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and State moneys. All annual local district planning instruments submitted to the State should include a section attesting knowledge, by signature, of the chairman of the local system general committee. Any remarks about agreement or disagreement with the plan may be added at the discretion of the local advisory committee.

The council also strongly urges that individual course or craft committees also be formed, and that they have representation on the general committee.


The sample survey indicated that generally the local advisory committee is organized and does provide to the local school valuable advice which is used in program development. An example of increased emphasis in this area is the 60 percent increase this year in secondary home economics advisory committees. Some teachers have indicated that the committee is the real catalyst for the success of the program. However, a few (14) teachers who were interviewed expressed a concern that there was inadequate provision for community and industry input into the goals of the program. Secondary school advisory committees seem to be less effective than those at the postsecondary level.

Several of the schools contacted by the council have indicated they are working closely with employers, through advisory committees, to gain a perspective on local manpower needs, and are developing curricula with this information in mnid.


The council recently completed a statewide evaluation of local Vocational advisory committee activity. Input from business, industry, and the local community is a vital factor in adapting vocational programas to individual and community needs. The local advisory committee is an important aid in achieving communication between school and community and is a worthy, time-proven practice in vocational education.

As a result of findings from the study, the council recommends a more extensive use of local vocational advisory committees be mandated in Nebraska. It is especially concerned that 12 percent of the schools have no local advisory committee activity and another 30 percent are informally organized. There should be evidence of greater participation of the advisory committee in preparation of the local plans for vocational education.

Management of a local advisory committee is a key to its efficiency and effectiveness. Assistance in setting up a local vocational advisory committee may be received from the consultants of the division of Vocational education. In addition, all vocational teacher education agencies should include the management of local vocational advisory committees as part of their inservice and preservice teacher preparation.


The council recommends that the State board of education encourage additional participation on the part of community leaders, industry, labor, and affiliated groups in the design and implementa

tion of career-based curriculum projects. The council also recommends:

(a) Increased diversified cooperative work experience pro


(b) Contracting with businesses and industry for the purpose of utilizing facilities and personnel for career exploration and training.


The lack of business, industry, and lay citizen involvement in program development and implementation was evident in a number. of programs. It was further found that:

1. Some teachers were allowing very poor practices to be used by students.

2. Additional facilities and equipment are needed to support occupational education programs in many schools.

3. More cooperative education opportunities are needed in both secondary and postsecondary institutions.

The council recommended that:

1. Emphasis on safety practices in classrooms, shops, and laboratories (and information about State and Federal laws and regulations) should be given additional attention by State staffs and teacher education institutions.

2. Continued emphasis by the State board of education (and also by the colleges and universities in the State) must be placed on the professional development of persons administering occupational education programs.

3. The State board of education should continue to encourage and emphasize business, industry, and lay citizen involvement at all levels in program development, implementation, and evaluation.


Industry is involved in the State's vocational education programs in several ways. First, many businesses are involved in cooperative education programs. Second, each local program has businessmen serving on local advisory committees. As near as can be determined, these local advisory committees are active and a valuable part of the local vocational programs.


While the division of vocational education does require the estab lishment of local advisory committees before the approval of any new programs, the council had recommended in last year's report that the division insist that local administrators of vocational education make more extensive use of local advisory and craft committees. The council had also recommended assigning a full-time person to this responsibility in the division.

Again, in the current report the council recommended that the board continue emphasizing the use of local advisory committees. A research project funded by the council revealed:

1. Only one-half the schools studied used advisory committees: 2. Local citizens are willing and anxious to serve as members of advisory committees;

3. The extent to which advisory committees are used appears to be related positively to the breadth and depth of vocational offerings in the schools.


Business and industry are involved in the redirection of 25 vocational and agricultural programs in 12 schools leading toward cooperative agribusiness. Industry involvement is concerned with de termining the value of new methods and materials compared with old basic core curriculum.

The council recommended to the State board for vocational-technical education that provisions be made for strengthening local advisory committees for vocational programs by making them part of the formal application process for local reimbursement. The council also recommended that the State board require local districts to make effective use of local advisory committees during the school year 1972 73; and by 1973-71 such committees should be made mandatory as part of the legal contract between the board and the local districts. Two factors were responsible for this strong action:

(a) The council's conviction that local advisory committees can assist in making instruction more relevant to local and regional occupational demand needs, and contribute to better employment opportunities for graduates. Al-o if career education is to become a reality, State agencies must work more closely with concerned community and business leaders in local districts, as well as with local school administrators.

(b) A study conducted by the State department the previous year indicated that despite the specific provisions for use of local advisory committees in the State plan, nearly two-thirds of the vocational and technical teachers throughout the State do not have the assistance of advisory committees. Of those who do, nearly 9 out of 10 teachers find the committees beneficial.

While the State department agrees with the council as to the benefits of local advisory committees, it is still stressing voluntary, rather than the mandating compliance, recommended by the council.


Considerable concern has been expressed that general advisory and local craft advisory committees in Pennsylvania are not being utilized as effectively as they might be. Early evidence of this situation was revealed in the comprehensive 1969 study of vocational education in Pennsylvania. Unfortunately, this is not uncommon among other States.

Effective results from advisory committees can be attained only if individuals serving on the committee know what their functions and responsibilities are, and are given every opportunity to contribute their expertise to the development and improvement of vocational education programs. It appears that a number of vocational administrators do not take full advantage of the expert assistance available from members of general advisory and craft committees. Every local adminrator needs such assistance in the

development of overall vocational education programs to meet defined labor market needs in a given geographical area. Craft committees should be continuously involved in curriculum review and program changes.

Requirements for the designation of general and craft advisory committees could be included in an appendix to the administrative policies (part I) section of the State plan for vocational education including the duties and responsibilities of all advisory committee members. Other requirements, such as minimum number of meetings during each school year and recorded minutes of each meeting should also be specified.

Perhaps, at least on a pilot basis, some regular or periodic communication could be put into effect between the State advisory council and some local advisory committees. Such regular communication back and forth could have the effect of stimulating and maintaining the interest and participation of the local committees.


The council, in cooperation with the South Dakota Industrial Development Expansion Agency, held six public hearings designed to elicit lay citizen viewpoints concerning vocational education in the State. The council also sent a 20-question questionnaire to 120 employers (65 percent responded) in order to secure information which will be beneficial to vocational education program planning. Some of the major findings were:

1. Strong support for career education.

2. The postsecondary schools are doing a good job of preparing students to meet the business and industrial employment needs. 3. Despite great strides, vocational education in South Dakota is still behind the times in terms of new and expanded training. courses, and programs.

4. Need for the vocational schools to establish and maintain close communication with employers.

5. Need for students to receive on-the-job training while still in school.


Local school district plans for vocational education which must be submitted to the State department are required to give strong emphasis to the development of local advisory committees. The council considers these efforts as significant, and worthy of continuation. The Council points out that such committees must be well organized, have carefully planned and conducted meetings. involve their membership, and meet at least once per month.


In December. 1971, 200 school districts in the State who have ancillary vocational personnel (vocational administrators, supervisors, and/or counselors) were sent questionnaires regarding local advisory councils or committees.

These 200 districts are the largest of the 935 districts in the State that offer vocational programs. They represent about 80 percent of all students in the State.

Responses were received from 193 of the 200 districts located in 116 of the State's 254 counties.

Districts were asked to respond with information as follows: 1. Number of members.

2. Who appoints members?

3. Length of term.

4. Number of meetings per year.

5. Whether or not minutes or records were kept of meetings. 6. Who serves as the council spokesman?

7. Were guidelines available?

8. Who established guidelines?

9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the council, 'committees. The above information was requested for what was identified as local councils, meaning that this body represented all programs in the school district. Program committees are formed for occupational areas such as agriculture, distribution, health, etcetera, and craft committees are formed for specialities within the programs, such as welding, cosmetology, etcetera.

The summary of the responses on the district or community councils is as follows:

1. Sixty-two percent of the councils had from 7 to 9 members with 20 percent having less and 18 percent more than 9 members. 2. Less than 2 percent of the councils were appointed by the board of education. 54 percent by the superintendent, 23 percent by the local director of vocational education, and the remaining 20 percent by various officials such as principals, supervisors and teachers.

3. Thirty-nine percent served 1-year terms; 40 percent 2-year terms; 3 percent 3-year terms; and 18 percent served longer or indefinite terms. All districts except one indicated the council memhers could be reappinted.

4. Frequency of meetings of council: 5 percent meet monthly: 14 percent meet each semester; the remaining 81 percent meet as called. 5. Minutes and records of the meetings were kept by 36 percent; 8 percent reported no, and the remaining 56 percent said that minutes and records were kept only as needed.

6. The chairman of the council was the official spokesman in So percent of the cases, and vocational personnel in the remaining 20 percent of the cases.

7. Guidelines were reported as being available in 80 percent of the school districts.

8. Guidelines were established by the following: 8 percent by the board: 7 percent by the chairman: 26 percent by school administration: 23 percent by local vocational administrator; 15 percent reported the State: and the remaining 21 percent said the vocational supervisor, teacher, or others.

9. An evaluation was asked for concerning the council's effectivehoss in carrying out its five major functions. These functics were rated on a 1- to 4-point basis:

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