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ress each has made toward program objectives and/or tentative research findings.

Jointly the council, the staff of the State board of education and board of governors of the community colleges should hold a series of workshops to improve communications and disseminate information regarding vocational and career education programs for the disadvantaged.

Appropriate research in the area of the disadvantaged should be undertaken to determine whether program efforts are having a measurable impact in helping the disadvantaged.

Vocational Area Planning

The council should be assigned responsibility and staff support to provide central coordination of the area planning committees as provided for under education code article 10.4, section 6268. Comprehensive Manpower Information

The State board of education and board of governors of the community colleges should assist and support HRD in its efforts to secure funds from the Department of Labor in order to establish a viable manpower data system and to assist HRD in its effort to establish the development and implementation of a manpower data system as a priority item in its program of work.

The council should assist the Joint Committee on Vocational Education and the joint occupational preparation task force prepare a position statement supporting the specific recommendations made by the Governor's manpower policy task force concerning the need for a comprehensive economic and manpower data center and forward it to the State board of education, board of governors of the community colleges and HRD.

In conclusion, the California Advisory Council on Vocational Education and Technical Training believes the State's vocational education program to be one of the more effective programs in the Nation. The council is also supportive of the California vocational education delivery system and recognizes its many strengths.

In order to assist the council in becoming more effective in making its evaluation of the vocational education system and its various components, the council must become more autonomous (as provided in Public Law 90-576) and apart from rather than a part of the system it must evaluate. Public Law 90-576 requires that State advisory councils be totally independent from State boards of education so that they can be objective in their evaluations and recommendations.

Therefore, the council presents two final recommendations:

That the council administrative staff by legislation be made. exempt from civil service to preclude conflicts of interest in making evaluations of programs.

That a portion of part C funding for research activities be set aside for use by the advisory council for its research and evaluation projects.


1. The State board for community colleges and occupational education, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Education,

develop and implement a State plan for local implementation of career education in Colorado. In our opinion, there is an urgency in developing and implementing the career education concept in Colorado.

2. A system to account for the number of persons trained for employment in private schools and by business and industry should be developed.

3. Action should be taken on improving the quantity of guidance and counseling in Colorado schools. Our recommendation in the 1971 report relative to counselor certification should be an appropriate starting point.

4. Action should be taken to add emphasis to and expand the adult vocational offering in Colorado.


1. We recommend that the department of education move immediately to a method of prepayment rather than reimbursement to fund occupational programs.

2. Given our finding that 4 out of 10 of the priority towns had no programs for the handicapped, we recommend the rigid implementation of the activity required within part 1 of the State plan that the department of education establish a list of communities by priority of need and establish a policy of working closely with a feasible number of the priority list communities to develop programs appropriate to need by providing maximum technical assistance leadership and funding to those communities.

3. We recommend that the board of education explore through the management section of the State of Connecticut Budget Division, the technical assistance facilities of the U.S. Office of Education, and such other resources as may be appropriate, how best its various activities can be reorganized so that the department is better able to meet the needs of the handicapped and disadvantaged.

1. We recommend that the department of education utilize section 3.25 2 of the State plan with greater flexibility than heretofore so that school districts which cannot afford a local share and therefore will not submit a program which may be particularly needed, will be encouraged to utilize the Federal funds established to meet the students needs.

Section 3.25 2 reads as follows:

Reasonable Tar Effort,--No local education agency with taxing authority which is making a reasonable tax effort will be denied funds for the establishnept of new vocational education programs solely because it is unable to pay the ron Federal share of the cost of such programs,

Taxable wealth and taxation efforts are essenti:l aspects of a community's ability or inability to cope with its needs. A tax effort index will be obtained by dividing the town's grand levy by the equalized grand list The da'a necessary for this will be available from sources such as the State department of education, the Connecticut Expenditures Council, and the Connecticut Education Association and will be revised annually.")

Further, the Council suggests the board use the broadest possible interpretation so that up to 100 percent funding could be provided

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to those cities which are high on the priority list descrebed under recommendation 2 above.

5. We recommend that the State board insure that local school district officials understand clearly that the funds available under Public Law 90-576 go directly into a special separate account and may be used only for the vocational program for which they were approved.

6. In order that no handicapped citizen of the State be overlooked, we recommend that the division of vocational education. create a list of the handicapped by name, handicap and age of (initially) children grades 4 through 12.

7. We recommend that these names be arranged by school district on the need priority list recommended under (2) above.

8. We recommend that the board of education, recognizing that many handicapped citizens are in public or private institutions, take immediate steps to identify their numbers, age, handicap, and locations.

9. We recommend that the department recognize that the U.S. Office of Education, Bureau of Vocational and Technical Education, requires divisions of vocational education to provide funding to meet the needs of individual handicapped students in local school districts. Also that the meeting of such individual need shall have equal priority for funding with programs involving groups of the handicapped within school districts. Therefore, working with the division of special education and with local districts, and with private rehabilitation agencies in relation to the lists recommended in (6) and (8) above, the department should actively seek to develop individualized programs and fund them.

10. We recommend that whenever a mutually satisfactory program to serve the handicapped requires transfer of funds to another State agency or institution, the prepayment method of funding be used. Thus, the State Department of Personnel will be in a position to create the necessary new positions in the agency without delay. 11. We recommend that in the use of section 102(b) funds, the department should treat the department of correction in the same manner as any other school district. Namely, that these funds shall be used to demonstrate program effectiveness over a short time period, and that alternative sources of funding be developed so as to free the section 102(b) funds for reallocation on a 100 percent funding basis in other school districts.

12. We strongly recommend that the board commit increased funds to program evaluation both by State personnel and more particularly by outside contract evaluation. This becomes imperative since at our meeting of November 2d, the board's staff felt that not even 20 percent of programs can be evaluated given the present policies and staffing. It is only through such evaluation that information on successful programs can be disseminated and that a firm foundation for establishing a priority of program type and funding be effected.


We recommend that the Governor of Delaware and the task force on education appointed by him regenerate enthusiasm for the con

cepts inherent in the earlier recommendation, and establish at the earliest date, the council on education in Delaware to meet the broader needs for which it was originally intended and, also, to meet the requirements for participation in the Education Amendments Act of 1972.

Under the same reasoning, a State advisory council on career education, with perhaps subcouncils with certain overlaps in membership to serve components of occupational, postsecondary and vocational education should be established to serve the Strike commission, the state agency and the various policymaking State boards. Proliferation of these advisory bodies would be a mistake which would tend to defeat the purposes of specific input, coordination of evaluation activities and practical, workable advice.

In this regard, Delaware is microcosmic enough, as stated often, to offer a laboratory and a model for the Nation while, at the same time, helping herself.

We recommend that the Delaware General Assembly reconsider each of the above recommendations for action in the coming year. It is essential that the timetable for full availability of vocational programs be continued as a priority.

It is further recommended that each local district authorized to construct career education centers be required to employ, at the director or assistant superintendent level, an individual with qualifications, certification and experience equal to those required of the State director of vocational education, and that the general assembly provide the support, above and beyond current unit allocations for administrators, for this purpose.

A more concentrated effort upon the development of programs for persons with special needs is of particular necessity in Delaware and, as such, should be considered a priority.

We recommend that the State board of education, the State superintendent of public instruction and the department of public instruction continue to consider career education and its primary component, vocational education, as the No. 1 priority in the State; that they exercise their positions of leadership to influence change, where change is necessary, innovation, when traditional practices do not produce desired results, and additional support, which is always necessary; that they reinforce their efforts to secure State and Federal funds, local acceptance and support, and professional, business, and public enthusiasm to make Delaware the model state in career education; that they communicate their positions, goals, and objectives, particularly the unpopular ones, maintain their courage in the face of resistance to necessary adjustments, and answer their critics with programs of positive action.

Representatives from all components of the community were involved. In addition to close consultation with the advisory council members and staff, the State planning department, the department of labor, the State department of administrative services and private consultants specializing in manpower projections were involved. There were numerous other organizations and individuals who participated in the development of the State plan. The general public had three opportunities to react to the document.

The result is a State plan for vocational education in Delaware that is based on statewide goals and objectives, is understandable,

both to those it will affect and those who will effect it, and is practical, in terms of implementation in consideration of funding realities.

We recommend that the department of public instruction undertake activity to communicate a further refined State plan for vocational education to the local districts and provide the assistance necessary to upgrade all local plans, which form an excellent basis for further coordination of efforts; that they also communicate the priority components of the long-range goals to the State board of education and thereafter to the State legislature and the executive branch in Delaware; that the local school districts adopt and support such priorities so that they may become positive legislative action, if necessary, and secure adequate financial underwriting; that the State administration, the general assembly and the public accept the refined plan as a mandate which will assist in making career education a reality rather than a concept.

We recommend that the institutions of higher education in Delaware start all over again; that they realize that they have an important function to serve that goes beyond administrative recognition, faculty senates and foundation support; that they evaluate their present role and responsibilities in the community; that they form a strategy to meet that role and those responsibilities in the form of a short-range and long-range plan for career teacher education; and that the State of Delaware, including the executive branch, the general assembly, the department of public instruction, private foundations as well as our Federal partners, withhold all categorical assistance for occupational, vocational, and career education to these institutions until such a plan, a complete plan, which incorporates State goals and objectives, is acceptable to the agencies involved.

We recommend that the department of public instruction design a delivery system for State and Federal funds from their sources to the local school districts that will allow more adequate lead time in planning, organizing, and implementing new programs; that the Department of Public Instruction include, if necessary, such a delivery system in its legislative priorities; that the General Assembly consider acceleration in the increase of Division II funding. which will automatically provide more support for the operation of occupational and vocational programs; that the State board of education direct money saved as a result of adoption of recommendations in section V of this report to an intensive program of inservice training in career education for all teachers in the State to be conducted by Department of Public Instruction staff; that the General Assembly reconsider also the adoption of a realistic program for the repair, retirement and replacement of worn and obsolete instructional equipment; that all parties concerned exert greater than token effort to make vocational youth organizations truly integral to all programs of instruction in career education.


Finding. A close examination of the structure and progress of staffing of the Department of Career Development programs has

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