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(1) the contract is awarded or modified, and the contract is expected, at the time of the award or as a result of the modification (as the case may be), to be performed over a period exceeding 10 years from the date of initial award of the contract;
(2) the performance of the contract continues for a period exceeding 10 years, and no notice of the type described in subsection (b) has otherwise been provided to Congress.
(b) NOTICE.-The notice required under subsection (a) is a notice
(1) identifying the contract;
(2) stating the date on which initial award of the contract occurred; and
(3) stating the period of time over which performance of the contract is expected to occur.
(c) TIME OF SUBMISSION OF NOTICE.-The notice required under subsection (a) shall be submitted not later than 30 days after
(1) the date of award or modification of the contract, in the case of a contract described in subsection (a)(1); and
(2) the date on which performance of the contract exceeds 10 years, in the case of a contract described in subsection (a)(2).
(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 133; Dec. 5, 1991, P.L. 102–190, § 803(a)(1), 105 Stat. 1414.) § 2353. Contracts: acquisition, construction, or furnishing of test facilities and equipment
(a) A contract of a military department for research or development, or both, may provide for the acquisition or construction by, or furnishing to, the contractor, of research, developmental, or test facilities and equipment that the Secretary of the military department concerned determines to be necessary for the performance of the contract. The facilities and equipment, and specialized housing for them, may be acquired or constructed at the expense of the United States, and may be lent or leased to the contractor with or without reimbursement, or may be sold to him at fair value. This subsection does not authorize new construction or improvements having general utility.
(b) Facilities that would not be readily removable or separable without unreasonable expense or unreasonable loss of value may not be installed or constructed under this section on property not owned by the United States, unless the contract contains
(1) a provision for reimbursing the United States for the fair value of the facilities at the completion or termination of the contract or within a reasonable time thereafter;
(2) an option in the United States to acquire the underlying land; or
(3) an alternative provision that the Secretary concerned considers to be adequate to protect the interests of the United States in the facilities.
(c) Proceeds of sales or reimbursements under this section shall be paid into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts, except to the extent otherwise authorized by law with respect to property acquired by the contractor.
(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 134.)
§ 2354. Contracts: indemnification provisions
(a) With the approval of the Secretary of the military department concerned, any contract of a military department for research or development, or both, may provide that the United States will indemnify the contractor against either or both of the following, but only to the extent that they arise out of the direct performance of the contract and to the extent not compensated by insurance or otherwise:
(1) Claims (including reasonable expenses of litigation or settlement) by third persons, including employees of the contractor, for death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to property, from a risk that the contract defines as unusually hazard
(2) Loss of or damage to property of the contractor from a risk that the contract defines as unusually hazardous. (b) A contract, made under subsection (a), that provides for indemnification must also provide for
(1) notice to the United States of any claim or suit against the contractor for the death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to property; and
(2) control of or assistance in the defense by the United States, at its election, of that suit or claim.
(c) No payment may be made under subsection (a) unless the Secretary of the department concerned, or an officer or official of his department designated by him, certifies that the amount is just and reasonable.
(d) Upon approval by the Secretary concerned, payments under subsection (a) may be made from
(1) funds obligated for the performance of the contract concerned;
(2) funds available for research or development, or both, and not otherwise obligated; or
(3) funds appropriated for those payments.
(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 134.)
[§ 2355. Repealed. P.L. 103-355, §2002(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3303]
§ 2356. Contracts: delegations
(a) The Secretary of a military department may delegate any authority under section 1584, 2353, 2354, or 2355 of this title to (1) the Under Secretary of his department;
(2) an Assistant Secretary of his department; or
(3) the chief, and one assistant to the chief, of any technical service, bureau, or office.
However, the authority of the Secretary under section 2353(b)(3) of this title may not be delegated to a person described in clause (3) of this subsection.
(b) Subject to other provisions of law, the power to negotiate and administer contracts for research or development, or both, may be further delegated. In this section, the term "negotiate" means make without a solicitation for sealed bids under chapter 137 of this title.
(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 135; Sept. 2, 1958, P.L. 85–861, § 1(43A), 72 Stat. 1457; July 18, 1984, P.L. 98-369, § 2727, 98 Stat. 1195; Dec. 4, 1987, P.L. 100–180, § 1231(18)(B), 101 Stat. 1161.)
[§ 2357. Repealed. P.L. 101-510, § 1301(11), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1668]
§ 2358. Research and development projects 1,2
(a) AUTHORITY.-The Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department may engage in basic research, applied research, advanced research, and development projects that—
(1) are necessary to the responsibilities of such Secretary's department in the field of research and development; and (2) either
(A) relate to weapon systems and other military needs;
(B) are of potential interest to the Department of De
1 Section 606 of Public Law 92-436 provides:
SEC. 606. (a) No part of the funds appropriated pursuant to this or any other Act for the Department of Defense or any of the Armed Forces may be used at any institution of higher learning if the Secretary of Defense or his designee determines that recruiting personnel of any of the Armed Forces of the United States are being barred by the policy of such institution from the premises of the institution; except in a case where the Secretary of the service concerned certifies to the Congress in writing that a specific course of instruction is not available at any other institution of higher learning and furnishes to the Congress the reasons why such course of instruction is of vital importance to the security of the United States.
(b) The prohibition made by subsection (a) of this section as it applies to research and development funds shall not apply if the Secretary of Defense or his designee determines that the expenditure is a continuation or a renewal of a previous program with such institution which is likely to make a significant contribution to the defense effort.
(c) The Secretaries of the military departments shall furnish to the Secretary of Defense or his designee within 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 1972] and each January 31 and June 30 thereafter the names of any institution of higher learning which the Secretaries determine on such dates are affected by the prohibitions contained in this section. 2 Section 802 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994 (P.L. 103–160; 107 Stat. 1701) provides:
SEC. 802. UNIVERSITY RESEARCH INITIATIVE SUPPORT PROGRAM.
(a) ESTABLISHMENT.-The Secretary of Defense, through the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, shall establish a University Research Initiative Support Program.
(b) PURPOSE.-Under the program, the Director shall award grants and contracts to eligible institutions of higher education to support the conduct of research and development relevant to requirements of the Department of Defense.
(c) ELIGIBILITY-An institution of higher education is eligible for a grant or contract under the program if the institution has received less than a total of $2,000,000 in grants and contracts from the Department of Defense in the two fiscal years before the fiscal year in which the institution submits a proposal for such grant or contract.
(d) COMPETITION REQUIRED.-The Director shall use competitive procedures in awarding grants and contracts under the program.
(e) SELECTION PROCESS.-In awarding grants and contracts under the program, the Director shall use a merit-based selection process that is consistent with the provisions of section 2361(a) of title 10, United States Code. Such selection process shall require that each person selected to participate in such a merit-based selection process be a member of the faculty or staff of an institution of higher education that is a member of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges or the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. (f) REGULATIONS.-Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Director shall prescribe regulations for carrying out the program.
(g) FUNDING. Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under section 201, $20,000,000 shall be available for the University Research Initiative Support Program.
(b) AUTHORIZED MEANS.-The Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department may perform research and development projects
(1) by contract, cooperative agreement, or grant, in accordance with chapter 63 of title 31;
(2) through one or more military departments;
(3) by using employees and consultants of the Department of Defense; or
(4) by mutual agreement with the head of any other department or agency of the Federal Government.
(c) REQUIREMENT OF POTENTIAL DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE INTEREST.-Funds appropriated to the Department of Defense or to a military department may not be used to finance any research project or study unless the project or study is, in the opinion of the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of that military department, respectively, of potential interest to the Department of Defense or to such military department, respectively.
(d) ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS.-Additional authorities, conditions, and requirements relating to certain cooperative agreements authorized by this section are provided in section 2371 of this title.
(Added P.L. 87-651, §208(a), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 523, and amended P.L. 97-86, §910, Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1120; P.L. 100-370, 81(g)(3), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 846; revised in its entirety P.L. 103–160, §827(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1712; revised in its entirety P.L. 103355, § 1301(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3284.)
[§ 2359. Repealed. P.L. 101-510, § 1322(a)(5), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1671]
2360. Research and development laboratories: contracts for services of university students
(a) Subject to the availability of appropriations for such purpose, the Secretary of Defense may procure by contract under the authority of this section the temporary or intermittent services of students at institutions of higher learning for the purpose of providing technical support at defense research and development laboratories. Such contracts may be made directly with such students or with nonprofit organizations employing such students.
(b) Students providing services pursuant to a contract made under subsection (a) shall be considered to be employees for the purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, relating to compensation for work injuries, and to be employees of the government for the purposes of chapter 171 of title 28, relating to tort claims. Such students who are not otherwise employed by the Federal Government shall not be considered to be Federal employees for any other purpose.
(c) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. Such regulations shall include definitions for the purposes of this section of the terms "student", "institution of higher learning", and "nonprofit organization". (Added P.L. 97-86, §603(a), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1110.)
§ 2361. Award of grants and contracts to colleges and universities: requirement of competition
(a) The Secretary of Defense may not make a grant or award a contract to a college or university for the performance of research
and development, or for the construction of any research or other facility, unless
(1) in the case of a grant, the grant is made using competitive procedures; and
(2) in the case of a contract, the contract is awarded in accordance with section 2304 of this title (other than pursuant to subsection (c)(5) of that section).
(b)(1) A provision of law may not be construed as modifying or superseding the provisions of subsection (a), or as requiring funds to be made available by the Secretary of Defense to a particular college or university by grant or contract, unless that provision of law
(A) specifically refers to this section;
(B) specifically states that such provision of law modifies or supersedes the provisions of this section; and
(C) specifically identifies the particular college or university involved and states that the grant to be made or the contract to be awarded, as the case may be, pursuant to such provision of law is being made or awarded in contravention of subsection (a).
(2) A grant may not be made, or a contract awarded, pursuant to a provision of law that authorizes or requires the making of the grant, or the awarding of the contract, in a manner that is inconsistent with subsection (a) until—
(A) the Secretary of Defense submits to Congress a notice in writing of the intent to make the grant or award the contract; and
(B) a period of 180 days has elapsed after the date on which the notice is received by Congress.
(c)(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives an annual report on the use of competitive procedures for the award of research and development contracts, and the award of construction contracts, to colleges and universities. Each such report shall include
(A) a list of each college and university that, during the period covered by the report, received more than $1,000,000 in such contracts through the use of procedures other than competitive procedures; and
(B) the cumulative amount of such contracts received during that period by each such college and university.
(2) Each report under paragraph (1) shall cover the preceding calendar year and shall be submitted not later than February 1 of the year after the year covered by the report.
(Added P.L. 100-456, § 220(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1941 [prior § 2361 transferred to §2351 P.L. 100-370, 81(g)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 846], and amended P.L. 101-189, § 252(a), (b)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1404; P.L. 101-189, § 252(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1404, 1405; P.L. 101-510, 81311(4), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1669; P.L. 103-35, §201(g)(5), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 100; P.L. 103-160, § 821(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704; P.L. 103–337, §813, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2816.)