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The main point is that human welfare is a compound of achievement in each of these divisions and subdivisions of effort, and that no estimate of a social situation is complete that leaves any portion of either division of achievement out of the account.

It is thus assumed that the whole exhibit presents a series of problems of proportion and correlation. No claim is made that the conspectus is itself a sufficient correlation of the topics suggested. They are presented merely as a tentative catalogue, as a preliminary survey, not as a theory of relative values.

CONSPECTUS OF THE SOCIAL SITUATION

AS

GIVEN

IN

THE

PRESENT

STATE

OF

ACHIEVEMENT

AND

IN

UNSOLVED

TECHNICAL PROBLEMS,

GRAND DIVISIONS.

I. ACHIEVEMENT IN PROMOTING HEALTH.
II. ACHIEVEMENT IN PRODUCING WEALTH.
III. ACHIEVEMENT IN HARMONIZING HUMAN RELATIONS.
IV. ACHIEVEMENT IN DISCOVERY AND SPREAD OF KNOWLEDGE.

V. ACHIEVEMENT IN THE FINE ARTS.
VI. ACHIEVEMENT IN RELIGION.

DIVISION I. ACHIEVEMENT IN PROMOTING HEALTH.

I. Public sanitation and hygiene, including systems of quarantine, isola

tion and colonization (for lepers, epileptics, etc.). 2. Preventive and curative medicine and surgery, including the apparatus

of hospitals, dispensaries, ambulances, first aid " instruction to police,

etc. 3. Safeguards against accidents and protection in dangerous occupations. 4. Fire and police protection in general. 5. Development of dietetics and prevention of adulteration of food. 6. Protection against disease germs in food. 7. Improved dwellings and workshops. 8. Topographical arrangements of cities, especially extension of workmen's

dwellings into suburbs. 9. Water, light, and transportation supply. 10. Parks, playgrounds, sewerage, baths, outings. II. Promotion of temperance. 12. Control of sexual vice, and treatment of its consequences. 13. Shortening the labor day. 14. Dress reform.

15. Cooking schools.
16. Disposal of the dead.
17. Disposal of garbage and sewage.
18. Physical culture, gymnastics, health resorts.
19. Athletic sports.

DIVISION II. ACHIEVEMENT IN PRODUCING WEALTH.

A. Two POINTS OF VIEW:

I. Achievement in each industry. 2. Achievement in each country.

1. e., the composite view must include total achievement in all indus

tries in all countries. Another double-view point is: 1. Achievement in production merely.

2. Achievement in accumulation.
B. CERTAIN FORMS OF ACHIEVEMENT COMMON TO ALL INDUSTRIES :

1. Improved tools and machinery.
2. In use of waste and by-products.
3. Increase in amount of capital invested in machinery.
4. Greater skill in laborers.
5. Improved managerial ability.
6. Improved processes of production.
7. Standardizing of weights and measures.
8. Improved industrial organizations.

a) In division of labor.
b) In size of plant.
c) In co-ordination with other industries; i. e., fuel, ore, transporta-

tion, and factory in hands of one organization. 9. Localization of industry.

a) With respect to nearness of raw material.
b) With respect to nearness of labor.

c) With respect to nearness to market.
10. Increased regularity of production.
11. New uses for materials and products.
12. Improved means of storing and preserving products.
13. Achievement in the development of motor power.

14. Bounties, tariffs, subsidies, patents, etc., as stimuli of production.
C. ACHIEVEMENT IN THE PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES :
1. Extractive industry.

a) Agriculture and grazing.
b) Stock-breeding.
c) Fisheries.
d) Forestry.
e) Exploitation of mineral resources, including oil and gas.

f) Quarrying.
g) Irrigation.
h) Work of agricultural experiment stations.

(1) Extent of each crop or output.
(2) Achievement in preserving sources of supply.

(3) Achievement in the peculiar technique of the industry.
2. Manufactures.
a) Food.

(1) Milk.
(2) Breakfast foods.
(3) Slaughtering and meat-packing.
(4) Butter, cheese, and oleo.
(5) Canning and preserving.
(6) Salt.
(7) Beet sugar.
(8) Rice.
(9) Cottonseed products.
(10) Alcoholic liquors.
(11) Malt liquors.
(12) Tobacco.
(13) Ice.

(14) Glucose.
b) Textiles.
c) Wood. Including metallurgical progress and new

uses for d) Metals. mineral products. e) Chemicals. f) Vehicles. g) Clay, glass, and stone products.

h) Explosives and firearms. 3. Achievement in all branches of engineering, except as more properly

discussed in Division I.
4. Achievement in the building arts.
5. Achievement in the handicrafts.
6. Transportation.
a) Marine.

(1) Structure of vessels.
(2) Charts, lighthouses, life-saving stations, and other protections

of navigation.
(3) The Weather Bureau.
b) Land.

(1) Railroads.
(2) Urban transit.
(3) Autos and other vehicles.

}

(4) Improved highways.

(5) Improved water-ways. 7. Means of communication.

a) Postal systems.
b) Telegraph and telephone systems.
c) Minor improvements; ė. g., tubular posts, messenger service,

organization of news service, etc. 8. Achievement in the art of printing and in methods of publication. 9. Achievement in trade and commerce. a) Improvement in machinery for bringing buyer and seller together;

produce exchanges, etc.
b) Commercial banking and credit.
c) Savings institutions.
d) Insurance.
e) International commerce.

f) Domestic commerce. 10. Shipbuilding.

DIVISION III. ACHIEVEMENT IN HARMONIZING HUMAN RELATIONS.

I. e., in adjusting relations of groups to groups and of individuals to individuals in the process of securing proportional shares in political, industrial, and social opportunity; i. e., achievement in harmonizing claims respecting primarily

A. POLITICAL RIGHTS.
B. INDUSTRY AND PROPERTY.

C. OPPORTUNTIES FOR CULTURE. These may be indicated more in detail as follows, viz.: A. POLITICAL ACHIEVEMENT. 1. Between nations within the international-law group. a) Achievement in definition of rights through alliances, treaties,

spheres of interest, mediation, arbitration, etc. b) Achievement in securing international peace, and in improving

articles of war. 2. Between the international-law group and other peoples.

a) Administration of dependencies.

b) International status of non-civilized peoples. 3. Adjustment of political balance between minor political units and

the central power (local self-government). 4. Achievement in admission of individuals and classes to civic rights. 5. Achievement in civic organization.

a) Responsibilities of ministries.
b) Enhanced representative character of parliaments.
c) Enlistment of expert service in administration (including all

branches civil and military).

d) Improvements in fiscal systems.

e) Improvements in currency systems. 6. Improvements in status of aliens and in naturalization laws. 7. Movements aimed at further civic progress largely by voluntary

initiative. a) Agitations for extension of constitutional guarantees (in various

countries of the world).
b) Organization of political parties.
c) Agitations for minor political reforms.

(1) In principle of representation, e. g., minority representation.
(2) In control of nominations and elections.
(3) In popular check upon legislation (initiative and referendum).
(4) Enlargement of areas of uniform regulations (in continental

Europe imperial federation, in Great Britain colonial federa

tion, in the United States uniform legislation of states, etc.). (5) In extension of the merit system. (6) Good government clubs of the various types.

(7) Associations for pronioting international peace. B. ACHIEVEMENT IN HARMONIZING INDUSTRIAL AND PROPERTY INTERESTS. 1. Primarily by law : a) Improved legal status of various kinds of property partnerships,

corporations, franchises, etc. b) Removal of artificial barriers to enterprise (international and

domestic); i. e., increased freedom of industry and migration. c) Labor laws. d) Homestead laws. e) Laws protecting seanien. f) Arbitration laws. g) Simplification of procedure. h) Checks on oppressive power of capitalistic or labor organizations. i) Governmental pensions and insurance. j) Governmental supervision of industrial and commercial enterprise,

including departments of agriculture, commerce, transportation,

bureaus of labor, etc. k) State ownership of industries. 1) Improvements in status of married women and of children, both as

to property and as to industry.
m) Municipal pawn-shops.
n) Asset banking.
0) Improvement in legal status of professional and personal service.

(1) Clergymen.
(2) Lawyers.
(3) Teachers.

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