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Aside from this clinical picture one might ask the question “What has the impact of the Center been on the police ?" Other than arrest figures, man-hours, and increased efficiency, this question may never be answered fully. The impact on the patrol officers has been as remarkable as in any other area under study. Many who were openly skeptical of the treatment program have expressed unqualified enthusiasm as a result of some of the Center's success cases whom they have known. Some have even gone so far as to volunteer their services both on and off duty in any way that they might further the treatment program.

St. Louis has always had a non-punitive approach to the problem of public intoxication. At the individual level officers are so sensitized to this problem that they have donated clothing and other useful articles to the Center. The acceptance of the treatment program on the part of the line officers could not help but be recognized when investigators in this research began to hear of informal shuttling procedures being conducted so that an individual would be found in one of the districts being served by the Center.

Mr. ROGERS. And any suggestion you have as to how this could best be incorporated into the community health centers that we already have authorized.

This is most helpful, and this is what we need, some specific information.

Mr. PITTMAN. Thank you, sir.
Mr. ROGERS. Thank you.

The next witness is Mr. F. Morris Lookout, industrial representative, Tulsa Council on Alcoholism.

We appreciate your presence here.

STATEMENT OF F. MORRIS LOOKOUT, INDUSTRIAL REPRESENTA

TIVE, TULSA COUNCIL ON ALCOHOLISM Mr. LOOKOUT. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, my name is F. Morris Lookout, and I represent the Tulsa Council on Alcoholism, Tulsa, Okla., for which I serve as industrial representative.

It is indeed an honor and a privilege to appear before this distinguished committee and I thank you, Mr. Chairman, for the opportunity to testify in support of the Alcoholism Rehabilitation Act of 1968.

In my position with the Tulsa Council on Alcoholism, I am presently working with 30 business firms in the Tulsa area. Each of these firms now recognizes the significant impact of alcoholism on their company productivity. They also know by experience that it is much more profitable for them to treat their alcoholic employees and to rehabilitate them than it is to deny that the problem exists and to discharge summarily those employees with drinking problems.

This enlightened concept is now implemented by many firms of the Nation's business community. Eastman Kodak, North AmericanRockwell, Western Electric, Pittsburgh Plate Glass, and many other major firms across the country have recognized the economic feasibility of rehabilitating alcoholic employees who, aside from drinking problems, have proven to be productive employees.

I deal primarily in education, yet I know only too well there must be a balance between education and treatment. I know that before an alcoholism rehabilitation program can work for a company, it must have therapeutic resources to which the alcoholic employee can be referred. In Tulsa, and throughout Oklahoma, such facilities are rare and, in terms of the need, totally inadeqnate.

Thus, in view of the Supreme Court decision to be handed down within the next 2 months, which is likely to make it unlawful to hold alcoholics criminally liable for public drunkenness charges, the very limited number of facilities now available for treatment of company employees and others with less complicated cases of alcoholism will be overwhelmed with caseloads found by the courts to be alcoholics.

The provisions of title III, part A, of H.R. 15758 would make possible, immediately, the implementation of a much-needed alcoholism treatment program within the Tulsa Community Mental Health Center and other community mental health centers throughout Oklahoma. Without new facilities we face the same grave situation as was the case here in the Nation's Capital following the Easter decision.

Comprehensive programs of alcoholism care and control must become a part of the pivotal, basic institutions of our society. The provisions of title III, part Á, of H.R. 15758 will provide a very constructive beginning to such needed comprehensive programs. It will provide a stimulus to legislators and to a broad spectrum of allied professional disciplines. And, as more and more of these key persons become interested and involved, more professionals will seek the training provided by title III, part A, of H.R. 15758.

That industry is vitally concerned throughout Oklahoma, not only in their own obvious stake in the problem of alcoholism but in the broader social and cultural implications, is evidenced by the fact that I am an ex officio member of the Tulsa County Bar Association, serving as technical adviser to its grievance committee, and I also serve as technical adviser to the Tulsa Division of the State Department of Corrections. These extra activities resulted from my industrial contacts.

I am a full-blooded American Indian and have a great interest in the problems of the Indians in this country, and I know that alcoholism is one of the most serious of those problems. I also know that, in those municipalities with a significant Indian population, the Indian continues to be jailed for public drunkenness on the slightest provocation. Yet the major proportion of these Indians are suffering from the illness of alcoholism. They should be treated as sick people and not as criminals.

I am therefore doubly pleased with the provisions of the alcoholism bill, title III, part A, H.R. 15758. It will serve a longstanding need from the business community standpoint, it will provide congressional intent that all alcoholics should be treated medically and not as criminals, and it will provide Federal resources to help accomplish a more humane and effective method of dealing with this tremendous problem in all communities.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. ROGERS. Thank you very much. We appreciate the testimony you have given.

Mr. Nelsen?

Mr. NELSEN. I have no questions. I wish to compliment the gentleman for his appearance. I wondered, are you acquainted with Congressman Reifel from South Dakota?

Mr. LOOKOUT. No, I am not.

Mr. NELSEN. He is a Sioux Indian, and he speaks the Sioux language. He is a competent Member of Congress, and he is very concerned about

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the American Indian. He served with the Indian Bureau for a number
of years. You should meet him while you are here.

Mr. LOOKOUT. I will do this. Thank you.
Mr. ROGERS. Dr. Carter?

Mr. CARTER. I want to compliment the gentleman on his excellent presentation.

Mr. ROGERS. Our next witness is Richard S. Cook, Chief, Division of Alcoholism, Illinois Department of Mental Health, Springfield, Ill.

STATEMENT OF DR. RICHARD S. COOK, CHIEF, DIVISION OF ALCO

HOLISM, ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH; ACCOM-
PANIED BY WILLIAM N. BECKER, JR., ASSISTANT CHIEF, ALCO-
HOLISM PROGRAMS

Mr. Rogers. The committee is delighted to have you here with us this morning. We will make your statement a part of the record following your summary. If you will, just sum it up for us.

.
Dr. Cook. I would like to introduce to you Mr. William N. Becker,
Jr., who is assistant chief of the alcoholic programs in our State.
Mr. ROGERS. We are delighted to have you with us, Mr. Becker.

,
Dr. Cook. Mr. Becker has worked for many years with alcoholics
in our State institutions. I have worked an equally long time with
emphasis on outpatient care.

I would like to bring to you the wishes of Hon. Gov. Otto Kerner, who yesterday indicated that I should convey his request to you for the passage of this bill.

Also, the director of our department of mental health is in full support of this legislation.

I would like to read part of my statement to you.

The State of Illinois has forged ahead in providing a continuum of services on a statewide basis. We believe that bill, H.R. 15758, is a wise, timely, and urgently needed step in the right direction.

We urge its passage to provide the leverage enabling the delivery of a full range of services to alcoholics at different levels of sererity and varying stages of their illness.

In endorsing this bill wholeheartedly we feel it incumbent to remind the committee that at present with the combined facilities available we treat less than 10 percent of the alcoholics in Illinois.

This bill reflects the needs of the Nation and has been hammered out of pooled experience of thousands of people in close cooperation with the legislators here in Washington, D.C. Those of us working in this difficult field believe that this pending legislation shows that you have heard us and have written down pronouncements and rules that go a long way to establish direction with us and to implement our efforts to gain control over this vast public health problem.

I would like to turn to the situation in Illinois to illustrate how well this legislation can fit with the progress in the State with regard to comprehensive community medical centers and comprehensive community mental health centers.

While it is occurring throughout the State, I would like to focus on the metropolitan area of Chicago, where the problem of alcoholism is especially acute.

In Chicago the city has been divided into many areas for medical and mental health planning. Plans are being made as rapidly as possible, translated into actual programs involving construction, assembly of staff, and offering of services.

It is most timely that we in the section on alcoholism programs be enabled to urge the appropriate authorities to include in their planning, programing, and services a complete continuum of care for the alcoholic in Chicago.

We believe that the time is now for reestablishing the alcoholic as a legitimate patient for coverage in every mental health, public health and welfare program. We believe each community throughout the State should provide the entry and some responsibility for the continuum of services for the alcoholic, and that it can be obtained through a program as provided in this bill.

We have been successful in Chicago in persuading some general hospitals to accept alcoholics for treatment during the acute phase of intoxication. We are providing a program of follow-up care designed to meet the need of each particular patient.

This comprehensive service for the alcoholic is in accordance with other welfare programs throughout the State.

To carry out this conception of establishing facilities for alcoholics in all of the newly planned and realized medical, mental health, public health, and welfare programs we need the provisions of this bill which amends the Community Mental Health Centers Act. We have plans, we have ideas for special facilities, and we are eager to carry through with research.

We urge that you make these hopes and visions attainable through enactment of this legislation.

(Dr. Cook's prepared statement follows:)

STATEMENT OF RICHARD S. COOK, M.D., CHIEF, ALCOHOLISM PROGRAMS,

STATE OF ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH

The State of Illinois has forged ahead in providing a continuum of services to alcholics on a statewide basis. We believe that Bill HR-15758 is a wise, timely, and urgently needed step in the right direction. We urge its passage to provide the leverage enabling the delivery of a full range of services to alcoholics at different levels of severity and varying stages of their illness. In endorsing this Bill wholeheartedly we feel it incumbent to remind the Committee that at present with the combined facilities available we treat less than 10% of the alcoholics in Illinois.

This Bill reflects the needs of the Nation and has been hammered out of pooled experience of thousands of people in close cooperation with the legislators here in Washington, D.C. Those of us working in this difficult field believe that this pending legislation shows that you have heard us and have written down pronouncements and rules that go a long way to establish direction with us and to implement our efforts to gain control over this vast public health problem.

It is clear that three powerful forces are tied together by this Bill. One force is the combined effort of the 50 states to deal with alcoholism and to find ways and means of coping successfully with its many aspects. This involves highly trained specialists in increasing numbers who have reflected and expended great effort to learn about alcoholism. This force has been substantially aided by grants from such agencies as NIMH, VRA, and other Federal agencies.

The second force which exerts power by accelerating change is that of the Federal courts. The pending decisions by the Supreme Court regarding the status of the chronic alcoholic is setting in motion already many agencies, public and private, which must meet the potential thrust of new conditions. If it comes to pass that the acutely intoxicated man cannot be arrested for public intoxication if he is a chronic alcoholic, then the jail must be replaced by health agencies in

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dealing with the chronic alcoholic. It is not news that available facilities are woefully inadequate to measure up to the consequences of the possible Supreme Court decision.

The third force is that of the Congress of the United States which can act to consolidate the power of the national effort thus far and the possible tumultuous consequence of the Supreme Court action. The enactment of favorable legislation could add the greatest impetus to the national effort in the management and rehabilitation of the chronic alcoholic.

Thus, we from Illinois see greatly the immediacy and necessity of the passage of this superbly conceived bill.

I would like at this inoment to turn to the situation in Illinois to illustrate how weil this legislation could fit with the progress in the State in regard to comprehensive community medical centers and comprehensive community mental health centers. While it is occurring throughout the State, I would like to focus on the metropolitan area of Chicago where the problem of alcoholism is especially acute.

In Chicago the city has been divided into many areas for medical and mental health planning. Plans are being made as rapidly as possible, translated into actual programs involving construction, assembling of staff, and the offering of services.

It is most timely that we in the Section on Alcoholism Programs be enabled to urge the appropriate authorities to include in their planning, programing, and services a complete continuum of care for the Chicago alcoholic.

We believe that the time is now for re-establishing the alcoholic as a legitimate patient for coverage by every new medical, mental health, public health, and welfare program. We believe sincerely that each community throughout the State should provide the entry and some responsibility for this continuum of services for the alcoholic and that it can be most effectively attained through a comprehensive alcoholism program, as provided in Bill HR-15758. We have been successful in Chicago in persuading some general hospitals to accept intoxicated alcoholics for treatment during the phase of acute intoxication. Following the medical management we are providing a program of follow-up care which will be designed to meet the particular needs of each patient. This comprehensive planning of services for the alcoholic is in accord with other health and welfare planning programs throughout the State.

To carry out this conception of establishing facilities for alcoholics in all of the newly planned and realized medical, mental health, public health, and welfare programs we need the provisions of this Bill which amends the Community Mental Health Centers Act. We have plans, we have ideas for special facilities, and we are eager to carry through with research. We urge that you make these hopes and visions attainable through enactment of this legislation.

Mr. ROGERS. Thank you very much.
Mr. Nelsen?
Mr. NELSEN. No questions.
Mr. ROGERS. Dr. Carter?
Mr. CARTER. No questions.
Mr. ROGERS. I recall the testimony received from the Bureau of
Mental Health in operation in Illinois, and from the Governor, too,
and the work that you had done there served as a model, somewhat, in
drawing this legislation.

Do you anticipate these centers will be run in conjunction with your community mental health centers?

Dr. Cook. We are trying to provide treatment of alcoholics, but we feel we need funds through grants to enable the alcoholic to be treated.

Mr. ROGERS. Would you anticipate that perhaps a wing would be built onto the community mental health center?

Dr. COOK. Yes, it could work like that. I talked to Dr. Paul Neilsen, who is head of the Mile Square Area Community Mental Health Center, and in his plans, he envisages a building for, say, the care and treatment of alcoholics after the acute phase. He is willing to treat them in his hospital for acute intoxication and then have an aftercare program in another building less expensive to operate.

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