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This monthly magazine is published to inform scientists, engineers, businessmen, industry, teachers, students, and consumers of the latest advances in science and technology, with primary emphasis on the work at NBS.

DIMENSIONS/NBS highlights and reviews such issues as energy research, fire protection, building technology, metric conversion, pollution abatement, health and safety, and consumer product performance. In addition, DIMENSIONS/NBS reports the results of Bureau programs in measurement standards and techniques, properties of matter and materials, engineering standards and services, instrumentation, and automatic data processing.

Key words: computer interface standards; computers; cryogenic temperature; energy; energy savings; industrial

robots; network services; SRM's. Giving a Robot the Eye, M. Baum Arabian Days and Nights at NBS, M. Heyman Summer Energy-Saving Tips, M. Heyman Government Adopts Three Computer Interface Standards, S.

Cryogenic Temperature Reference Device, R. Soulen
A Methodology for Selecting Interactive Computer Services, S.

River Sediment and Urban Particulate SRM's
News Briefs

January-February 1979

DIM/NBS 63, No. 1/2, 1-28 (1979).

May 1979

Key words: analytical chemistry; ion-chromatography; law enforcement standards; materials properties; measurement

science; science students; SRM; titanium alloy. Good as Gold?, S. Washburn Frontiers of Measurement Science, M. Baum Getting Federal Research to the Grass Roots, G. Lindsteadt Seeing the Human Side of Science, S. Liberman Government and Industry Officials Discuss EMI Problems, F.

McGehan New Method for Assessing Building Code Benefits and Costs,

M. Heyman
Predicting Materials Properties of Polymers, C. Hans
Tungsten Concentrate Standard Reference Material
New Analytical Chemistry Technique Being Used at NBS: lon-

Chromatography, W. Koch
News Briefs

DIM/NBS 63, No. 5, 1-28 (1979).

Key words: aluminum SRM's; computer systems;'electron microscopy; group decisions; properties of steam; space;

stirling refrigerators. Impossibility of Group Decisions, C. Johnson Space Behaves as Einstein Expected, D. Orr Colder Than Cold, K. Armstrong Small Computer Systems Excluded from Interface Standards, S.

A Powerhouse at NBS: Properties of Steam, A. L. Sengers
Standard Reference Material for Scanning Electron Microscopy

Reissued, D. Ballard
Two Aluminum SRM's Available
News Briefs

March 1979

June 1979

DIM/NBS 63, No. 6, 1-32 (June 1979).

Key words: building rehabilitation; energy measurements; energy-related inventions; environment; precision power; radioactivity; Raman microprobe; solar energy; toxic substances.

DIM/NBS 63, No. 3, 1-28 (1979).

Key words: appropriations; fusion diagnostics; gravity waves; laser-interferometer; microwave measurements; non-destructive evaluation; pipe welds; standard; x-ray

image. Microwave Measurements on Snowpacks, F. McGehan NBS Budget Request, S. Washburn Casting Light on Nature's Ways, F. McGehan Measurement Services for Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Evalua

tion, D. Eitzen National Load Standard Being Revised, M. Heyman X-Ray Image Magnification Technique Developed, M. Ku

riyama Evaluating Pipeline Welds, L. Mordfin Fusion Diagnostics: Spectrum of Molybdenum lon Determined,

J. Reader Conferences Publications News Briefs

Cities in Renaissance, G. Lupton
Keeping Tabs on Toxicity, M. Heyman
WANTED: Better Energy Ideas, S. Lieberman
NBS Publishes Updated Survey of State Solar Energy Legisla-

tion, M. Heyman Characterizing South Pole Aerosols with the Raman

Microprobe, W. C. Cunningham and W. Zoller
Units of Measurement for Radioactivity, L. Barbrow
Precision Power and Energy Measurements, F. L. Hermach
News Briefs

April 1979

July/August 1979

DIM/NBS 63, No. 4, 1-24 (1979).

DIM/NBS 63, No. 7/8, 1-28 (1979).

Key words: computer network; computer standards; fire safety; gamma-ray spectroscopy; matrix-isolation; metric

conversion; satellite system. Common Sense Approach to Metric Conversion, J. Odom Fire Safety for Health Care Facilities, M. Heyman Einstein's Theories and a New Satellite System, C. Smith NBS Seeks Proposals for Computer Standards Development

and for Systems Security Program, S. Lichtenstein New Computer Network for NBS, R. J. Carpenter, J. Sokol, Jr.,

and J. E. Malcolm Scientific Tools for the Art World: Autoradiography and

Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, D. Garrett Matrix-Isolation Raman Spectroscopy, D. S. King and J. C.

Stephenson Conferences Publications News Briefs

Meeting Mother Nature on Her Own Turf, G. Porter
The Precisely Precessing Proton, M. Baum
Fire Safety Tips for Wood-Burning Appliances, S. Liberman
Tenth Anniversary of NBS-TAPPI Collaborative Reference

Paper Program, Dr. Lashof
NBS Announces Four Computer Interface Standards, S.

Radack New Photometric Calibrator Performs Direct Measurement, D.

Swyt Girth Weld Standards for Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline, R.

Reed "Ultra-Black" Coating for High Absorptance of Solar Energy,

C. Johnson Conferences Publications News Briefs

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December 1979

September 1979

DIM/NBS 63, No. 9, 1-32 (1979).

Key words: calibrations; energy; fluid mixtures; light; liquefied natural gas; measurements; microwaves; super

spring; ultraviolet radiation. Happy Anniversary, NBS/Boulder Radar to the Rescue, F. P. McGehan Accurate Measurement of Ultraviolet Radiation, J. L. Linsky Liquefied Natural Gas: An Energy Alternative, G. Porter and

K. Higgins Assessing LNG Tank Volume Calibrations, K. Higgins and M.

Baum First Direct Frequency Measurement of Visible Light Reported,

K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings and F. R. Petersen
Generic Technique for Accurately Predicting the Thermophysi-

cal Properties of Fluid Mixtures, N. Olien
Super Spring, J. E. Faller and R. L. Rinker
News Briefs

DIM/NBS 63, No. 12, 1-32 (1979).

Key words: chemical degradation; coal conversion; coal gasifier; computers; data; metric; refractory concrete;

resource conservation and recovery. Protecting Citizens' Rights, S. Radack Once Is Not Enough, G. Porter Guidelines for the Use of Modernized Metric System Refractory Concrete Strength Measured Under Simulated

Usage, E. Fuller Chemical Degradation of Refractory Liners in Coal Gasifier

Systems, F. Mauer
Data Centers Established to Aid Coal Conversion Industry, R.

News Briefs

October 1979

DIM/NBS 63, No. 10, 1-36 (1979).

Key words: cardiac pacemakers; computer standards; fire safety; molybdenum; network measurement; semiconductors; SRM's; standards.

Fighting Fire with Fire Research, M. Heyman
The New, Improved Computer Standards Program, S. Radack
A Little Less Witchery, a Little More Craft, M. Baum
Science on Safety's Side, S. Lieberman
Neutron Radiography of Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries, D. Gar-

The Network Measurement Instrument, M. D. Abrams
Molybdenum Temperature Standard Reference Material
Two Total Protein Standards Available
News Briefs

November 1979

DIM/NBS 63, No. 11, 1-36 (1979).

Key words: Alaskan pipeline; computers; corrosion; fire safety; gyromagnetic ratio; paper; photometric calibrator; safety tips; solar energy; toxic chemicals; ultra-black coating.


Major contributions to the technical literature on various subjects related to the Bureau's scientific and technical activities.

Open region problems considered are: 1) a parallel plate radiating into a homogeneous half-space; 2) a finite phased array; 3) remote sensing of the earth using parallel plate waveguides; 4) a flanged wave-guide radiating into a half-space; 5) scattering by a thick semi-infinite plane; and 6) radiation from a slot in a waveguide wall.

Some suggested extension of the techniques to other types of problems is also included.

Monogr. 25, Section 16. Standard x-ray diffraction powder pat

terns. Section 16-Data for 86 substances, M. C. Morris, H. F. McMurdie, E. H. Evans, B. Paretzkin, J. H. de Groot, C. R. Hubbard, and S. J. Carmel, Nar. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 25, Sec. 16, 190 pages (Oct. 1979) SNOO3-003. 02128-8.

Key words: crystal structure; integrated intensities; lattice constants; peak intensities; powder patterns; reference in

tensities; standard; x-ray diffraction. Standard x-ray diffraction patterns are presented for 87 substances. Fifty-nine of these patterns represent experimental data and 28 are calculated. The experimental x-ray powder diffraction patterns were obtained with an x-ray diffractometer. All d-values were assigned Miller indices determined by comparison with computed interplanar spacings consistent with space group extinctions. The densities and lattice constants were calculated and the refractive indices were measured whenever possible. The calculated x-ray powder diffraction pattems were computed from published crystal structure data. Both peak height and integrated intensities are reported for the calculated patterns.

Monogr. 165. An institutional plan for developing national stan

dards with special reference to environment, safety, and health, B. W. Steiner, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 165, 24 pages (Sept. 1979) SN003-003-02094-0.

Key words: energy standards; environmental standards;

safety and health standards; standards development. This plan was commissioned to provide a framework for the development of all essential non-nuclear energy-related, environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) standards for the private sector to coincide with the commercialization of new energy technologies. The development of such standards in the United States is a subset of the development of technological standards. Such standards consist of two basic types: “limit standards," which establish system performance criteria and "compliance measurement standards," which establish methods for the demonstration of compliance with "limit standards." The system addressed in this report encompasses four basic elements: (1) Hazards, (2) Limit Standards, (3) Evidence of Compliance, and (4) Compliance Measurement Standards. The unabridged version of the standards development process contains 39 discrete steps, each of which consists of intermediate stages. These are described here in the context of ten essential standards management functions. Some essential components in a comprehensive system, such as the voluntary standards bodies, already exist. However, to carry out many of the other functions effectively, new organizations would be required. The operation of the entire process is described in terms of a hypothetical example.

Monogr. 163. Measurement assurance for gage blocks, C.

Croarkin, J. Beers, and C. Tucker, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 163, 78 pages (Feb. 1979) SN003-003-02023-1.

Key words: calibration; gage blocks; length; measurement assurance; measurement process control; systematic error;

uncertainty. This monograph is intended for those who need to know on a continuing basis the uncertainty of their gage block calibration procedure. A general discussion of the philosophy of measurement assurance is given first. Then three levels of measurement assurance programs are outlined showing how control over the measurement process can be maintained and how the offset (or systematic error) from the unit of length maintained by the National Bureau of Standards can be made negligible.

Monogr. 164. Electromagnetic boundary-value problems based

upon a modification of residue calculus and function theoretic techniques, J. P. Montgomery and D. C. Chang, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 164, 183 pages (June 1979) SN003003-02075-3.

Key words: closed systems; electromagnetic problems; functional theoretic techniques; modified residue calculus;

open systems; remote sensing. The solution of a number of electromagnetic problems, in both closed and open systems, using the modified residue calculus and functional theoretic techniques is presented.

The solutions start with known closed region problems and then are extended to new closed region problems and finally to several open region problems.

Specific problems considered for the closed region are: 1) the trifurcated waveguide; 2) the dielectrically loaded trifurcated waveguide; 3) the N-furcated waveguide; 4) the dielectrically loaded N-furcated waveguide; 5) determination of the Eigenvalues of ridged waveguide; and 6) scattering by a dielec


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Recommended codes of engineering and industrial practice (including safety codes) developed in cooperation with interested industries, professional organizations, and regulatory bodies.

H44, 1979 Edition. Specifications, tolerances, and other techni

cal requirements for weighing and measuring devices, H. F. Wollin, Ed., Nai. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Handb. 44, 1979 Edition, 213 pages (Dec. 1979) SN003-003-02143-1.

Key words: length-measuring devices; liquid-measuring devices; measures; scales; specifications; taximeters; tolerances; volume-measuring devices; weighing devices;

weights. This Handbook supersedes National Bureau of Standards Handbook 44, Fourth Edition, published in 1971 and includes amendments to the Handbook through 1978 that were subsequently published in the form of replacement sheets. It also includes the amendments that were adopted by the 64th National Conference on Weights during its annual meeting on July 22-27, 1979, in Portland, Oregon. This edition was developed by the Committee on Specifications and Tolerances of the National Conference on Weights and Measures, with the assistance of the Office of Weights and Measures of the National Bureau of Standards.

The National Bureau of Standards has a statutory responsibility for “cooperation with the states in securing uniformity of weights and measures laws and methods of inspection." This Handbook is published in partial fulfillment of that responsibility.

measurements are discussed in terms of the types of radiation that may be produced and proper techniques for monitoring. The final section, on dose assessment, includes basic exposure considerations such as maximum permissible dose and dose equivalent. H128. Vibration isolation: Use and characterization, J. C. Snow

don, Nar. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Handb. 128, 129 pages (May 1979) SN003-003-02065-6.

Key words: antivibration mounting; damping; dynamic properties; industrial engineering; isolation; machinery and equipment; mechanical impedance; mechanical vibrations; noise control; transmissibility; vibration isolation; vibra

tions. The results of a search and critical evaluation of the literature pertinent to both the use and the characterization of the performance of antivibration mountings for the control of noise and vibration are described. First to be discussed are the static and dynamic properties of rubberlike materials that are suited for use in antivibration mountings. This is followed by analyses of the simple (one-stage) mounting system and its subsequent, impaired performance when second-order resonances occur either in the isolator (wave effects) or in the structure of the mounted item itself (nonrigid supporting feet). A discussion is then given to the performance of the compound or two-stage mounting system which possesses superior isolation properties for high frequencies. Next, the four-pole parameter technique of analysis is described and applied, general terms, to the characterization of the performance of an antivibration mounting with wave effects for both the cases where either the supporting foundation or mounted item are nonrigid. The adopted methods for the direct measurement of antivibration-mounting performance are described, followed by an explanation of how this same experimental determination of transmissibility can also be made using an indirect measurement technique based upon four-pole parameter analysis considerations. Finally, recommendations for future work in various areas of research on antivibration mountings are given.

H105-3. Specifications and tolerances for reference standards

and field standard weights and measures. 3. Specifications and tolerances for graduated neck type volumetric field standards, B. C. Keysar, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Handb. 105-3 Revised, 23 pages (Mar. 1979) SN003-003-02044-3.

Key words: bottom loading; field standard provers; field standards; field standard test measures; provers; specifica

tions; standards; test measures; tolerances; vapor recovery. These specifications and tolerances are recommended as minimum requirements for standards used in the field by State and local weights and measures officials and others in quantity determinations of liquid commodities.

H129. American National Standard N538; Classification of in

dustrial ionizing radiation gauging devices. (ANSI N5381979), E. H. Eisenhower, ANSI Subcommittee N43-3.2, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Handb. 129, 29 pages (Oct. 1979) SN003-003-02135-1.

Key words: device safety performance classification; gauges; gauging devices; ionizing radiation; radiation mea. surements; radiation safety; standard.

H107, Revised. American National Standard N43.1; Radiologi.

cal safety in the design and operation of particle accelerators. (ANSI N43.1-1978), E. H. Eisenhower, Chairman, ANSI Subcommittee N43, Nar. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Handb. 107 Revised, 24 pages (May 1979) SN003-003-02064-8.

Key words: accelerator design; accelerator operation; health physics; particle accelerators; radiation measure

ments; radiation protection; standard. This American National Standard provides the basic considerations essential to the safe operation of a particle accelerator. It applies principally to particle accelerators with primary energies less than 100 MeV. It considers the characteristics of and controls for radiations as they affect accelerator design, operating procedures, and exposure evaluation. The section on radiation protection design criteria includes radiation shielding considerations and the use of safety systems. Operational health physics requirements are treated extensively, and radiation

This American National Standard applies to the radiation safety aspects of gauging devices, commonly called gauges, which use sealed radioactive sources or X-ray tubes for the determination or control of thickness, density, level, interface location, or qualitative or quantitative chemical composition. This standard establishes a system for classification of gauging devices based on performance specifications relating to radiation safety. In addition to specific tests for both use conditions and accident conditions, guidelines for other safety features and considerations are presented. This standard does not apply to the measurement performance of gauging devices.


Include proceedings of conferences sponsored by NBS, NBS vides five reference temperatures from 0.015 K to 0.21 K, the annual reports, and other special publications appropriate to authors hope to provide a lingua franca by which experimental this grouping such as wall charts, pocket cards, and bibliogra- results from different laboratories involving the parameter temphies.

perature may be meaningfully compared.

Such a device, designated SRM 768, is now available and SP260, 1979-80 Edition. NBS Standard Reference Materials

consists of a self-contained assembly of coils and five samples Catalog—1979-80 Edition, R. W. Seward, Nat. Bur. Stand.

which can be used to provide in situ temperature calibration. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 260, 1979-80 edition, 107 pages (Apr. Simple room temperature electronics readily permit the obser1979) SN003-003-02048-6.

vation of the five narrow and highly reproducible superconKey words: analysis; certification; characterization; com

ducting phase transitions. These phase transitions have been asposition; properties; research materials; special reference

signed temperature values by means of fundamental thermomematerials; standard reference materials.

ters used at the National Bureau of Standards. Provided that

care is exercised in reducing the magnetic field acting upon the This Catalog lists those Standard Reference Materials

device, the user can confidently expect to achieve a tempera(SRM's), Research Materials (RM's), and Special Reference

ture reproducibility and traceability to the NBS temperature Materials (GM's) that are available from the National Bureau

scale of = 0.3 mK. of Standards (NBS), and those that are soon to be available. The Catalog describes these materials as to their certified SP260-63. Standard reference materials: A reference method for characterization, unit size, and type, as well as providing order- the determination of potassium in serum, R. A. Velapoldi, R. ing information. Prices for these materials are listed separately C. Paule, R. Schaffer, J. Mandel, L. A. Machlan, and J. W. in annual supplements to this Catalog.

Gramlich, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 260-63, 104

pages (May 1979) SN003-003-02068-1. SP260-58. Standard reference materials: SRM 1470: Polyester film for oxygen gas transmission measurements, J. D. Barnes

Key words: clinical analysis; clinical chemistry; definitive and G. M. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 260

method; electrolytes; flame atomic emission spectroscopy; 58, 43 pages (June 1979) SN003-003-02077-0.

reference method; semiautomated pipetting; serum potassi

um analysis; statistical analysis. Key words: gas transmission rate; manometric technique; oxygen; permeability; poly(ethylene terephthalate); stan

Guided by a committee of experts in clinical chemistry, a dard reference material; temperature coefficient; time-lag.

reference method was established for the determination of

serum potassium based on flame atomic emission spectroscopy This report presents information which should be of interest

(FAES). Its accuracy was evaluated by comparing the values to users of NBS Standard Reference Material 1470. This SRM

obtained by use of the method in 12 laboratories against the takes the form of 23 km thick sheets of poly(ethylene results obtained by a definitive analytical method based on terephthalate) film. The gas transmission rates of these films

isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (IDMS). Seven serum pools with respect to oxygen gas have been carefully analyzed. We with potassium concentrations in the range 1.319 to 7.326 describe where the film comes from, how it is packaged, and mmol/L were analyzed. Manual and semiautomated pipetting how it should be conditioned prior to measuring. The steps alternatives were tested using sample sizes of 5.0 and 0.25 mL, which were taken to characterize a random sample of sheets respectively. from the production lot of the SRM are discussed in detail. The The laboratories used several different FAES instruments. gas transmission rates and the time-lags of 22 films were mea- The results showed that the standard error for a single laborasured using a state-of-the-art electronic manometric permeation

tory's performance of the procedure ranged from 0.049 to facility. The temperature dependence of the permeability was 0.063 mmol/L with a maximum bias of 0.065 mmol/L over the determined over the temperature range 288 K to 310 K. A range of concentrations studied. These values were within the small pressure effect was found which is thought to be an ar- accuracy and precision goals that had been set by the committifact. The statistical measures which were derived from the tee. The results from the two pipetting techniques were similar. data are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the largest The calibration curve data showed excellent linearity over the source of variability is from one sample to another with a coef- total concentration range, with 20 of 22 curves having standard ficient of variation amounting to 4 percent. A brief discussion deviations of fit of 0.075 mmol/L or less. of units for expressing permeabilities is given. Effects due to With appropriate experimental design, the reference method thermal conditioning (“aging") and outgassing are discussed. may be used to establish the accuracy of field methods as well

as to determine reference sodium values for pooled sera. SP260-62. Standard reference materials: SRM 768: Tempera

ture reference standard for use below 0.5 K, R. J. Soulen, Jr. SP260-65. Standard reference materials: Micro-homogeneity and R. B. Dove, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 260-62, studies of NBS standard reference materials, NBS research 47 pages (Apr. 1979) SNOO3-003-02047-8.

materials, and other related samples, R. B. Marinenko, K. F.

J. Heinrich, and F. C. Ruegg, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Key words: AuAlz; Aulna; Be; cryogenic temperature scale;

Publ. 260-65, 84 pages (Sept. 1979) SN003-003-02114-1. fixed points; Ir; superconductivity; thermometry; W.

Key words: digital periodic integrator; electron Cryogenic temperature scales are now available (viz., the

microprobe; homogeneity; standard reference materials; newly created EPT-76 (1)) which are quite accurate and which

steel. extend deep into the cryogenic region (as low as 0.5 K). It is the region below 0.5 K where no formal scale exists which is A simple routine technique for studying homogeneity in the of concern here. By developing a compact device which pro- micrometer range with the electron microprobe has been

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