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b. General Description of Job Training Programs
Part B occupational preparation programs have experienced an even greater rate of growth since 1963 than was true for all vocational programs, including vocational home economics. This growth amounted to approximately 140 percent in the 10 years since 1963. Programs relative to the mining and construction industries and in the service and health occupations have enjoyed significant growth in relation to job opportunities in these areas. Particular attention has been given to planning vocational education programs in local educational agencies to meet current and projected manpower needs. These needs have been identified through local and state planning efforts and involvement of the Comprehensive Area Manpower Planning System offices, the West Virginia Department of Employment Security, and business and industry in local educational agency service areas. While this approach has been effective in determining broad occupational areas which offer a significant level of employment opportunity, there is a critical need for more definitive information concerning specific manpower requirements for program planning purposes.
The need for an "early warning" system, which will allow for necessary lead time for program planning, development, and operation purposes in relation to emerging occupations, if of critical importance. The development of a comprehensive data system, currently underway in the State in regard to vocational education, should eventually encompass manpower information and be of considerable value in this regard. Despite recognized shortcomings, there has been remarkable expansion and improvements of vocational education occupational preparation programs throughout the State during the last decade.
c. Postsecondary Courses
There are three types of institutions in West Virginia which offer postsecondary vocational education programs. These are the area Vocational schools operated by county boards of education and junior colleges and community colleges operated by the West Virginia Board of Regents. The community college movement is currently getting underway in West Virginia with some community colleges functioning as independent institutions directly under the West Virginia Board of Regents and others being established on an existing campus of a college or university which is, in turn, under the board of regents. Accurate data is not available as to the proportion of enrollment by type of institution in past years. This information should be available in the future with development of the comprehensive data system.
While the total enrollment in post secondary programs of 2,685 in 1972 may not seem large, it does represent a significant increase from 252 in 1963. Furthermore, a projected increase to 7.290 by 1977 indicates that further expansion of postsecondary level programs is both necessary and desirable.
d. Disadvantaged Students
Enrollment data differentiating special needs and regular program students is not available prior to 1972. While efforts were made to
enroll disadvantaged students in vocational education programs as the result of the 1963 Vocational Education Act, the effectiveness of this effort was never documented until the requirements of the 1968 Vocational Act Amendments were legislated. In 1972, some 2.702 students, identified as being disadvantaged. were enrolled in vocational education programs in West Virginia. The enrollment of 7,000 such students is projected for 1977.
The individualized nature of vocational education instruction, designed to assure progress of the student at his particular level of competency, has resulted in many disadvantaged students (students classified as disadvantaged according to specific established criteria) being able to succeed in regular vocational programs. Federal Regulations, which require that a student not be able to succeed in a regular vocational program in order to be eligible for disadvantaged program funding, serve to limit access of disadvantaged students into special programs since, in many cases, their special needs are being met in regular programs. This fact should be considered by those who interpret enrollment data for purposes of program evaluation and accountability since, enrollment figures may indicate that few students are being served. Additionally, the complex fiscal accounting procedures encountered in using earmarked disadvantaged funds for students enrolled in regular vocational programs has virtually forced use of the project approach, in which disadvantaged students are enrolled in special programs designed to meet their specific needs. Despite problems encountered in administering programs serving disadvantaged students, the special project approach has stimulated the development of a number of innovations in meeting vocational education needs of the disadvantaged target population.
e. Handicapped Students
Enrollment data for handicapped students is not available for the years of 1963 and 1968. A total of 895 students were enrolled in special programs in 1972 and projections for 1977 indicate that 1,500 students will be served in such programs. Considerable progress has been made in West Virginia with regard to the development of programs for the handicapped. Conceptually the West Virginia program poses a three-phase approach to occupational preparation for handicapped persons.
1. Phase I. Exploratory
Consisting of prevocational activities to include vocational assessment and occupational diagnosis.
2. Phase II. Occupational Preparation Programs
In which vocational education is provided in a shop or laboratory setting.
3. Phase III. Job Placement Evaluation and Follow-up Where the student is placed in a job, evaluated and moved into the mainstream of employment. Followup procedures designed as part of the comprehensive data system are being developed.
Cooperation with special education and vocational rehabilitation is being maintained both at State and local levels. Each agency provides for appropriate supportive services in local level projects for handicapped persons.
The status of adult enrollments relative to those served in job training (preparatory) programs and those served in retraining (supplementary) programs is indicated on the following page:
TABLE III-WEST VIRGINIA ENROLLMENTS IN ADULT PROGRAMS
Definitive information concerning adult education enrollments under part B are not available beyond an actual head count by type of program. A comparison of part B adult enrollments with Manpower Development and Training Act enrollments for the years specified are as follows:
TABLE IV-WEST VIRGINIA COMPARISON OF PART 8, ADULT AND MDTA ENROLLMENTS
Training under the Manpower Development and Training Act has been extremely effective in reducing unemployment and increasing the productivity of the work force in West Virginia. Enrollments in these programs increased from 318 in 1963 to 1,386 in 1968 and 1,528 in 1972. There are no projections for MDTA training in 1977 since, the present act expires on July 1, 1973. However, it this legislation is continued, 750 training slots are needed for fiscal year 1974. State funded retraining programs accounted for 752 persons being prepared to enter new occupational fields during 1968. The need for these two programs for training ad retraining the so-called "hardcore" unemployed in West Virginia is a critical necessity.
g. Financing-Distribution of Federal and State Funds for Part B Programs
The formula for distribution of funds for vocational education in West Virginia gives consideration to a number of factors which relate to specific criteria outlined within the legislation and Federal regulations. These criteria include:
1. Manpower needs and job opportunities within the local educational agency service area,
2. Vocational education needs of the population within the local education agency service area,
3. The relative ability of the local aducational agency to provide resources in support of vocational education programs and services and,
4. The relative costs of programs, services and activities provided by local educational agencies.
Funds allocated in support of construction are awarded on a project basis according to specific criteria which have been developed in relation to capital expenditures. These criteria include the:
1. Ability of the local educational agency to finance construction with local funds.
2. Degree of relationship between proposed program offerings and local, State and national manpower needs projections.
3. Adequacy of current vocational education facilities and the amount of construction funding received by the local educational agency in the past.
4. Placement record of present vocational programs offered by the local educational agency.
5. Need for vocational education in terms of target populations and numbers of persons to be served in vocational programs.
Funds allocated to operating programs are distributed in accordance with a mathematical formula incorporating the following variables as they exist in the local educational agency service area: 1. Effective assessed valuation per pupil.
2. Per capita personal income.
3. Dropout rate.
4. Unemployment rate.
5. Economically depressed area.
6. Manpower needs and job opportunities. 7. Excessive costs.
8. Vocational student contact hours.
The mathematical formula, incorporating the above variables, is designed to make the resulting weight of the variables relative between local educational agencies. To determine local educational agency allocations for each purpose indicated in P.L. 90-576 the factor for each variable is computed in the following manner:
1. Effective assessed valuation per pupil is computed by dividing the State arithmetical mean effective assessed valuation per pupil by the local educational agency mean effective valuation per pupil.
2. Per capita personnal income is computed by dividing the State mean per capita income by the local educational agency per capita income.
3. Dropout rate is computed by dividing the local educational agency percent dropout rate by the State mean percent dropout rate. 4. Unemployment rate is computed by dividing the local educational agency percent unemployment rate by the State percent unemployment rate.
5. Economically depressed area is indicated as "1" if the local educational agency service area is identified as being economically depressed and "0" is not economically depressed.
6. Manpower needs and job opportunities rate shall be computed by dividing the 55 counties into five groups through ranking according to number in labor force, the group of 11 counties having the largest labor force being assigned a weight of highest value -10.
The remaining groups of countries are to be grouped into four sections with assigned weight in descending order.
7. Excessive costs. Excessive costs for vocational education programs are not readily discernible from an analysis of accounts. To accommodate excess costs a constant factor shall be used in the formula. The assigned weight shall be 10.
8. Vocational student contact hours refers to the cumulative number of hours students spend in vocational instruction per week computed by multiplying the students enrolled times the number of contact hours per individual student.
Each variable will then be weighted and factor values determined. Factors values for all variables in the formula will then be added to arrive at a numerical total weighted point value for each local educational agency.
It is the formula that brings together the points earned on the several variables and enables them to be applied against the money to be allocated resulting in the local educational agencies receiving their proportionate share of the funds for the particular purpose upon consideration.
The ratio of the local educational agency point value to the sum of point values for all local educational agencies is then multiplied by the amount available for distribution to arrive at the exact local educational agency allocation for the particular purpose.
Local Educational Agency Points
Sum of all points for all Local Educational Agencies
Amount available for distribution=Local educational agency allocation
h. Construction and Equipment
Many of the advances, which vocational education has made in West Virginia during the past 10 years, have been due to increased funds which have been made available for constructing and equipping vocational education facilities. The continuation of this growth will be dependent upon the continued availability of funds from both State and Federal sources.
Table V below indicates the funds expended from Federal and State and local sources.
TABLE V WEST VIRGINIA FEDERAL-STATE AND LOCAL FUNDS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT