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Section 283. Officers or employees interested in claims against

the Government. Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States or any department or agency thereof, or of the Senate or House of Representatives, acts as an agent or attorney for prosecuting any claim against the United States, or aids or assists in the prosecution or support of any such claim otherwise than in the proper discharge of his official duties, or receives any gratuity, or any share of or interest in any such claim in consideration of assistance in the prosecution of such claim, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

Retired officers of the armed forces of the United States, while not on active duty, shall not by reason of their status as such be subject to the provisions of this section. Nothing herein shall be construed to allow any such retired officer within two years next after his retirement to act as agent or attorney for prosecuting or assisting in the prosecution of any claim against the United States involving the department in whose service he holds a retired status, or to allow any such retired officer to act as agent or attorney for prosecuting or assisting in the prosecution of any claim against the United States involving any subject matter with which he was directly connected while he was in an active-duty status.

This section shall not apply to any person because of his membership in the National Guard of the District of Columbia nor to any person specially excepted by enactment of Congress.

Section 284. Disqualifications of former officers and employees

in matters connected with former duties. Whoever, having been employed in any agency of the United States, including commissioned officers assigned to duty in such agency, within two years after the time when such employment or service has ceased, prosecutes or acts as counsel, attorney, or agent for prosecuting, any claims against the United States involving any subject matter directly connected with which such person was so employed or performed duty, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

Section 287. False, fictitious or fraudulent claims.

Whoever makes or presents to any person or officer in the civil, military, or naval service of the United States, or to any department or agency thereof, any claim upon or against the United States, or any department or agency thereof, knowing such claim to be false, fictitious, or fraudulent, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

CHAPTER 23.-CONTRACTS

Section 431. Contracts by Member of Congress.

Whoever, being a Member of or Delegate to Congress, or a Resident Commissioner, either before or after he has qualified, directly or indirectly, himself, or by any other person in trust for him, or for his use or benefit, or on his account, undertakes, executes, holds, or enjoys, in whole or in part, any contract or agreement, made or entered into in behalf of the United States or any agency thereof, by any officer or person authorized to make contracts on its behalf, shall be fined not more than $3,000.

All contracts or agreements made in violation of this section shall be void; and whenever any sum of money is advanced by the United States or any agency thereof, in consideration of any such contract or agreement, it shall forthwith be repaid; and in case of failure or refusal to repay the same when demanded by the proper officer of the department or agency under whose authority such contract or agreement shall have been made or entered into, suit shall at once be brought against the person so failing or refusing and his sureties for the recovery of the money so advanced. June 25, 1948, c. 645, 62 Stat. 702; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, $ 19, 65 Stat. 717.

Section 432. Officer or employee contracting with Member of

Congress. Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States, on behalf of the United States or any agency thereof, directly or indirectly makes or enters into any contract, bargain, or agreement, with any Member of or Delegate to Congress, or any Resident Commissioner, either before or after he has qualified, shall be fined not more than $3,000. June 25, 1948, c. 645, 62 Stat. 702.

Section 433. Exemptions with respect to certain contracts.

Sections 431 and 432 of this title shall not extend to any contract or agreement made or entered into, or accepted by any incorporated company for the general benefit of such corporation; nor to the purchase or sale of bills of exchange or other property where the same are ready for delivery and payment therefor is made at the time of making or entering into the contract or agreement. Nor shall the provisions of such sections apply to advances, loans, discounts, purchase or repurchase agreements, extensions, or renewals thereof, or acceptances, releases or substitutions of security therefor or other contracts or agreements made or entered into under the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act, the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act, the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act of 1933, the Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation Act, the Farm Credit Act of 1933, or the Home Owners Loan Act of 1933, the Farmers' Home Administration Act of 1946, the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act, or to crop insurance agreements or contracts or agreements of a kind which the Secretary of Agriculture may enter into with farmers.

Any exemption permitted by this section shall be made a matter of public record. June 25, 1948, c. 645, 62 Stat. 703.

Section 434. Interested persons acting as Government agents.

Whoever, being an officer, agent or member of, or directly or indirectly interested in the pecuniary profits or contracts of any corporation, joint-stock company, or association, or of any firm or partnership, or other business entity, is employed or acts as an officer or agent of the United States for the transaction of business with such business entity, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. June 25, 1948, c. 645, 62 Stat. 703.

Section 435. Contracts in excess of specific appropriation.

Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States, knowingly contracts for the erection, repair, or furnishing of any public building, or for any public improvement, to pay a larger amount than the specific sum appropriated for such purpose, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. June 25, 1948, c. 645, 62 Stat. 703.

CONVICT LABOR LAW

Section 436. Convict labor contracts.

Whoever, being an officer, employee, or agent of the United States or any department or agency thereof, contracts, with any person or corporation, or permits any warden, agent, or official of any penal or correctional institution, to hire out the labor of any prisoners confined for violation of any laws of the United States, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. June 25, 1948, c. 645, 62 Stat. 703.

Executive Order 325A, 18 May 1905.

All contracts which shall hereafter be entered into by officers or agents of the United States involving the employment of labor in the States composing the Union, or the Territories of the United States contiguous thereto, shall, unless otherwise provided by law, contain a stipulation for bidding, in the performance of such contracts, the employment of persons undergoing sentences of imprisonment at hard labor which have been imposed by the courts of the several States, Territories or municipalities having criminal jurisdiction.

Section 443. War contracts.

Whoever willfully secretes, mutilates, obliterates, or destroys

(a) any records of a war contractor relating to the negotiation, award, performance, payment, interim financing, cancellation or other termination, or settlement of a war contract of $25,000 or more; or

(b) any records of a war contractor or purchaser relating to any disposition of termination inventory in which the consideration received by any war contractor or any government agency is $5,000 or more, before the lapse of (1) five years after such disposition or termination inventory by such war contractor or government agency, or (2) five years after the final settlement of such war contract, or (3) five years after 12 o'clock noon of December 31, 1946, whichever applicable period is longer, shall, if a corporation, be fined not more than $50,000, and, if a natural person, be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

The Administrator of General Services, by regulation, may authorize the destruction of such records upon such terms and conditions as he deems appropriate, including the requirement for the making and retaining of photographs or microphotographs, which shall have the same force and effect as the originals thereof.

The definitions of terms in section 103 of Title 41 shall apply to similar terms used in this section. As amended October 31, 1951. c. 655, $20 (a), 65 Stat. 717.

CHAPTER 29.-ELECTIONS AND POLITICAL

ACTIVITIES

Section 611. Contributions by firms or individuals contracting

with the United States. Whoever, entering into any contract with the United States or any department or agency thereof, either for the rendition of personal services or furnishing any material, supplies, or equipment to the United States or any department or agency thereof, or selling any land or building to the United States or any department or agency thereof, if payment for the performance of such contract or payment for such material, supplies, equipment, land, or building is to be made in whole or in part from funds appropriated by the Congress, during the period of negotiation for, or performance under such contract or furnishing of material, supplies, equipment, land, or buildings, directly or indirectly makes any contribution of money or any other thing of value, or promises expressly or impliedly to make any such contribution, to any political party, committee, or candidate for public office or to any person for any political purpose or use; or

Whoever knowingly solicits any such contribution from any such person or firm, for any such purpose during any such period,

Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. June 25, 1948, c. 645, 62 Stat. 724.

CHAPTER 41.-EXTORTION AND THREATS

COPELAND ("ANTI-KICKBACK") ACT

Section 874. Kickbacks from public works employees.

Whoever, by force, intimidation, or threat of procuring dismissal from employment, or by any other manner whatsoever induces any person employed in the construction, prosecution, completion or repair of any public building, public work, or building or work financed in whole or in part by loans or grants from the United States, to give up any part of the compensation to which he is entitled under his contract or employment, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. June 25, 1948, c. 645, 62 Stat. 740.

CHAPTER 47.-FRAUD AND FALSE STATEMENTS

Section 1022. Delivery of certificate, voucher, receipt, for mili

tary or naval property. Whoever, being authorized to make or deliver any certificate, voucher, receipt, or other paper certifying the receipt of arms, ammunition, provisions, clothing, or other property used or to be used in the military or naval service, makes or delivers the same to any other person without a full knowledge of the truth of the facts stated therein and with intent to defraud the United States, or any agency thereof, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. June 25, 1948, c. 645, 62 Stat. 754.

CHAPTER 93.-PUBLIC OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES

Section 1914. Salary of Government officials and employees pay

able only by United States. Whoever, being a Government official or employee, receives any salary in connection with his services as such an official or employee from any source other than the Government of the United States, except as may be contributed out of the treasury of any State, county, or municipality; or

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