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(5) The term "new product" means (A) a product the equitable or legal title of which has never been transferred to an ultimate purchaser, or (B) a product which is imported or offered for importation into the United States and which is manufactured after the effective date of a regulation under section 6 or section 8 which would have been applicable to such product had it been manufactured in the United States.
(6) The term "manufacturer" means any person engaged in the manufacturing or assembling of new products, or the importing of new products for resale, or who acts for, and is controlled by, any such person in connection with the distribution of such products.
(7) The term "commerce" means trade, traffic, commerce, or transportation
(A) between a place in a State and any place outside thereof, or
(B) which affects trade, traffic, commerce, or transportation described in subparagraph (A).
(8) The term "distribute in commerce" means sell in, offer for sale in, or introduce or deliver for introduction into, commerce.
(9) The term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
(10) The term "Federal agency" means an executive agency (as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code) and includes the United States Postal Service.
(11) The term "environmental noise" means the intensity, duration, and the character of sounds from all sources.
SEC. 4. (a) The Congress authorizes and directs that Federal agencies shall, to the fullest extent consistent with their authority under Federal laws administered by them, carry out the programs within their control in such a manner as to further the policy declared in section 2(b).
(b) Each department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Federal Government—
(1) having jurisdiction over any property or facility, or
(2) engaged in any activity resulting, or which may result, in the emission of noise,
shall comply with Federal, State, interstate, and local requirements respecting control and abatement of environmental noise to the same extent that any person is subject to such requirements. The President may exempt any single activity or facility, including noise emission sources or classes thereof, of any department, agency, or instrumentality in the executive branch from compliance with any such requirement if he determines it to be in the paramount interest of the United States to do so; except that no exemption, other than for those products referred to in section 3(3) (B) of this Act, may be granted from the requirements of sections 6, 17, and 18 of this Act. No such exemption shall be granted due to lack of appropriation unless the President shall have specifically requested such appropriation as a part of the budgetary process and the Congress shall have failed to make available such requested appropriation. Any exemption shall be for a period not in excess of one year, but additional exemptions may be granted for periods of not to exceed one year upon the President's making a new determination. The President shall report each January to the Congress all exemptions from the requirements
of this section granted during the preceding calendar year, together with his reason for granting such exemption.
(c) (1) The Administrator shall coordinate the programs of all Federal agencies relating to noise research and noise control. Each Federal agency shall, upon request, furnish to the Administrator such information as he may reasonably require to determine the nature, scope, and results of the noise-research and noise-control programs of the agency.
(2) Each Federal agency shall consult with the Administrator in prescribing standards or regulations respecting noise. If at any time the Administrator has reason to believe that a standard or regulation, or any proposed standard or regulation, of any Federal agency respecting noise does not protect the public health and welfare to the extent he believes to be required and feasible, he may request such agency to review and report to him on the advisability of revising such standard or regulation to provide such protection. Any such request may be published in the Federal Register and shall be accompanied by a detailed statement of the information on which it is based. Such agency shall complete the requested review and report to the Administrator within such time as the Administrator specifies in the request, but such time specified may not be less than ninety days from the date the request was made. The report shall be published in the Federal Register and shall be accompanied by a detailed statement of the findings and conclusions of the agency respecting the revision of its standard or regulation. With respect to the Federal Aviation Administration, section 611 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (as amended by section 7 of this Act) shall apply in lieu of this paragraph.
(3) On the basis of regular consultation with appropriate Federal agencies, the Administrator shall compile and publish, from time to time, a report on the status and progress of Federal activities relating to noise research and noise control. This report shall describe the noisecontrol programs of each Federal agency and assess the contributions of those programs to the Federal Government's overall efforts to control noise.
IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR NOISE SOURCES; NOISE CRITERIA AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
SEC. 5. (a)(1) The Administrator shall, after consultation with appropriate Federal agencies and within nine months of the date of the enactment of this Act, develop and publish criteria with respect to noise. Such criteria shall reflect the scientific knowledge most useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on the public health or welfare which may be expected from differing quantities and qualities of noise.
(2) The Administrator shall, after consultation with appropriate Federal agencies and within twelve months of the date of the enactment of this Act, publish information on the levels of environmental noise the attainment and maintenance of which in defined areas under various conditions are requisite to protect the public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety.
(b) The Administrator shall, after consultation with appropriate Federal agencies, compile and publish a report or series of reports (1) identifying products (or classes of products) which in his judgment are major sources of noise, and (2) giving information on techniques for control of noise from such products, including available data on the technology, costs, and alternative methods of noise control. The first such report shall be published not later than eighteen months after the date of enactment of this Act.
(c) The Administrator shall from time to time review and, as appropriate, revise or supplement any criteria or reports published under this section.
(d) Any report (or revision thereof) under subsection (b)(1) identifying major noise sources shall be published in the Federal Register. The publication or revision under this section of any criteria or information on control techniques shall be announced in the Federal Register, and copies shall be made available to the general public.
NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED IN COMMERCE
SEC. 6. (a) (1) The Administrator shall publish proposed regulations, meeting the requirements of subsection (c), for each product
(A) which is identified (or is part of a class identified) in any report published under section 5(b) (1) as a major source of noise, (B) for which, in his judgment, noise emission standards are feasible, and
(C) which falls in one of the following categories:
(i) Construction equipment.
(ii) Transportation equipment (including recreational vehicles and related equipment).
(iii) Any motor or engine (including any equipment of which an engine or motor is an integral part).
(iv) Electrical or electronic equipment.
(2) (A) Initial proposed regulations under paragraph (1) shall be published not later than eighteen months after the date of enactment of this Act, and shall apply to any product described in paragraph (1) which is identified (or is a part of a class identified) as a major source of noise in any report published under section 5(b) (1) on or before the date of publication of such initial proposed regulations.
(B) In the case of any product described in paragraph (1) which is identified (or is part of a class identified) as a major source of noise in a report published under section 5(b) (1) after publication of the initial proposed regulations under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, regulations under paragraph (1) for such product shall be proposed and published by the Administrator not later than eighteen months after such report is published.
(3) After proposed regulations respecting a product have been published under paragraph (2), the Administrator shall, unless in his judgment noise emission standards are not feasible for such product, prescribe regulations, meeting the requirements of subsection (c), for such product
(A) not earlier than six months after publication of such proposed regulations, and
(B) not later than—
(i) twenty-four months after the date of enactment of this Act, in the case of a product subject to proposed regulations published under paragraph (2) (Á), or
(ii) in the case of any other product, twenty-four months after the publication of the report under section 5(b) (1) identifying it (or a class of products of which it is a part) as a major source of noise.
(b) The Administrator may publish proposed regulations, meeting the requirements of subsection (c), for any product for which he is not required by subsection (a) to prescribe regulations but for which, in his judgment, noise emission standards are feasible and are requisite to protect the public health and welfare. Not earlier than six months after the date of publication of such proposed regulations respecting such product, he may prescribe regulations, meeting the requirements of subsection (c), for such product.
(c) (1) Any regulation prescribed under subsection (a) or (b) of this section (and any revision thereof) respecting a product shall include a noise emission standard which shall set limits on noise emissions from such product and shall be a standard which in the Administrator's judgment, based on criteria published under section 5, is requisite to protect the public health and welfare, taking into account the magnitude and conditions of use of such product (alone or in combination with other noise sources), the degree of noise reduction achievable through the application of the best available technology, and the cost of compliance. In establishing such a standard for any product, the Administrator shall give appropriate consideration to standards under other laws designed to safeguard the health and welfare of persons, including any standards under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, the Clean Air Act, and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Any such noise emission standards shall be a performance standard. In addition, any regulation under subsection (a) or (b) (and any revision thereof) may contain testing procedures necessary to assure compliance with the emission standard in such regulation, and may contain provisions respecting instructions of the manufacturer for the maintenance, use, or repair of the product.
(2) After publication of any proposed regulations under this section, the Administrator shall allow interested persons an opportunity to participate in rulemaking in accordance with the first sentence of section 553 (c) of title 5, United States Code.
(3) The Administrator may revise any regulation prescribed by him under this section by (A) publication of proposed revised regulations, and (B) the promulgation, not earlier than six months after the date of such publication, of regulations making the revision; except that a revision which makes only technical or clerical corrections in a regulation under this section may be promulgated earlier than six months after such date if the Administrator finds that such earlier promulgation is in the public interest.
(d) (1) On and after the effective date of any regulation prescribed under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the manufacturer of each new product to which such regulation applies shall warrant to the ultimate purchaser and each subsequent purchaser that such product is designed, built, and equipped so as to conform at the time of sale with such regulation.
(2) Any cost obligation of any dealer incurred as a result of any requirement imposed by paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be borne by the manufacturer. The transfer of any such cost obligation from a manufacturer to any dealer through franchise or other agreement is prohibited.
(3) If a manufacturer includes in any advertisement a statement respecting the cost or value of noise emission control devices or systems, such manufacturer shall set forth in such statement the cost or value attributed to such devices or systems by the Secretary of Labor (through the Bureau of Labor Statistics). The Secretary of Labor, and his representatives, shall have the same access for this purpose to the books, documents, papers, and records of a manufacturer as the Comptroller General has to those of a recipient of assistance for purposes of section 311 of the Clean Air Act.
(e) (1) No State or political subdivision thereof may adopt or enforce
(A) with respect to any new product for which a regulation has been prescribed by the Administrator under this section, any law or regulation which sets a limit on noise emissions from such
new product and which is not identical to such regulation of the Administrator; or
(B) with respect to any component incorporated into such new product by the manufacturer of such product, any law or regulation setting a limit on noise emissions from such component when so incorporated.
(2) Subject to sections 17 and 18, nothing in this section precludes or denies the right of any State or political subdivision thereof to establish and enforce controls on environmental noise (or one or more sources thereof) through the licensing, regulation, or restriction of the use, operation, or movement of any product or combination of products.
AIRCRAFT NOISE STANDARDS
SEC. 7. (a) The Administrator, after consultation with appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies and interested persons, shall conduct a study of the (1) adequacy of Federal Aviation Administration flight and operational noise controls; (2) adequacy of noise emission standards on new and existing aircraft, together with recommendations on the retrofitting and phaseout of existing aircraft; (3) implications of identifying and achieving levels of cumulative noise exposure around airports; and (4) additional measures available to airport operators and local governments to control aircraft noise. He shall report on such study to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Commerce and Public Works of the Senate within nine months after the date of the enactment of this Act.
(b) Section 611 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1431) is amended to read as follows:
"CONTROL AND ABATEMENT OF AIRCRAFT NOISE AND SONIC BOOM
"SEC. 611. (a) For purposes of this section:
"(1) The term 'FAA' means Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration.
"(2) The term 'EPA' means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
"(b) (1) In order to afford present and future relief and protection to the public health and welfare from aircraft noise and sonic boom, the FAA, after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and with EPA, shall prescribe and amend standards for the measurement of aircraft noise and sonic boom and shall prescribe and amend such regulations as the FAA may find necessary to provide for the control and abatement of aircraft noise and sonic boom, including the application of such standards and regulations in the issuance, amendment, modification, suspension, or revocation of any certificate authorized by this title. No exemption with respect to any standard or regulation under this section may be granted under any provision of this Act unless the FAA shall have consulted with EPÁ before such exemption is granted, except that if the FAA determines that safety in air commerce or air transportation requires that such an exemption be granted before EPA can be consulted, the FAA shall consult with EPA as soon as practicable after the exemption is granted.
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"(2) The FAA shall not issue an original type certificate under section 603 (a) of this Act for any aircraft for which substantial noise abatement can be achieved by prescribing standards and regulations in accordance with this section, unless he shall have prescribed standards and regulations in accordance with this section which apply to such aircraft and which protect the public from aircraft noise and sonic boom, consistent with the considerations listed in subsection (d).