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developed. For graphic display, a digital periodic integrator is used. In conjunction with scalers and a stepping motor on the sample stage, traces similar to industrial control charts based on a comparison of the experiment with the expected (Poisson) counting statistics are quickly obtained. A computer program has been developed to numerically evaluate sample homogeneity.

Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been tested. These include the iron and steels (SRMs 661-664, 461, and 463), the gold-copper and gold-silver alloys (SRMs 481 and 482), the tungsten-20 percent molybdenum alloy (SRM 480), cartridge brass (SRM 478), the iron-chromium-nickel alloy (SRM 479a). A Research Material, Glasses for Microanalysis (RM-30), has also been tested.

SP305. Supplement 10. Publications of the National Bureau of

Standards 1978 Catalog. A compilation of abstracts and key word and author indexes, B. L. Burris and R. J. Morehouse, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 305, Suppl. 10, 679 pages (June 1979) SNOO3-003-02069-9.

Key words: abstracts, NBS publications; key words; publi

cations. This 10th supplement to Special Publication 305 of the National Bureau of Standards lists the publications of the Bureau issued between January 1-December 31, 1978. It includes an abstract of each publication (plus some earlier papers omitted from Special Publication 305 Supplement 9), key-word and author indexes; and general information and instructions about NBS publications.

SP376. Ruler: 15 cm/6 in, with metric-customary units and

equivalent, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 376, both sides (Reissued Jan. 1979) SN003-003-01080-4,

SP260-66. Standard reference materials: Didymium glass filters

for calibrating the wavelength scale of spectrophotometers–SRM 2009, 2010, 2013, and 2014, W. H. Venable, Jr. and K. L. Eckerle, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 26066, 85 pages (Oct. 1979) SN003-003-02127-0.

Key words: bandwidth; didymium glass filter; passband centroid; spectrophotometer; transmittance; wavelength standard.

Key words: centimeter; conversion; customary units; inch;

metric units. This ruler provides metric linear measure (15 cm) and customary-unit linear equivalents (approximately 6 inches) plus conversion formula for effecting changes from customary to metric units.

This publication presents the use of didymium glass filters as Standard Reference Materials (SRM). The standard reference materials are labeled 2009, 2010, 2013 and 2014 depending on size and method of calibration. The certification and uncertainties are also discussed. An appendix with background material and terminology is included. Wavelengths of minimum transmittance and inflection points in the transmittance curve are certified to be at specified wavelength and provide a convenient method of calibrating the passband centroid of spectrophotometers with bandwidths between 1.5 and 10.5 nm.

SP400-14. Semiconductor measurement technology: Thermal re

sistance measurements on power transistors, S. Rubin and F. F. Oettinger, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-14, 69 pages (Apr. 1979) SN003-003-02050-8.

Key words: current crowding; die attachment evaluation; junction temperature; measurement technology; power transistors; semiconductor devices; thermal characterization; thermal resistance; transistors.

SP260-67. Standard reference materials: A reference method for

the determination of chloride in serum, R. A. Velapoldi, R. C. Paule, R. Schaffer, J. Mandel, T. J. Murphy, and J. W. Gramlich, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 260-67, 97 pages (Nov. 1979) SNOO3-003-02136-9.

A brief description of the idealized concept of thermal re. sistance is given along with the problems and pitfalls encountered in applying the concept to power transistors. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of various electrical techniques for measuring junction temperature (thermal resistance) described, and a preferred technique, in which the forward-biased emitter-base junction is used as the temperature-sensitive parameter, is usable on all types of bipolar transistors. The measurement procedure is relatively simple and lends itself to industrial measurements as well as for referee purposes. The power interruption circuitry is also relatively fast and simple since only one device terminal is switched. The preferred technique that was developed for measuring the thermal resistance of power transistors has been adopted as EIA Recommended Standard RS-313-B on Thermal Resistance Measurements of Conduction Cooled Power Transistors, dated October 1975.

Key words: amperometry; chloride analysis; clinical analysis; clinical chemistry; coulometry; definitive method; electrolytes; reference method; serum chloride analysis; statisti

cal analysis. Guided by a committee of experts in clinical chemistry, a reference method was established for the determination of serum chloride based on a coulometric titration-amperometric end-point determination (C-A). Its accuracy was evaluated by comparing the values obtained by use of the method in 14 laboratories against the results obtained by a definitive analytical method based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (IDMS). Seven serum pools with chloride concentrations in the range 79.2 to 116.8 mmol/L were analyzed. Micro- and macropipetting alternatives were tested using sample sizes of 0.010-0.100 and 5.0 mL, respectively.

The laboratories used several different C-A instruments. The results showed that the standard error for a single laboratory's performance of the procedure was approximately 1.0 mmol/L with a maximum bias of 0.5 mmol/L over the range of concentrations studied. These values are within the accuracy and precision goals that had been set by the committee. The results from the micro- and macropipetting techniques were similar. The calibration curve data showed excellent linearity over the total concentration range, with 12 of 14 curves having standard deviation of fit of less than 0.80 mmol/L.

With appropriate experimental design, the reference method may be used to establish the accuracy of field methods as well as to determine reference chloride values for pooled sera.

SP400-38. Semiconductor measurement technology: Progress re

port, October 1, 1976 to March 31, 1977, W. M. Bullis, Ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-38, 95 pages (Nov. 1979) SN003-003-02139-3.

Key words: auger electron spectroscopy; die attachment; electrical properties; electronics; hermeticity; indiumdoped silicon; infrared reflectance; integrated circuits; linewidth measurements; oxidation; photolithography: photovoltaic method; power device grade silicon; radioisotope leak test; resistivity variations; resistors, sheet; scanning acoustic microscope; semiconductor materials; semiconductor process control; silicon; silicon dioxide; silicon-on-sapphire; sodium contamination; test patterns; test structures; thermally stimulated current and capacitance; transistors; ultraviolet reflectance; VCE(SAT); x-ray

photoelectron spectroscopy. This progress report describes NBS activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices. Both in-house and contract efforts are included. The emphasis is on silicon device technologies. Principal accomplishments during this reporting period included (1) refinement and extension of the analysis of the nondestructive, photovoltaic method for measuring radial resistivity variation of silicon slices; (2) development of a donor-addition technique for testing for the presence of Xlevels in indium-doped silicon; (3) development of a precision, wet chemical etching procedure for use in conjunction with xray photoelectron spectroscopy for profiling silicon dioxide-silicon interfaces; (4) completion of thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium sodium density in oxidation atmospheres contained in polycrystalline silicon tubes; (5) initial extensions of the line-width measurement procedure to partially transparent and reflecting specimens and to submicrometer dimensions; and (6) completion of the development of a test pattern for characterizing a large-scale-integration, silicon-on-sapphire process. Also reported is other ongoing work on materials characterization by electrical and physical analysis methods, materials and procedures for wafer processing, photolithography, test patterns, and device inspection and test procedures. Supplementary data concerning staff and publications are included as appendices. SP400-47. Semiconductor

technology: The theoretical and experimental study of the temperature and dopant density dependence of hole mobility, effective mass, and resistivity in boron-doped silicon, S. S. Li, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-47, 50 pages (Nov. 1979) SN003003-02140-7.

SP400-48. Semiconductor measurement technology: Spreading

resistance analysis for silicon layers with nonuniform resistivity, D. H. Dickey and J. R. Ehrstein, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-48, 72 pages (May 1979) SN003-003-020613.

Key words: dopant profiles; resistivity; resistivity profiles;

semiconductor; silicon; spreading resistance. A simple mathematical algorithm is developed for the calculation of resistivity depth profiles from spreading resistance measurements on sectioned silicon device structures. It is applicable to structures consisting of one or more layers of the same or differing conductivity types. The algorithm accounts for modification of the sampling volume of the spreading resistance probes due to nearby variations in depth of specimen resistivity whether resulting from graded dopant distribution or electrical boundaries, either insulating or conducting.

The algorithm is based on limiting case one- and two-dimensional models of the conduction between the probes. Compared with the traditional spreading resistance analysis algorithm based on the three-dimensional boundary value solution of Schumann and Gardner, the present work offers greatly enhanced execution times even with a microcomputer, making real time analysis for process control possible.

An experiment to test the accuracy of one of the limiting models used is described. Profiles of a number of diffused layers generated from spreading resistance measurements analyzed by this algorithm are compared with profiles obtained on replicate specimens using another electrical technique. In addition, computer experiments are used for simple layer models to compare results based on this algorithm with results from the Schumann-Gardner approach.



Key words: boron-doped silicon; dopant density; effective mass; hole mobility; ionized impurity scattering mobility; lattice scattering mobility; neutral impurity; resistivity; scat

tering mechanisms; scattering mobility; p-type silicon. Theoretical expressions for computing resistivity and conductivity mobility of holes as functions of dopant density and temperature have been derived for boron-doped silicon. The model is applicable for dopant densities from 1013 to 3 x 1018 cmand temperatures between 100 and 400 K.

Using a three-band (i.e., heavy-hole, light-hole, and spin-orbit split (SO) bands) model, the hole mobility was calculated by properly combining the contributions from scattering by lattice phonons, ionized impurities, and neutral impurities. In addition, the effects of hole-hole (h-h) scattering and nonparabolicity of the light-hole band were taken into account in the mobility formulation.

To verify our theoretical calculations, resistivity measurements on nine boron-doped silicon slices with dopant densities from 4.5 x 10" to 3.2 x 1018 cm were performed for 100 € T < 400 K, using a planar four-probe square-array test structure. Agreement between our calculated and measured resistivity values was within 6 percent over the entire range of dopant density and temperature studied here. Excellent agreement (within 15 percent) between our calculated hole mobility values and those of Thurber et. al was obtained for No < 1018 cm. These discrepancies are attributed to Wagner's neglect of the effect of deionization of boron impurities at higher dopant densities (i.e., he assumed hole density equal to the total boron density).

Finally, formulations for the density-of-states effective mass, conductivity effective mass, and Hall effective mass described, and the results are applied to the calculations of hole masses in boron-doped silicon for 101 < NA < 1018 cm and 50 <T < 500 K.

SP400-50. Semiconductor measurement technology: Reliability

technology for cardiac pacemakers III-A workshop report. Report of a Workshop held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, Oct. 19-20, 1977, H. A. Schafft, Ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-50, 134 pages (June 1979) SN003-003-02076-1.

Кеу words: automated testing; batteries; cardiac pacemakers; contamination; corrosion; electrostatic-induced damage; hermeticity; hybrid devices; leak testing; measurement technology; microcalorimetry; moisture; nondestructive testing; pacemaker leads; process control; relia

bility; semiconductor devices; welding. The workshop, third in a series, served as a forum for pacemaker manufacturers and other interested parties to address technical questions relevant to the enhancement and assurance of cardiac pacemaker reliability. Extended summaries are provided of 27 talks and of eight sets of group encounter discussions on the following topic areas: microcalorimetric measurements to evaluate nondestructively batteries used in pacemakers; qualification procedures, end-of-life prediction, and neutron radiography interrogation of lithium-based batteries; measurement of moisture; moisture effects on the reliability of pacemakers and components; electrostatic-induced damage to semiconductor devices; procurement of high reliability semiconductor components; automated testing of pacemakers; actuarial analyses of lead and pacemaker failures; pacemaker case welding processes; surface contamination measurements, corrosion and accelerated tests for metallic materi. als; and conformal coatings for pacemaker applications.


SP400-51. Semiconductor measurement technology: A produc

tion-compatible microelectronic test pattern for evaluating photomask misalignment, T. J. Russell and D. A. Maxwell, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-51, 32 pages (Apr. 1979) SN003-003-02035-4.


Key words: contact resistor; cross bridge sheet resistor; electrical alignment resistor; semiconductor; silicon; test

pattern; test structures; visual alignment. Microelectronic test pattern NBS-15 is composed of several potentiometric, production-compatible electrical alignment resistor test structures, visual alignment indicator test structures, cross bridge sheet resistors, and contact resistor test structures. The pattern was originally designed as a study vehicle for the electrical alignment resistor, but it was also demonstrated that, when stepped over an entire wafer, the pattern is suitable for use in evaluating misalignment which may result from photomask generation, photomask exposure, or other fabrication processes. This report summarizes the test structures that are included in the pattern and contains explanation of how each of the structures is measured.

This report describes the design and characterization of a variable-temperature wafer apparatus for use in the detection of electrically active defects which produce deep levels in the band gap of silicon. In its present form, the wafer chuck can heat and cool wafers as large as 51 mm in diameter over the temperature range from –196 to 350 °C; heating rates as high as 7 °C/s have been achieved. The uniformity of the temperature across the chuck under static conditions is estimated to be better than 10.4 °C. Construction details of the chuck are given in an appendix. The use of this apparatus is illustrated by wafer mapping the gold defect density in diodes fabricated across a silicon wafer.

SP400-52. Semiconductor measurement technology: An auto

mated photovoltaic system for the measurement of resistivity variations in high-resistivity circular silicon slices, D. L. Blackburn, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-52, 41 pages (Nov. 1979) SN003-003-02138-5.

Key words: automation; bulk photovoltaic effect; computer control; homogeneity; measurement method; nondestructive testing; photoconductivity; power devices; resistivity variation.

This report describes an automated photovoltaic system for nondestructive measurement of resistivity variations of high-resistivity circular silicon slices. The computer-based system for making the measurements is described, detailed construction diagrams are given to facilitate reproduction of the system, and a listing of the computer program for controlling the system is given. Comparisons between resistivity profiles determined using the automated photovoltaic system and the four-probe technique indicate that the photovoltaic system is adequate for production screening and incoming inspection of high-resistivity float-zoned silicon slices.

SP400-54. Semiconductor measurement technology: A reverse

blas safe operating area transistor tester, D. W. Berning, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-54, 43 pages (Mar. 1979) SN003-003-02046-0.

SP400-56. Semiconductor measurement technology: Comprehen

sive test pattern and approach for characterizing SOS technology, W. E. Ham, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-56, 370 pages (Dec. 1979) SN003-003-02144-6.

Key words: comprehensive process characterization; design rules; intradie parametric integrity; LSI circuits; mask alignment tolerances; modular test programs; parametric yield limitations; performance limitations; photomask performance; process control; test patterns; test structures,

total process integration. This report contains detailed information concerning a comprehensive approach to parametric process characterization for IC processes. This includes defining the general areas of importance, devising structures which are sensitive to these areas, devising methods for testing the structures, documenting the structures, tests, and results, producing suitable data reduction and presentation schemes, and considering the implementation of the methods in a practical sense. Proper methods for auto matically testing some of these structures are explored. Seven divisions were created for the general types of test structure: (1) individual structures of nominal dimensions, (2) closely spaced identical structures, (3) structures of various sizes, (4) series and parallel combinations of structures, (5) structures especially sensitive to lithographic properties, (6) basic circuit building blocks, and (7) small area test circuits.

A test pattern, compatible primarily with silicon on sapphire technology, which integrates into a single mask set (6 levels) test structures to measure the properties of each of these basic divisions, was created and partially tested. This concept of total integration is shown to be valuable for determining causes and effects of many kinds with the use of only a small number of test wafers. An attempt was made to use computer-aided techniques as much as possible. These found application in mask making (the masks would have been much more difficult to create without the computer), documentation (where computer line drawings were used as the basic drawings), testing (where a standardizable building block approach was implemented), and finally, the traditional use of the computer for data reduction and presentation. The test pattern contains 175 individually identified test structures and has approximately 1250 electrical access pads for each chip. The chip dimensions are 258 by 258 mil (6.553 X 6.553 mm). All of these structures are documented with cross sections and line drawings. A discussion of the intended uses of the structures, of their peculiarities, and samples of actual test results for many of the structures are included. A “small-signal" approach to testing, data analysis, and test structure design was used in several cases. For the test structure design, the small-signal approach is particularly useful with respect to physical structure sensitivi. ty. For the testing, it finds traditional applications in the measurement of slopes while in the data analysis differences in identically acquired data from different wafers are frequently the desired information.

Results from a limited use of the pattern on a sampling of wafers from a few lots indicated that contact resistance effects

Key words: base drive circuit; electronic circuits; inductive load; nondestructive; protection circuit; reverse bias; safe operating area; second breakdown; switching power

transistor; tester; transistor. This is a construction guide for a reverse-bias safe operating area (RBSOA) transistor tester for npn switching transistors. Principles of operation for various circuits in the tester are discussed, as well as those of the complete system. System specifications are given. Extensive construction notes are given with hints on chassis layout. Complete circuit schematics are given with additional detail pertaining to power supply and grounding interconnections. Mechanical drawings of the tester enclosure are given. Photographs are included as additional help in building the tester. Special components such as the collector load inductor are described. Finally, a section on the use of the tester includes waveforms generated by a typical test that would be made on a transistor with this equipment.

SP400-55. Semiconductor measurement technology: A wafer

chuck for use between -196 and 350 °C, R. Y. Koyama and M. G. Buehler, Nar. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-55, 24 pages (Jan. 1979) SN003-003-02017-6.

Key words: deep level measurements; defect mapping; hot/cold wafer chuck; thermally stimulated measurements; thermal wafer chuck; variable temperature; wafer chuck.

Stability and ternary chalcopyrite photovoltaic devices, L. L. Kazmerski, SP400-58, pp. 30-40 (Aug. 1979).

Stability of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells, T. L. Chu, S. S. Chu, E. D. Stokes, C. L. Lin, and R. Abderrassoul, SP400-58, pp. 41-47 (Aug. 1979).

and deposited oxide pin holes were much more important than previously thought. Alignment measurements between photomasking levels were obtained with an accuracy of - 250 Å. The closely spaced and nominally identical structures are shown to be especially valuable for determining the nature of the individual measurements and for providing some of the best clues to the causes of the observed variations.

The uses of the overall approach include processing facility comparisons using structures with understandable outputs, detecting the least controlled parts of the process, providing a solid base on which to define circuit design rules, and predicting parametric yield loss to be expected due to circuit designprocess incompatibility.

Reliability studies on MIS and transparent oxide-Si solar cells, W. A. Anderson and J. K. Kim, SP400-58, pp. 48-56 (Aug. 1979).

Stability of conducting oxide/Si heterostructure solar cells, S. L. Frank, M. L. Andren, and R. L. Anderson, SP400-58, pp. 57-62 (Aug. 1979).

Unique problem areas in M-I-S solar cell structures, $, J. Fonash, G. Fishkorn, and T. E. Sullivan, SP400-58, pp. 63. 68 (Aug. 1979).

Reliability testing of GaAs AMOS solar cells, R. J. Stim, SP400-58, pp. 69-75 (Aug. 1979).

SP400-57. Semiconductor measurement technology: DISTRIB I,

an impurity redistribution computer program, D. Gilsinn and R. Kraft, Nai. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-57, 130 pages (Feb. 1979) SNOO3-003-02030-3.

Key words: diffusion; electronic technology; impurity distribution; material transport; segregation; semiconductor

technology This report provides documentation of a computer program which calculates the redistribution of impurities in silicon during a single oxidation step. The documentation provides: (1) a physical and mathematical description of the redistribution process, (2) a detailed description of the discretization of the appropriate partial differential equations, and (3) a complete description of the FORTRAN program for computing the solution.

Stability of thin film gallium arsenide solar cells, S. S. Chu, T. L. Chu, H. T. Yang, and E. D. Stokes, SP400-58, pp. 7681 (Aug. 1979).

Stability studies of amorphous silicon solar cells, D. E. Carlson, SP400-58, pp. 82-85 (Aug. 1979).

Silicon cell space program experience, P. A. lles, SP400-58, pp. 86-94 (Aug. 1979).

Reliability concerns and life test procedures for concentrator solar cells, W. V. McLevige, SP400-58, pp. 95-101 (Aug. 1979).

SP400-58. Semiconductor measurement technology: NBS/DOE

workshop, stability of (thin film) solar cells and materials, D. E. Sawyer and H. A. Schafft, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-58, 181 pages (Aug. 1979) SNOO3-003. 02100-8.

Some reliability problems in integrated circuits—Their detection, definition, and remedy, J. W. Adolphsen, SP400-58, pp. 102-109 (Aug. 1979).

Tests for instabilities in silicon integrated circuits, C. W. Green, SP400-58, pp. 110-125 (Aug. 1979).

Real-time controls for reliability assurance, S. Kukunaris, SP400-58, pp. 126-127 (Aug. 1979).

Interdiffusion and interface problems relating to thin film photovoltaic devices, L. L. Kazmerski, SP400-58, pp. 128-143 (Aug. 1979).

Key words: accelerated tests; failure mechanisms; failure modes; photovoltaics; reliability; semiconductors; solar

cells; stability; testing; thin films. A workshop was held to discuss what needs to be done to achieve and measure long term stability of terrestrial solar cells using thin film materials and device technologies. Under this theme, researchers in the field and invited speakers from related device technologies presented papers and took part in discussions related to solar cells of the following three material groupings: (1) Cu,S/(CdZn)S, Cu-teraries/CDs, InP/Cds, and amorphous Si; (2) polycrystalline, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS), and conducting-oxide Si; and (3) polycrystalline and antireflection-coated metal-oxide-semiconductor (AMOS) GaAs. This workshop report contains the 18 papers presented and the reports of three discussion groups; it also includes a section on the highlights of these papers and reports. The many needs identified by the workshop participants can be organized into two general areas of work to be done. One area of work is in the development of an improved understanding of cell operation and of component structures of these cells. The other is in the development of an improved measurements base. These proceedings include the following papers (indented):

Corrosion and its control, R. P. Frankenthal, SP400-58, pp. 144-145 (Aug. 1979).

Terrestrial silicon array field and test experience, R. G. Ross, Jr., SP400-58, pp. 146-149 (Aug. 1979).

Methodology for designing accelerated aging tests for predicting life of photovoltaic arrays, R. E. Thomas and G. B. Gaines, SP400-58, pp. 150-159 (Aug. 1979).

SP400-59. Semiconductor measurement technology: Nondestruc

tive tests used to insure the integrity of semiconductor devices, with emphasis on acoustic emission techniques, G. G. Harman, Nar. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 400-59, 72 pages (Sept. 1979) SN003-003-02116-4.

The importance of thin film solar cell stability, D. L. Feucht, SP400-58, p. 12 (Aug. 1979).

Status of the DOE photovoltaic performance criteria and standards project, L. M. Magid, SP400-58, p. 13 (Aug. 1979).

Key words: acoustic emission; beam lead devices; electronic devices; hermeticity; hybrids; nondestructive tests;

semiconductor: tape-bonded devices. The discussion is divided into two major sections. The first consists of an introduction to device assembly techniques and problems followed by a review of six important nondestructive tests used during and after device packaging to insure the

The stability and reliability of Cas/Cu S solar cells, J. D. Meakin and J. E. Phillips, SP400-58, pp. 17-29 (Aug. 1979).

1977. It enables individuals to get a clear impression of CBT research activities.

mechanical integrity of completed electronic devices. Most of these tests are called out in the military testing standard, MILSTD-883 and are generally classified as screens. The first section concludes with a brief introduction to the economic and other factors that result in the choice of one screen over another and to production line statistical sampling (LTPD) appropriate to special high reliability device lots such as those used for space flight.

The second section begins with an introduction to acoustic emission, the status of theory as it can be applied to microelectronics. Then the published papers that have applied AE as a nondestructive test in electronics applications will be reviewed. Finally, passive AE techniques are applied to establishing the mechanical bond integrity of beam lead, flip chip, and tapebonded integrated circuits as well as components in hybrid microcircuits.

SP457-3. Building technology publications 1978—Supplement 3,

J. R. Debelius, Ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 457. 3, 106 pages (July 1979) SN003-003-02096-6.

Key words: abstracts; Center for Building Technology; key

words; publications. This report presents the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Center for Building Technology (CBT) publications for 1978. It is a supplement to Special Publication 457, Building Technology Publications 1965-1975, and covers the period from January 1, 1978 to December 31, 1978. It includes an abstract of each NBS publication, titles and abstracts of papers published in non-NBS media, key word and author indexes, and general information and instructions on how to order CBT publications.

This report provides the primary means of communicating the results of CBT programs to its varied technical audiences, as well as to the general public. Publications constitute a major end product of CBT's efforts and in 1978 appeared in several NBS publication series (Building Science Series, Technical Notes, Special Publications, Handbooks, and NBS Interagency Reports).

SP426. Supplement 1. Bibliography of low energy electron and

photon cross section data (January 1975 through December 1977), J. W. Gallagher, J. R. Rumble, Jr., and E. C. Beaty, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 426, Suppl. 1, 115 pages (June 1979) SN003-003-02074-5.

Key words: atom; collision cross section; detachment; dissociation; elastic scattering; electron; excitation; ion;

ionization; molecule; photon; positron. A bibliography of original reports of measurements or calculations of electron, positron and photon cross sections for atoms, small molecules, and their ions is presented. A detailed index to the bibliography facilitates retrieval of cross section data for specific processes and associated atomic or molecular species. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the calendar years 1975-1977. This work supplements a previous bibliography which covered the literature through 1974.

SP480-12. Communication systems guide, W. W. Scott, Jr., Nat.

Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 480-12, 36 pages (Jan. 1979) SN003-003-02012-5.

Key words: communication systems; equipment selection;

law enforcement; public safety. Recently many law enforcement agencies, in response to increased funding, have expanded and improved communication capabilities. Such efforts involve additional communications equipment. This guideline was prepared to assist the communication systems manager in choosing communications equipment with desirable attributes such as reliability, low cost, and effectiveness. General topics include communication systems, equipment, cost considerations, and suppliers. Emphasis is on the important operational and support communication sub-systems and include topics ranging from computer-aided dispatch centers to voting receivers. References are listed for the reader who desires additional information on these topics.

SP439-1. Center for building technology: A perspective-1979,

M. Olmert, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 439-1, 31 pages (May 1979) SN003-003-02056-7.

Key words: building research; criteria; energy; engineering;

industry construction; measurement techniques; standards. The mission of the Center for Building Technology is threefold. They are 1) advance building technology by providing technical and scientific bases for criteria and standards that improve the usefulness, safety, and economy of buildings; 2) facilitate, for the public benefit, the implementation of improved building technology by providing technical assistance to all sectors of the building community; and 3) develop improved techniques by which the end-users in buildings, communities and industrial processes conserve energy. This report presents an overview of the Center for Building Technology's research areas through its accomplishments and ongoing projects.

SP480-14. Selection and application guide to commercial intru

sion alarm systems, A. H. Sher and G. N. Stenbakken, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 480-14, 40 pages (Aug. 1979) SN003-003-02098-2.

SP446-2. Building technology project summaries 1977-1978, M.

Olmert and N. Raufaste, Eds., Nar. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 446-2, 108 pages (Jan. 1979) SN003-003-02021-4.

Key words: building research; building technology; codes;

criteria; project summaries; standards; technical bases. The Center for Building Technology provides the technical and scientific bases for criteria and standards that improve the usefulness, safety, and economy of buildings while conserving building materials and energy. The Center's activities support the building technology program of the Federal, State and local government; assists design professions, building officials and the research community by developing design criteria that improve buildings; and assists manufacturers of building products by developing criteria for evaluating innovative building materials. This report summarizes the Center's projects for calendar year

Key words: alarm; burglar alarm; guidelines holdup alarm;

intrusion alarm. This set of guidelines ou tlines a procedure to help the person who must buy an alarm system to protect a store or business establishment to make a wise selection. The procedure takes him through the following considerations: (1) The type of threat (what is the protection for?), (2) the types of protection (what methods are available?), (3) the types of sensors (which characteristics are desirable?), (4) the mode of alarm (how is the alarm signal to be transmitted?) and, (5) the types of services (how do the police find out an alarm has been sounded?).

SP480-30. Juror response to prerecorded videotape trials, E. M.

Robertson, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 480-30, 28 pages (June 1979) SNOO 3-003-02071-1.

Key words: civil trials; courtroom procedures; juror attitudes; prerecorded videotaped trials; PRVTT; trials, PRVTT; videotaped trials.

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