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Currently there are 31 projects totaling $701,783 which have been approved but unfunded because of budget limitations.

These research proposals contribute to the determination of the extent and character of the radiation problem as well as the mechanisms by which radiation produces damage. It is felt that studies aimed at the elucidation of the radiation damage “cause and effect" relationship are essential if low-level and long-term radiation exposure effects are to be accurately assessed and general control programs organized. Other primary concerns are broad epidemiological studies aimed at a scientific evaluation of the long-term effects such as aging, congenital malformations, genetic effects, behavioral patterns, cancer induction, and also field studies of the movement of radioactive contaminants in biota and human food chains.

We have also supported studies aimed at directing scientific findings toward control devices or procedures that are necessary in a “total view” of man's ecological system, and studies that attempt to assess the relationship between health hazards created and possible benefits derived by radiation usage. The determination of the consequences of radiation exposure for present and future generations will require intensive investigation.

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Obligations for fiscal year 1963 have not been completed, but it appears that the program areas listed above will reflect a similar distribution.

The $3,285,000 apportionment for research grants in fiscal year 1963 will permit the support of approximately 180 projects.

The total needs of an adequate research grant program in water supply and pollution control call for an increase both in the depth and breadth of research performed. At present, the water supply and pollution control research resources of the Nation are spread too thinly over a broad spectrum of problems directly and indirectly related to water pollution. The depth of investigation of problems ranging from pure science, through engineering, to the social sciences must be increased if real progress is to be made within a reasonable length of time. The range of problems to be solved must be broadened to include a greater number of fields and disciplines.

In addition, there must be more emphasis on integrating the efforts of these people in widely divergent fields so that sophisticated and meaningful solutions to water pollution problems may be attempted. The chemist and the engineer must work together; the biologist and the economist must join forces. In short the research problems of water supply and pollution control are daily growing more numerous and more complex. These problems require more people for their study; they require the integration of more disciplines and fields of interest for their effective solution.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES

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It is proposed to establish research grants activities in environmental health sciences during fiscal year 1964.

Research in the general environmental health sciences will include problems in physiology, toxicology, biophysics, bioengineering, genetics, ecology, behavioral sciences, and others that relate man to his environment in general. The environmental stressor in these problems may be airborne, waterborne, or foodborne, but the specific route is unimportant. Emphasis must be on the reaction of the organism regardless of the route of insult, which may involve either normal or abnormal responses to environmental factors. As previously noted, the results of such fundamental lead research will form the foundations for pointed investigations into specific environmetnal health problems. It is believed that without a strong reservoir of such fundamental and noncategorical research the categorical environmental health programs inevitably must suffer.

This new program of research grants in the broad environmetnal health sciences will be administered with intent to complement the research grant efforts of our categorical programs by fortifying the broad bases which make research on specific environmental health problems more promising and in some instances, even possible.

EXTRAMURAL TRAINING GRANTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

The effectiveness of the Nation's effort in environmental health depends on the availability of competent personnel in sufficient numbers to meet the tasks faced in this field. Individuals are needed with broadscale backgrounds in the physical and biomedical sciences, in mathematics, and in the social sciences. Needs in the physical sciences extend from classical physics and chemistry through meteorology, geophysics, and radiation physics to hydrology, oceanography, and many branches of engineering; in the biomedical sciences from molecular biology, botany, and microbiology through biochemistry, pharmacology, and radiobiology to epidemiology, toxicology, and the several medical disciplines; in mathematics, from classical mathematics through biostatistics to data and systems analysis. In addition, the nature of the problems encountered in environmental health requires the efforts of individuals with backgrounds in sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology.

Table I shows the current numbers of professional personnel in each of several scientific categories working in the field of environmental health in the Service and in the Nation at large. It is expected that by 1970 more than twice these will be required in most categories and triple in some.

TABLE I.--Professional scientific personnel in environmental health

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Recommendations of committees

The manpower needs for environmental health personnel were reviewed by two groups of expert consultants representing research, teaching, and control program interests. The first of these, the Committee on Environmental Health Problems, set up by the Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health Service, in August 1961, recommended :

1. The divisional training programs providing fellowships and traineeships to students and research training grants to universities should be strengthened and augmented. In those instances where authority to undertake these programs does not exist, such authority should be sought appro priate legislation.

2. A substantial program of environmental health institutional grants to support those universities engaged in programs of graduate education should be instituted.

3. Support for the training grant programs outlined in the first two recommendations should be increased as quickly as possible to a level of

$25 million, A second committee's report, “Conference on Education Needs in Environmental Health,” dated June 1962, contained the following recommendations :

1. Establishment of interdisciplinary environmental health research centers at selected universities ;

2. Interuniversity cooperation in the establishment of such centers, since the scope of environmental health and the increasing utility of newly de veloping applied fields make it clear that a single university may not be adequate;

3. Considerable increase in the number of and amounts of money for institutional grants for environmental health research, training, and facilities;

4. Expansion of the conventional fellowship program; and research as

sistantships and/or apprenticeships in this field for undergraduates. Derclopment of categorical training grant programs

Table II summarizes the appropriations for development of the categorical environmental health sciences training grant programs. Comparison is made with the recommendations made by the Committee on Environmental Health Problems.

TABLE II.--Training, traineeships, and fellowships

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i Committee on Environmental Health Problems.

? With the passage of Public Law 87-838 and the change in sec. 301.d of Public Law 410, the Service is to authorized to establish research training grant programs in all environmental health categorical areas.

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

The air pollution control training grants program provides funds to academic institutions for the expansion of graduate level training capacity. The grants support the development and improvement of curriculums related to air pollution research and control at medical schools, schools of public health, and related technical institutions. Also, fellowships are provided at the graduate level to qualified individuals. During fiscal year 1962 seven institutions were supported.

In fiscal year 1963 the budget of $450,000 will permit continuing support of 7 and adding 2 additional schools with the support of 26 students included. In addition, nine individual fellowships will be awarded.

RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH

The radiological health training grant program provides support to teaching institutions designed to help meet the national needs for radiological health trained personnel. The activities include:

(1) Institutional grants for the development of curriculums and support of graduate students in radiological health training;

(2) Assistance to academic institutions to develop and incorporate radiological health subjects into the curriculums for physicians, dentists, engineers, and others whose professional responsibility include radiological

health hazards. The fiscal year 1963 budget of $2 million permitted supporting 20 continuing and 3 new training programs. This has included support for 79 full-time stu. dents. With the addition of part-time support for students, the program is providing some training assistance to at least 127 students. This is short of meeting the manpower needs in radiological health. The National Advisory Committee on Radiation has pointed out that at least 150 specialists will be needed per year for the next 10 years, and that 3 technicians will be needed for each specialist.

WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL Training grants in water supply and pollution control are awarded to training institutions for the purpose of (1) establishing new or expanding existing curriculums in areas directly concerned with the water field, and in related areas where needed specialists may study their disciplines in relation to the problems of water supply and pollution control, (2) upgrading and expanding the teaching faculty in order to improve a given training program, and (3) furnishing financial support to students selected for the training in question, who fulfill the requirements of the institution for enrollment.

In fiscal year 1963, the budget of $1,100,000 will permit supporting 23 continuing and 11 new training programs, leaving a backlog of 9, totaling $280,000.

The research fellowship program in water supply and pollution control is basically designed to train individual scientists and engineers for research

The fiscal year 1963 budget of $300,000 will permit supporting 48 fellows—25 continuing and 25 new ones, with a backlog of 5, totaling $30,000,

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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES

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The environmental health sciences training grant program is intended to improve the quality and quantity of research and teaching personnel. The objectives of the program are (1) to enhance the potential of the training institutions in developing graduate programs in the environmental health sciences and (2) to encourage and aid the flow of high-quality students through these programs, particularly at the predoctoral and postdoctoral levels.

The complex nature of environmental health problems makes an interdisciplinary approach to training fundamental. The research training grant program provides support to institutions for developing graduate programs and subsistence stipends to trainees. The institution is free to propose programs of any nature which best reflect particular research training needs and provide the best grouping of the institutions' facilities and abilities to satisfy these needs.

At present, grants are being made to 19 institutions covering the following areas: Environmental microbiology, biological ecology, industrial toxicology, instrumentation development, mathematics and systems analysis, epidemiology, and chemistry. These are interdisciplinary projects in environmental health sciences which are beyond the scope of existing categorical training grant programs of the Public Health Service. These projects include the support of 94 students.

A modest beginning was made in the support of graduate training programs during fiscal years 1961 and 1962 when 10 grants were made, totaling $523,187. From then through the November 1962 approvals, 34 additional grants were made, bringing the total to $1,122,000. At the next review committee meeting this fiscal year, 13 new applications totaling $765,613 will be considered.

SUMMARY

Among agencies of the Federal Government the Public Health Service is unique in the number and scope of its responsibilities in environmental health. While activities relating to this field are carried on in all three of its operating

bureaus, the principal programs are presently in the Bureau of State Services. We now face a number of problems in the administration of these, particularly in regard to interagency and internal coordination, staffing, and laboratory and other facilities. Looking to the future, social and economic forces will increase environmental health problems. One can predict major growth in State and local government expenditures and activities, and by industry for facility construction, operation, and for other controls.

The need for a high-level organizational unit to carry out the environmental health mission of the Public Health Service is apparent. This need has been the subject of congressional interest, and has been studied intensively by advisers to the Surgeon General, as well as Service personnel. The most recent analysis of the problems, and of Federal programs required to meet its challenge, was completed in November 1961. This study was carried out by a committee of individuals skilled in environmental sciences, with Dr. Paul Gross, immediate past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, as its chairman. This group reviewed ongoing and proposed programs of the Service, dereloped long-range objectives for the environmental health programs, and gave special attention to manpower needs, the role of intramural and extramural research efforts, and the relationship of current and proposed Service programs to those of other agencies. Their conclusions and recommendations are as follows:

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The committee has reviewed the problems which face this Nation in the field of environmental health, particularly as they relate to the mission of the Public Health Service. The Service has established programs dealing with certain aspects of environmental health. However, the growth of our technology and the urbanization of American society have proceeded at a pace with which the Service's current programs are not prepared to cope. From its total evaluation of the problem, the committee concludes

That a national need exists for establishment and maintenance of a vigorous and integrated effort to maintain controls over the human environment compatible with projections of change in both population and the environment itself.

That the current "categorical" approaches represented by Public Health Service divisional programs are incapable of providing either (a) the neeessary cognizance of combined multiple effects of environmental impacts or (b) the depth of effort required by individual divisional programs,

That accommodation to the national needs in environmental health will require the establishment of a strong focal center adequately staffed and equipped to prosecute an effective and integrated program within the Public Health Service and to manage and coordinate a strong extramural research, training, and technical support program utilizing the available institutional resources of the Nation.

That an adequate leigslative basis for a sufficient national program in environmental health does not exist at present. One of the factors missing in the current efforts of the Service is a place at which primary responsibility for the control of enviromental hazards comes to a focus. The committee believes that immediate action should be taken to establish a center where the operational, research, and training programs of the Service in environmental health can be brought together. This is not to say that all of these functions of the Service should be centralized. On the contrary, many must remain close to the place where environmental hazards exist. However, the complexity of the problem requires that the Service's programs be designed with a total perspective toward the environmental health needs of the Nation. This perspective can best be gained by a concentration of primary effort at center.

Therefore, the committee makes the recommendations given in the following paragraphs: 1. Public Health Service responsibility in environmental health

(a) A major national effort, both governmental and nongovernmental, must be started if the environmental health problems resulting from the rapid growth of our highly technological civilization are to be adequately understood and if measures for their control and ultimate prevention are to be developed.

(6) It is essential that the Federal Government assume leadership in the research and development effort required to supply knowledge and techniques

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