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ents, thus among our priorities, is increased funding that enhance adult literacy, and that educate families in child rearing and child development, that seek to improve families health care, and provide family counseling. Therefore, we begin our list of priorities with increased funding for Even Start, Head Start, and the Comprehensive Child Development Program.

Another funding priority is the chapter 2 Basic State Grant Program, Chapter 2 provides States with a continuing source of funds for education and educational improvement. In many States, particularly those with limited resources, it has fueled education reform and supported the kinds of programs that Congress has identified as necessary to make schools in the Nation competitive.

NASBE also lists as a funding priority the chapter 1 program of compensatory education. Studies have documented that low-achieving children who participate in chapter 1 do significantly better academically than similar children who do not participate.

NASBE would stress one last funding priority, a substantial increase in funding for handicapped education, including the preschool and early intervention program for disabled infants and toddlers. Additional funding is required to help States cover the cost of the average per pupil expenditure for disabled students, to provide preschool grants, to serve additional handicapped 3-year-olds to 5-year-olds, and to enable States to continue to participate in the critical early intervention programs.

PREPARED STATEMENT

I will close by saying that while many point to the Federal budget deficit and the recently passed Budget Enforcement Act and say that the Federal Government simply cannot fund or increase funds for all these programs affecting children, we have numerous problems caused by changing demographics and trends in our society are overwhelming the Nation's education system. If the trends continue, too many students will be lost before even beginning high school. Clearly, Congress must direct more resources to our Federal education and related programs that address these serious societal needs.

Thank you.

[The statement follows:]

STATEMENT OF HELEN K. FOX

CHAIRMAN HARKIN AND DISTINGUISHED MEMBERS OF THE SUBCOMMITTEE: MY NAME IS HELEN FOX. I AM THE ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS FOR THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF STATE BOARDS OF EDUCATION (NASBE). I AM VERY PLEASED TO HAVE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO TESTIFY BEFORE THE SENATE SUBCOMMITTEE ON LABOR, HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, EDUCATION AND RELATED AGENCIES ON BEHALF OF STATE BOARD MEMBERS ACROSS THE COUNTRY.

MR. CHAIRMAN, NASBE GREATLY APPRECIATES YOUR LEADERSHIP AND COMMITMENT TO EDUCATION AND OTHER PROGRAMS THAT SERVE OUR NATION'S CHILDREN. WE ARE MOST GRATEFUL THAT FEDERAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS HAVE BENEFITED, EVEN DURING THESE AUSTERE TIMES, UNDER YOUR CHAIRMANSHIP OF THIS SUBCOMMITTEE.

PUBLIC ATTENTION IS CURRENTLY FOCUSED ON EDUCATION AS A TOP CONCERN. POLITICAL LEADERS, INCLUDING MEMBERS OF THIS ADMINISTRATION, HAVE BUILT REPUTATIONS AND CAREERS AROUND DRAMATIC STATEMENTS ABOUT THE NEED TO IMPROVE OUR SCHOOLS. BUT FEW HAVE TAKEN SUBSTANTIVE ACTION TO MEET THESE AMBITIOUS GOALS. THIS IS PARTICULARLY TRUE IN THE CASE OF FEDERAL SUPPORT FOR EDUCATION.

DESPITE OUR RECENT VICTORY WITH OPERATION DESERT STORM, THE AMERICAN PUBLIC DOES NOT BELIEVE THAT OUR NATIONAL SECURITY IS MEASURED BY MILITARY STRENGTH ALONE, BUT FEELS THAT IT IS ALSO MEASURED BY THE STRENGTHS AND ABILITIES OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. IN OTHER WORDS, EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE, HUMAN SERVICES AND OTHER DOMESTIC PROGRAMS DESERVE GREATER FINANCIAL SUPPORT IN ORDER TO BUILD A NEW DEFINITION OF NATIONAL SECURITY.

IF

GENERALLY, AMERICANS AGREE THAT FEDERAL FUNDS FOR EDUCATION SHOULD BE
PROVIDED TO THOSE STUDENTS MOST IN NEED. THUS THE QUESTION IS RAISED, HAVE
FEDERAL FUNDING LEVELS BEEN SUFFICIENT TO REACH THOSE MOST IN NEED?
EDUCATION SPENDING HAD REMAINED CONSTANT AT 2.5 PERCENT OF THE FEDERAL
BUDGET.. ITS SHARE IN FY' 1980 -- AMERICA'S EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS WOULD HAVE
SOME $6.7 BILLION MORE TO SPEND FOR ESSENTIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN FY'91.

THE GAP BETWEEN RESOURCES AND NEEDS ARE GENERALLY RECONCILED EITHER BY STRETCHING DOLLARS TO THE BREAKING POINT OR BY DEFERRING INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS' NEEDS. EITHER WAY, THE CONSEQUENCES ARE DISTURBING. ACROSS THE BOARD, DECLINING FEDERAL SUPPORT FOR AN ARRAY OF PROGRAMS HAS CONSTRAINED STATE AND LOCAL EFFORTS TO ADD COURSES TO MEET NEW STATE REQUIREMENTS, INCREASE STAFF SALARIES, RESPOND TO MARKET FORCES, AND TO IMPLEMENT OTHER LOCAL PRIORITIES.

ASSERTING THAT EDUCATION IS PRIMARILY A STATE AND LOCAL RESPONSIBILITY, AS MANY FEDERAL OFFICIALS HAVE, DOES NOT ADDRESS THE PROBLEM. THE FACT IS THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BEGAN TO EMPHASIZE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY BECAUSE STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS DID NOT HAVE AN EQUAL COMMITMENT OR EQUAL RESOURCES TO SERVE STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS,'

NASBE RECENTLY FORMED A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON SCHOOL READINESS TO DEVISE A
BLUEPRINT ON PROGRAMS AND PRACTICES THAT PROMOTE THE GOAL THAT ALL CHILDREN
WILL REACH SCHOOL "READY TO LEARN." AS MANY POOR CHILDREN DO NOT RECEIVE
THE BASIC CARE AND SUSTENANCE THEY NEED TO GET OFF TO A GOOD START IN
SCHOOL, THE MAJORITY OF OUR FUNDING PRIORITIES FOCUS ON SCHOOL READINESS
EFFORTS. COMPREHENSIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS HAVE
DEMONSTRATED EXTRAORDINARY RETURNS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN AND THEIR FAMILIES.
THEREFORE, WE URGE AN INCREASE FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE CHILD DEVELOPMENT
CENTERS. THEY PROVIDE EXTENSIVE SERVICES TO DISADVANTAGED MOTHERS, INFANTS
AND TODDLERS. PROGRAMS SUCH AS THESE ARE VERY EFFECTIVE IN IMPROVING THE
PARENTING SKILLS OF THE PARTICIPATING MOTHERS AND REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD OF
SCHOOL DROPOUT, TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND ADULT DEPENDENCY.

NASBE ALSO LISTS AS A PRIORITY A SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE IN FUNDING FOR THE HANDICAPPED EDUCATION GRANTS AND THE EARLY INTERVENTION GRANTS FOR DISABLED INFANTS AND TODDLERS. OVER 4.4 MILLION TODDLERS, CHILDREN AND YOUTH WITH DISABILITIES RECEIVE EARLY INTERVENTION OR SPECIAL EDUCATION AND RELATED SERVICES. HANDICAPPED EDUCATION PROGRAMS PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN HELPING PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES GAIN GREATER SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND INTEGRATION INTO SOCIETY. IN FY'91, $2.26 BILLION PROVIDED FOR HANDICAP EDUCATION PROGRAMS WAS SUFFICIENT TO PAY FOR 8 PERCENT OF THE COSTS ABOVE THE AVERAGE PER PUPIL EXPENDITURE.

HOWEVER, ADDITIONAL FUNDING IS REQUIRED TO PROVIDE STATES WITH AN INCREASED EXPENDITURE OF THE AVERAGE PER PUPIL COST, TO PROVIDE GREATER PRESCHOOL

GRANTS TO SERVE ADDITIONAL HANDICAPPED THREE. TO FIVE-YEAR-OLDS, AND TO ENABLE STATES TO CONTINUE TO PARTICIPATE IN THE EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAMS FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN FROM BIRTH TO AGE TWO.

ANOTHER FUNDING PRIORITY IS CHAPTER 1. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHAPTER 1 IS WELL DOCUMENTED. STUDIES AT THE FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL LEVELS, INCLUDING THOSE SPONSORED BY THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, SHOW THAT LOW - ACHIEVING CHILDREN WHO PARTICIPATE IN CHAPTER 1 DO SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER ACADEMICALLY THAN SIMILAR CHILDREN WHO DO NOT PARTICIPATE. SCHOOL DISTRICTS USE THE FUNDS TO EXPAND PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE READING, WRITING, COMPUTATION AND OTHER BASIC SKILLS FOR LOW-ACHIEVING CHILDREN. THE PROGRAM DIRECTLY ADDRESSES GOAL TWO OF THE GOVERNOR'S NATIONAL EDUCATION GOALS, WHICH CALLS FOR AN INCREASE IN THE NATION'S HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE FROM 71. TO 90% BY THE YEAR 2000. THE GOAL WILL NOT BE REALIZED WITHOUT A SUBSTANTIAL FUNDING INCREASE IN THE PROGRAM.

AMONG THE SMALLER PROGRAMS WITHIN CHAPTER 1, EVEN START COMBINES COMPENSATORY EDUCATION FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AGED ONE THROUGH SEVEN YEARS AND THEIR PARENTS WHO ARE ELIGIBLE TO BE SERVED UNDER THE ADULT EDUCATION ACT. AT AN APPROPRIATION LEVEL ABOVE $50 MILLION, EVEN START FUNDS ARE ALLOCATED TO THE STATES IN PROPORTION TO THEIR CHAPTER 1 BASIC GRANTS. THE PROGRAM IS CURRENTLY FUNDED AT $49.7 MILLION. INCREASED FUNDING WOULD EXPAND SERVICES TO ENSURE ELIGIBLE PARENTS' LITERACY, COMPETENCY, AND TRAINING OF PARENTS TO AID IN THE EDUCATION OF THEIR CHILDREN.

NASBE ALSO PLACES HIGH PRIORITY ON THE CHAPTER 2 BASIC STATE GRANT PROGRAM. FEW MEMBERS OF CONGRESS APPRECIATE HOW VALUABLE THIS PROGRAM IS IN HELPING STATES AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES SUPPORT INNOVATIVE PROGRAMS AND IN HELPING STATES ACHIEVE OVERALL IMPROVEMENT IN THE NATION'S SCHOOLS. BY LAW. CHAPTER 2 MONIES MUST BE SPENT ON PROGRAMS THAT MEET THE EDUCATION NEEDS OF STUDENTS AT RISK OF FAILURE IN SCHOOL AND OF DROPPING OUT; INSTRUCTIONAL AND REFERENCE MATERIALS, AND OTHER MATERIALS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION; INNOVATIVE PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO CARRY OUT SCHOOL-WIDE ACTIVITIES; PROGRAMS OF TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS OF EDUCATION PERSONNEL; PROGRAMS FOR GIFTED AND TALENTED STUDENTS; COMMUNITY EDUCATION; AND PROGRAMS FOR YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION.

STATE AND LOCAL EDUCATION AGENCIES PRAISE THE CHAPTER 2 PROGRAM FOR THE
FLEXIBILITY AND INCENTIVE IT OFFERS IN TERMS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
INNOVATIVE PROGRAMS. UNFORTUNATELY, CHAPTER 2 HAS RECEIVED SMALL INCREASES
OR LEVEL-FUNDING IN RECENT YEARS THROUGH THE APPROPRIATIONS PROCESS, MAKING
IT PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE TO ACROSS-THE-BOARD-CUTS IN HOUSE-SENATE
APPROPRIATIONS CONFERENCES OR IN FLOOR ACTION. THE PROGRAM IS CURRENTLY
FUNDED AT $484 MILLION, WHICH IS $300 MILLION LESS THAN THE INDIVIDUAL
PROGRAMS IT REPLACED IN 1981. WE HOPE TO SEE A SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE IN THIS
PROGRAM SO THAT STATES AND SCHOOL DISTRICTS CAN MEET THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF
AT-RISK AND HIGH COST STUDENTS AND EXPAND SCHOOL REFORM AND SCHOOL
IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS.

NASBE WOULD STRESS ONE LAST FUNDING PRIORITY THE HEAD START PROGRAM.
THIS MAJOR FEDERAL EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR LOW-INCOME
CHILDREN PROVIDES EDUCATION, SOCIAL, MEDICAL AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO
POOR CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 3 AND 5. HEAD START ALSO SUPPORTS A SMALL
NUMBER OF PARENT/CHILD CENTERS THAT PROVIDE SERVICES TO LOW-INCOME INFANTS,
AND TODDLERS AND THEIR FAMILIES. THE PROGRAM HAS RECEIVED SIZABLE INCREASES
IN EACH OF THE PAST TWO YEARS, YET THE $1.95 BILLION APPROPRIATION IN FY'91
WILL STILL SERVE ABOUT ONE-QUARTER OF THOSE ELIGIBLE.

I WILL CLOSE BY SAYING WHILE MANY POINT TO THE FEDERAL BUDGET DEFICIT AND THE RECENTLY PASSED BUDGET ENFORCEMENT ACT AND SAY THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SIMPLY CANNOT AFFORD TO FUND ALL THESE PROGRAMS AFFECTING CHILDREN. HOWEVER, CHANGING DEMOGRAPHICS ARE OVERWHELMING THE NATION'S EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. IF THE TRENDS CONTINUE, TOO MANY STUDENTS WILL BE LOST BEFORE EVEN BEGINNING HIGH SCHOOL. CLEARLY CONGRESS MUST DIRECT MORE RESOURCES TO OUR FEDERAL EDUCATION AND RELATED PROGRAMS TO ADDRESS THESE SERIOUS SOCIETAL NEEDS. FORTUNATELY, THE BUDGET ENFORCEMENT ACT PROVIDES APPROXIMATELY $10 BILLION FOR INCREASES IN DOMESTIC DISCRETIONARY SPENDING FOR FY' 92.

THANK YOU AGAIN FOR THIS OPPORTUNITY TO TESTIFY.

Senator HARKIN. Thank you very much. I want to see what you said about Head Start. Thank you very much for your testimony. I was writing down what you said here, that if education spending had remained constant at 2.5 percent of the Federal budget, that was its share in 1980.

Ms. Fox. That is correct.

Senator HARKIN. America's educational institutions would have some $6.7 billion more this year.

Ms. Fox. That is correct, if it had kept constant with inflation, that is correct.

Senator HARKIN. I wonder what percent of the Federal budget it is right now?

Ms. Fox. Pardon me?

Senator HARKIN. What percent of the Federal budget is education?

Ms. Fox. It is 1.7 percent of the total Federal budget, even with the substantial increase that we saw last year.

Senator HARKIN. 1.7 percent. That is a disgrace.
Ms. Fox. Yes; thank you. We think so, too.

Senator HARKIN. Thank you very much for your testimony. STATEMENT OF SANDRA FREED THOMAS, PRESIDENT, CHILDREN

WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDERS ACCOMPANIED BY:

JULIE DOY, DES MOINES, IA MARY FOWLER, FAIRHAVEN, NJ Senator HARKIN. Next is Sandra Thomas for Children with Attention Deficit Disorders.

Ms. THOMAS. Mr. Chairman, members of the subcommittee, thank you for giving us the chance to tell our story to you directly as parents whose children suffer from attention deficit disorder, or ADD. My name is Sandy Thomas. I am from Greenfield, MA. I was a constituent of Silvio Conte's and we take a moment to express my sincere condolences to his friends in the Senate. He was a true champion of our children's rights, and we sure do miss him.

Mr. Chairman, we are extremely honored to testify before you, a leading advocate of the rights of all disabled people. We deeply appreciate your support and leadership last year with and ADV notice of inquiry as well as the ADD centers. The inquiry resulted in over 2,000 responses. Many of those were overwhelmingly in favor of helping children who have ADD, particularly in the educational situations.

With me today are Julie Doy from Des Moines, IA, and Mary Fowler from Fairhaven, NJ. We are representing thousands of parents throughout the country, many of whom are here today. We are dedicated, loving, and exhausted parents. We would move heaven and Earth to have our children not have a neurobiological disorder. But they do.

I have submitted the facts about ADD in the written testimony, but I need to speak to you from the heart. Imagine what it is like to worry about your child, to not know what his problems are, to go through years and years of testing and evaluations and spend thousands of dollars. Then finally to have a result that your child does have ADD. A parent feels great relief and great enlightenment. But what happens is we go to our schools and our communities, and we are told outright we do not believe you. ADD does not exist, and you are just a lousy parent. And you know, you really need to spank you kid more. He would really shape up then.

I am here to say, Mr. Chairman, you cannot spank out a neurobiological disorder. And it is time that we stop berating parents and punishing children for the symptoms of a disorder which they cannot control.

There is clearly a gaping hole between the current amount of knowledge that we do know and what the public understands. We need you, our elected legislators to hear us and to consider our requests, and then to put your collective powers behind our proposals. Thanks to your previous support last year, Mr. Chairman, we can honestly say we are moving forward. But we have a long way

Julie Doy will describe what our children need right now.

to go.

STATEMENT OF JULIE DOY

Ms. Doy. Mr. Chairman, we need nationwide dissemination of current standardized information on the recognition and effective education of children who have ADD. This process was started last year when Congress, under your leadership, Mr. Chairman, appropriated money to establish ADD centers for this purpose. We ask you to at least match last years appropriation.

We need to educate the educators about ADD. We ask that Congress consider earmarking funds for ADD training programs for current and future educators within the Department of Education's existing budgets and grant programs. We need to support ongoing neurobiological research. ADD research, such as the study by Dr. Alan Zametkin and NIMH, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, is critical. It allows even greater insights into the brain, and ultimately to the most effective management.

PREPARED STATEMENT Ms. THOMAS. Mr. Chairman, on behalf of Scott, my son, David, Christy, as well as thousands of other children, we thank you sincerely for allowing us to testify before you today. We will be happy to answer any questions you might have.

[The statement follows:)

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