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sections 1346 and 1491 of title 28, United States Code) entered into by an executive agency for
(1) the procurement of property, other than real property in being;
(2) the procurement of services;
(3) the procurement of construction, alteration, repair or maintenance of real property; or,
(4) the disposal of personal property.
(b) With respect to contracts of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the provisions of this Act shall apply only to those contracts which contain a disputes clause requiring that a contract dispute be resolved through an agency administrative process. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, contracts of the Tennessee Valley Authority for the sale of fertilizer or electric power or related to the conduct or operation of the electric power system shall be excluded from the Act.
(c) This Act does not apply to a contract with a foreign government, or agency thereof, or international organization, or subsidiary body thereof, if the head of the agency determines that the application of the Act to the contract would not be in the public interest.
SEC. 4. [41 U.S.C. 603] Appeals under paragraph (g) of section 8 and suits under section 10, arising out of maritime contracts, shall be governed by the Act of March 9, 1920, as amended (41 Stat. 525, as amended; 46 U.S.C. 741-752) or the Act of March 3, 1925, as amended (43 Stat. 1112, as amended; 46 U.S.C. 781-790) as applicable, to the extent that those Acts are not inconsistent with this Act.
SEC. 5. [41 U.S.C. 604] If a contractor is unable to support any part of his claim and it is determined that such inability is attributable to misrepresentation of factor fraud on the part of the contractor, he shall be liable to the Government for an amount equal to such unsupported part of the claim in addition to all costs to the Government attributable to the cost of reviewing said part of his claim. Liability under this subsection shall be determined within six years of the commission of such misrepresentation of fact or fraud.
DECISION BY THE CONTRACTING OFFICER
SEC. 6. [41 U.S.C. 605] (a) All claims by a contractor against the government relating to a contract shall be in writing and shall be submitted to the contracting officer for a decision. All claims by the government against a contractor relating to a contract shall be the subject of a decision by the contracting officer. Each claim by a contractor against the government relating to a contract and each claim by the government against a contractor relating to a contract
shall be submitted within 6 years after the accrual of the claim. 2 The preceding sentence does not apply to a claim by the government against a contractor that is based on a claim by the contractor involving fraud. The contracting officer shall issue his decisions in writing, and shall mail or otherwise furnish a copy of the decision to the contractor. The decision shall state the reasons for the decision reached and shall inform the contractor of his rights as provided in this Act. Specific findings of fact are not required, but, if made, shall not be binding in any subsequent proceeding. The authority of this subsection shall not extend to a claim or dispute for penalties or forfeitures prescribed by statute or regulation which another Federal agency is specifically authorized to administer, settle, or determine. This section shall not authorize any agency head to settle, compromise, pay, or otherwise adjust any claim involving fraud.
(b) The contracting officer's decision on the claim shall be final and conclusive and not subject to review by any forum, tribunal, or Government agency, unless an appeal or suit is timely commenced as authorized by this Act. Nothing in this Act shall prohibit executive agencies from including a clause in government contracts requiring that pending final decision of an appeal, action, or final settlement, a contractor shall proceed diligently with performance of the contract in accordance with the contracting officer's decision.
(c)(1) A contracting officer shall issue a decision on any submitted claim of $100,000 or less within sixty days from his receipt of a written request from the contractor that a decision be rendered within that period. For claim of more than $100,000, the contractor shall certify that the claim is made in good faith, that the supporting data are accurate and complete to the best of his knowledge and belief, that the amount requested accurately reflects the contract adjustment for which the contractor believes the government is liable, and that the certifier is duly authorized to certify the claim on behalf of the contractor.
(2) A contracting officer shall, within sixty days of receipt of a submitted certified claim over $100,000
(A) issue a decision; or
(B) notify the contractor of the time within which a decision will be issued.
(3) The decision of a contracting officer on submitted claims shall be issued within a reasonable time, in accordance with regulations promulgated by the agency, taking into account such factors as the size and complexity of the claim and the adequacy of the information in support of the claim provided by the contractor.
(4) A contractor may request the tribunal concerned to direct a contracting officer to issue a decision in a specified period of time,
2Paragraph (2) of section 2351(a) of the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-355; 108 Stat. 3322; 41 U.S.C. 605 note) provides:
(2) Notwithstanding the third sentence of section 6(a) of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978, as added by paragraph (1), if a contract in existence on the date of the enactment of this Act requires that a claim referred to in that sentence be submitted earlier than 6 years after the accrual of the claim, then the claim shall be submitted within the period required by the contract. The preceding sentence does not apply to a claim by the Federal Government against a contractor that is based on a claim by the contractor involving fraud.
as determined by the tribunal concerned, in the event of undue delay on the part of the contracting officer.
(5) Any failure by the contracting officer to issue a decision on a contract claim within the period required will be deemed to be a decision by the contracting officer denying the claim and will authorize the commencement of the appeal or suit on the claim as otherwise provided in this Act. However, in the event an appeal or suit is so commenced in the absence of a prior decision by the contracting officer, the tribunal concerned may, at its option, stay the proceeding to obtain a decision on the claim by the contracting offi
(6) The contracting officer shall have no obligation to render a final decision on any claim of more than $100,000 that is not certified in accordance with paragraph (1) if, within 60 days after receipt of the claim, the contracting officer notifies the contractor in writing of the reasons why any attempted certification was found to be defective. A defect in the certification of a claim shall not deprive a court or an agency board of contract appeals of jurisdiction over that claim. Prior to the entry of a final judgment by a court or a decision by an agency board of contract appeals, the court or agency board shall require a defective certification to be corrected.
(7) The certification required by paragraph (1) may be executed by any person duly authorized to bind the contractor with respect to the claim.
(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, a contractor and a contracting officer may use any alternative means of dispute resolution under subchapter IV of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, or other mutually agreeable procedures, for resolving claims. In a case in which such alternative means of dispute resolution or other mutually agreeable procedures are used, the contractor shall certify that the claim is made in good faith, that the supporting data are accurate and complete to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, and that the amount requested accurately reflects the contract adjustment for which the contractor believes the Government is liable. All provisions of subchapter IV of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, shall apply to such alternative means of dispute resolution.
(e) The authority of agencies to engage in alternative means of dispute resolution proceedings under subsection (d) shall cease to be effective on October 1, 1999, except that such authority shall continue in effect with respect to then pending dispute resolution proceedings which, in the judgment of the agencies that are parties to such proceedings, require such continuation, until such proceedings terminate. In any case in which the contracting officer rejects a contractor's request for alternative dispute resolution proceedings, the contracting officer shall provide the contractor with a written explanation, citing one or more of the conditions in section 572(b) of title 5, United States Code, or such other specific reasons that alternative dispute resolution procedures are inappropriate for the resolution of the dispute. In any case in which a contractor rejects a request of an agency for alternative dispute resolution pro
Subchapter IV of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, is set forth beginning on page 649.
ceedings, the contractor shall inform the agency in writing of the contractor's specific reasons for rejecting the request.
CONTRACTOR'S RIGHT OF APPEAL TO BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS
SEC. 7. [41 U.S.C. 606] Within ninety days from the date of receipt of a contracting officer's decision under section 6, the contractor may appeal such decision to an agency board of contract appeals, as provided in section 8.
AGENCY BOARDS OF CONTRACT APPEALS
SEC. 8. [41 U.S.C. 607] (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) an agency board of contract appeals may be established within an executive agency when the agency head, after consultation with the Administrator, determines from a workload study that the volume of contract claims justifies the establishment of a full-time agency board of at least three members who shall have no other inconsistent duties. Workload studies will be updated at least once every three years and submitted to the Administrator.
(2) The Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority may establish a board of contract appeals for the Authority of an indeterminate number of members.
(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the members of agency boards shall be selected and appointed to serve in the same manner as hearing examiners appointed pursuant to section 3105 of title 5 of the United States Code, with an additional requirement that such members shall have had not fewer than five years' experience in public contract law. Full-time members of agency boards serving as such on the effective date of this Act shall be considered qualified. The chairman and vice chairman of each board shall be designated by the agency head from members so appointed. Compensation for the chairman, the vice chairman, and all other members of an agency board shall be determined under section 5372a of title 5, United States Code.4
(2) The Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority shall establish criteria for the appointment of members to its agency board of contract appeals established in subsection (a)(2), and shall designate a chairman of such board. The chairman and all other members of such board shall receive compensation, at the daily equivalent of the rates determined under section 5372a of title 5, United States Code, for each day they are engaged in the actual performance of their duties as members of the board.
(c) If the volume of contract claims is not sufficient to justify an agency board under subsection (a) or if he otherwise considers it appropriate, any agency head shall arrange for appeals from decisions by contracting officers of his agency to be decided by a board of contract appeals of another executive agency. In the event an agency head is unable to make such an arrangement with another agency, he shall submit the case to the Administrator for placement with an agency board. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to the Tennessee Valley Authority.
*Section 5372a of title 5, United States Code, is set forth in this publication on page 658.
(d) Each agency board shall have jurisdiction to decide any appeal from a decision of a contracting officer (1) relative to a contract made by its agency, and (2) relative to a contract made by any other agency when such agency or the Administrator has designated the agency board to decide the appeal. In exercising this jurisdiction, the agency board is authorized to grant any relief that would be available to a litigant asserting a contract claim in the United States Claims
(e) An agency board shall provide to the fullest extent practicable, informal, expeditious, and inexpensive resolution of disputes, and shall issue a decision in writing or take other appropriate action on each appeal submitted, and shall mail or otherwise furnish a copy of the decision to the contractor and the contracting officer.
(f) The rules of each agency board shall include a procedure for the accelerated disposition of any appeal from a decision of a contracting officer where the amount in dispute is $100,000 or less. The accelerated procedure shall be applicable at the sole election of only the contractor. Appeals under the accelerated procedure shall be resolved, whenever possible, within one hundred and eighty days from the date the contractor elects to utilize such procedure.
(g)(1) The decision of an agency board of contract appeals shall be final, except that
(A) a contractor may appeal such a decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit within one hundred twenty days after the date of receipt of a copy of such decision, or
(B) The agency head, if he determines that an appeal should be taken, and with the prior approval of the Attorney General, transmits the decision of the board of contract appeals to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit for judicial review under section 1295 of title 28, United States Code, within one hundred and twenty days from the date of the agency's receipt of a copy of the board's decision.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), the decision of the board of contract appeals of the Tennessee Valley Authority shall be final, except that
(A) a contractor may appeal such a decision to a United States district court pursuant to the provisions of section 1337 of title 28, United States Code within one hundred twenty days after the date of receipt of a copy of such decision, or
(B) The Tennessee Valley Authority may appeal the decision to a United States district court pursuant to the provisions of section 1337 of title 28, United States Code, within one hundred twenty days after the date of the decision in any case. (3)6 An award by an arbitrator under this Act shall be reviewed pursuant to sections 9 through 13 of title 9, United States
"Pursuant to section 902(b)(1) of the Court of Federal Claims Technical and Procedural Improvements Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-572), the reference to the United States Claims Court in subsection (d) is deemed to be a reference to the United States Court of Federal Claims.
Paragraph (3) of section 8(g) terminates on October 1, 1995, under the provisions of section 11 of Public Law 101-552, which provides that the authority of agencies to use dispute resolution proceedings under that Act and the amendments made by that Act "shall termínate on October 1, 1995, except that such authority shall continue in effect with respect to then pending