14. Agricultural Experiment Stations. 15. Bureau of Animal Industry. 16. Bureau of Dairy Industry. 17. Miscellaneous Matters. 18. Cooperative Marketing. 19. Cotton Statistics and Estimates. 20. Dumping or Destruction of Interstate
Produce. 20A. Perishable Agricultural Commodities. 21. Tobacco Statistics. 21A. Tobacco Inspection. 21B. Tobacco Control. 22.
Agricultural Marketing [Omitted or
Transferred). 23. Foreign Agricultural Service (Repealed). 24. Perishable Agricultural Commodities
(Transferred to Chapter 20A). 25. Export Standards for Apples and Pears. 25A. Export Standards for Grapes and Plums. 26. Agricultural Adjustment. 26A. Agricultural Marketing Agreements. 27. Cotton Marketing (Omitted or Repealed). 28. Tobacco Industry (Repealed). 29. Potato Act of 1935 (Repealed). 30. Anti-Hog-Cholera Serum and Hog-Chol
era Virus. 31. Rural Electrification and Telephone Sery
ice. 32. Peanut Statistics. 33. Farm Tenancy. 34. Sugar Production and Control (Omitted
or Repealed). 35. Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938. 35A. Price Support of Agricultural Commod
ities. 36. Crop Insurance. 37. Seeds. 38. Distribution and Marketing of Agricultur
al Products. 39. Stabilization of International Wheat
Market. 40. Halogeton Glomeratus Control. 41. Agricultural Trade Development and As
sistance. 42. Agricultural Commodity Set-Aside. 43. Foreign Market Development. 44. Wool Program. 45. Soil Bank Program. 46. Surplus Disposal of Agricultural Com