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The concept of career education has been accepted almost entirely by the State school systems and implementation is being attempted in a number of local schools, both with and without Federal funding. The State advisory councils have also uniformly expressed their approval, but are concerned that there is no full-fledged definition of career education, that little is being done in either preparing new or retraining present teachers and counselors in the practicum, and that admittedly inadequate vocational education moneys are being siphoned off to fund career education programs and projects. Councils are calling for elementary and secondary education funds to be allocated to career education. Unless and until this is done, they see no real commitment to the concept by Federal, State and local education officials.
Topic. The articulation of curricula and programs between the secondary and post-secondary schools.
Cooperation between secondary and postsecondary school administrators, curriculum specialists and teachers in order to provide for a rational progression of subjects matter and skill development is improving.
Topic.-Meeting the goals and objectives of the State Plan.
Councils were unable to determine whether or not many State plan goals were being met because of lack of quantifiable objectives. On the one hand, councils were of the opinion that a number of specific goals were being met and exceeded, but on the other hand, other goals seemed too low or too unrealistic for the needs of target groups or special programs.
Topic. The statement of State Plan goals and objectives.
Councils found that State plans generally do not explicitly state all goals in measurable terms. A rather common expression of concern in this matter is that the State plan is not a planning instrument but rather a compliance document for the U.S. Office of Education. Several councils reported that they are working closely with their State departments in developing meaningful and measurable goals and objectives.
Topic. Accessibility of vocational education at the post-secondary level.
While the largest percentage increase in enrollment and programs in vocational education is taking place at the post-secondary level, the demand for programs at this level far outweighs available facilities, according to many councils.
Topic.-Relevance of vocational education programs at the secondary level.
The councils expressed concern that program offerings were quite traditional and did not reflect the labor market needs of new and developing technologies in industry, business and the professions. Topic.--Serving the needs of the disadvantaged and handicapped. Councils were concerned about the low percentage of the disadvantaged and handicapped being served by vocational education in their States. Problems ranging from lack of a valid system for identifying these target groups to lack of special programs to meet their needs were listed.
Councils found that postsecondary institutions offered fairly wellorganized job placement services for their students, but the contrary was true for secondary schools. The council's urged their State departments to encourage local education agencies to appoint special full-time job placement officers or counselors who would be responsible for placement of students in work-study and cooperative education programs while they were in school, and to assist them in obtaining jobs upon graduation.
Topic-Utilization of local school system and school programs advisory committees.
During the past 2 years, a number of State councils have studied the existence and utilization of advisory committees by school systems and individual school vocational programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Most of the councils reporting on this matter feel that advisory committees can contribute a great deal to the success of vocational education programs, and were disappointed to find that a majority of the school programs do not have any form of advisory committee.
Topic. Utilization of manpower projections and other demographic data in planning for vocational and technological education.
While some councils found that vocational educators in their States were adequately involved with manpower planning agencies, they found a pervasive problem concerning the interpretation and use of labor market data. A number of States are developing computerized systems for making projections of labor market needs related to vocational education programing and planning. While the State councils generally support such efforts, concern was expressed by some that the search for precise data is overshadowing efforts to apply the knowledge of the current data, imprecise as it is.
Topic.- - Utilization of private schools for vocational programs. Councils found that some State departments are not taking into account the existence and contribution of propriety trade schools in their manpower development plans. Several councils reported that their State departments are not utilizing propriety schools at all for vocational education; other councils reported wide use of these schools.
Topic. Funding of vocational and technical education.
Councils expressed dissatisfaction with the formulas being used by State departments for funding local school system vocational programs because cognizance was not being taken of the extra costs involved in offering vocational education. The Michigan State Advisory council sponsored a statewide research study which determined these extra costs for both secondary and postsecondary level programs.
Councils also expressed concern with the amount of Federal and State moreys available for vocational education, pointing to the paucity of such funds as a basic reason for vocational education serving a much smaller proportion of individuals than the number who desire and need such education and training.
Topic. Educational and Vocational Counseling.
Almost every State council expressed concern about the need for more counselors qualified to provide career counseling and job place
ment services to students. While sympathetic to the problems of funding such staff, councils were uniformly emphatic that priority be given to the improvement of vocational counseling services. The councils were particularly critical of present counselor training programs, both preservice and inservice.
Topic.-Teacher education and training institutions.
Those councils reporting on programs for inservice professional development of career education teachers expressed considerable dissatisfaction. However, a number of councils whose State departments were receiving Federal funds for the professional development of vocational teachers were most hopeful that considerable improvement could be expected, particularly in those instances in which the State department had appointed a full-time staff member to organize and promote teacher development programs at both the preservice and inservice levels.
A. CURRENT RECOMMENDATIONS
WHAT RECOMMENDATIONS HAVE THE STATE ADVISORY COUNCILS ON VOCATIONAL EDUCATION MADE AS A RESULT OF THEIR EVALUATION ACTIVITIES DURING THE 1971-72 SCHOOL YEAR?
1. The board should clearly state in part II of the 1974 State plan the long-range goals and objectives and annual continuing and expanding activities. Objectives and activities should be stated in measurable terms for each vocational program service by program levels and target groups, and made available to local boards of education, technical institutes, and junior colleges so as to permit advance planning by the local agencies.
2. The board should include all nonreimbursable vocational and vocationally related programs by local boards of education and junior colleges in its vocational information reporting system.
3. The board should study the job bank activities of the State employment service and make the manpower demand information. available to local boards of education, technical institutes, and junior colleges for local planning.
4. The board should place a hierarchial ranking based on projected moneys available for the continuing and expanding activities reflected in part II of the 1974 State plan.
3. The board should design, develop and implement by the end of the 1974 fiscal year a program cost information system for vocational
6. The board should design, develop and implement by the end of the 1973 fiscal year a systems approach for State level planning. The system should identify the necessary elements in the planning process and show the interrelationship and interdependencies between and among the local and State level information elements, and portray the flow of information with network target dates.
7. The State board should establish by the end of the 1974 fiscal year. State level performance objectives for vocational programs and determine to what extent the local agencies are meeting thse objectives. The board should also provide annually to each local program administrator a comparison analysis of the local agenev's a performance with other agencies in the area and state as a whole.
The board should provide the necessary resources to collect and or develop, package and disseminate curriculum guidelines and other related instructional media for elementary school occupational awareness and orientation programs.
9. The board should intensify and expand its efforts to seek ndditional vocational education moneys and develop a State plan which encourages local boards of education, vocational technical institutes,
and junior colleges to provide a balanced program in vocational education.
10. The board should develop an annual local vocational program application format which will permit local educational agencies to describe programs, services, and activities.
11. The board should establish and distribute to local boards of education, technical institutes, and junior colleges by the end of the 1974 fiscal year minimum and maximum enrollment standards for vocational programs. These standards should be based on a studentteacher ratio and facility utilization criterion.
12. The board should adopt a resolution recognizing vocational student organizations as an integral, functional part of the vocational education curriculum.
13. The board should establish certification requirements and encourage institutions of higher education to develop undergraduate teacher education programs for prevocational teachers.
14. The board should encourage the development of vocational programs for females with emphasis on preparation for dual roles, that is, direct attention to preparation for marriage and work.
15. The board should establish during the 1973 fiscal year a functional task force consisting of vocational educators and State employment service personnel to study the manpower demand and supply functions under the cooperative agreement.
16. The board should intensify and expand its effort in seeking and interfacing of annual State and local plans in education, vocational education, manpower development, social services, and economic development.
17. The board should adopt a resolution indicating that vocational courses, including specialized trade and technical, be open equally to males and females. It should be recognized that merely removing artificial enrollment barriers will not suffice. It will be necessary to enlighten females and parents on the wide range of career opportunities now opening to women.
18. The board should develop guidelines and provide consultative service to local boards of education for the effective use of advisory councils on vocational education.
19. The board should require local educational agencies to appoint local advisory councils on vocational education and program advisory committees.
20. The board should provide the necessary resources to collect and/or develop, package, and disseminate curriculum guidelines for planning and implementing competency based instructional systems in vocational education programs.
21. The board should adopt a resolution encouraging intersystem and interinstitutional cooperation so that resources already available can be used effectively and efficiently to provide vocational education services without regard to geographical jurisdiction.
22. The board should design, develop and implement by the end of the 1974 fiscal year a comprehensive vocational student followup system. The system should include previous and present employment patterns, curriculum adequacy information, job satisfaction information and job satisfactoriness information from employers.