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formation and subsequent technological change. A number of regulatory alternatives are listed which could encourage and aid in acquisition of capital.

The study addresses the impact of environmental regulations and provisions of the Internal Revenue Service Code that bear on cost and funding of treatment equipment. Here again, recommendations are suggested for government action.

The major recommendation that rises from consideration of the impact of OSHA regulations on the steel industry is that OSHA should consider broader use of performance standards.

Finally, the report recommends actions that the government could take to encourage research and development in the steel industry.

NBS-GCR-ETIP 79-70. Overview report: Experiment in com

puter applications for regulatory agencies, Temple, Barker & Sloane, Inc. (NBS contact: Darlene Carver), 115 pages (Sept. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB300770.

Key words: computer program; economic performance; electric utilities; Experimental Technology Incentives Program; productivity; regulatory commission; regulatory pol

icy; technological innovation. This overview undertaken by ETIP was one of several projects designed to learn about regulatory influences upon innovation. These policy experiments were developed in both state and federal situations.

This report presents an overview of research into methods for improving the electric utility regulatory process conducted under Project No. 76 of the Experimental Technology Incentives Program (ETIP), National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce. More detailed reports on the results of the research may be found in separate volumes which are referenced in this overview.

The purpose of the Project was to provide improved analytical and managerial techniques for use in the electric utility regulatory process to learn how technological innovation could be promoted among regulated industries. Computerized tools that would reduce the time required for various analyses undertaken in rate cases and in other regulatory decision problems were developed. The study also considered the need for improvements in the quality and scope of analysis. A secondary emphasis

managerial and administrative procedures in regulatory commissions.

Four specific areas were addressed in this study. The first area was regulatory lag. This area included: managerial and administrative issues that contribute to regulatory lag; and methods for handling routine calculations required in determining rates. The second area was rate design. The third area was performance evaluation and factor productivity analysis. The final area was long-range planning.

between EPA and the Experimental Technology Incentives Program of the National Bureau of Standards Center for Field Methods. The whole project is aimed at improving pesticide regulation so as to improve the environment for technological innovation.

The purpose of this project, as an administrative experimeni, has been to develop and evaluate a change in the policy or process of pesticide regulation which could improve the environment for technological innovation. It has proceeded through several stages involving background investigations of pesticide regulations, effects on industry, stakeholders' views, and administrative and regulatory processes. At the present stage, the project is focused on documenting an evaluation design concept which can be used in subsequent phases by OPP to evaluate the efficacy data waiver policy implementation. U.S. Patent 4,139,933. Method for fabricating a scanning elec

tron microscope micrometer scale, D. B. Ballard, F. Ogburn, and J. P. Young, 6 pages (Feb. 20, 1979).

Key words: electrodeposited metal layers; gold-nickel layers; micrometer scale; scanning electron microscope

scale. A microscopic length scale typically about 50 um long and graduated in several intervals ranging from 1 um to 20 um. The scale is useful in calibrating the magnification of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) and other electron imaging instruments. The scale comprises alternating layers of two metals deposited on a substrate. The two metals have substantially different electron emission coefficients to provide contrasting emission signals when scanned by an electron beam. One of the metals, preferably gold, is deposited in uniform layers about 40-80 nm thick. The other metal, preferably nickel, is deposited in several layers ranging from 1 um or so thick near the substrate to 20 um thick in the outermost layer. The resultant multilayer composite is cut into one or more samples and each sample is mounted on edge. The exposed edge is ground and metallographically polished and a microscopic indentation is made in the substrate near the first gold layer. The indentation defines a reference region, and the distances between the first gold layer and the subsequent gold layers in the reference region are measured. The measurement is made using a similar sample which was previously calibrated with the aid of a polarizing layer interferometer.

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NBS-GCR-ETIP 79-71. An evaluation design concept for regula

tory reform: The waiver of efficacy data, H. D. Ojha, T. V. Renda, J. E. Harrison, and J. H. Perwak, 182 pages (Sept. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB300846.

Key words: administrative experimentation; Environmental
Protection Agency; evaluation design; Experimental
Technology Incentives Program; pesticide policy; regulato-

ry policy; regulatory reform; technological innovation. This report presents an evaluation design concept aimed at supporting the Office of Pesticide Programs of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in implementing one of its recently adopted regulatory reform efforts—the efficacy data waiver. It documents the policy and administrative settings as well as the evaluation problem associated with the waiver and its implementation. This report also marks the beginning of an experiment evaluation design phase of a larger joint project

U.S. Patent 4,140,393. Birefringent crystal thermometer, T. C.
Cetas, 9 pages (Feb. 20, 1979).
Key words: aligned sheet polarizer; birefringent crystal; op-
tical analyzer; polarized light; probe thermometer; tem-

perature sensitive parameter. This invention relates to the use of a birefringent crystal as the sensing element in a probe thermometer constructed of certain basic optical components utilized in three separate modes. Thus, all of the modes of the invention are directed to a probe thermometer which uses the temperature dependence of the birefringence of certain single crystals as the temperature sensitive parameter. One such crystal is a Y-cut single crystal of LiTaOz. Alternative crystals having adequate sensitivity in the desired temperature range may be constructed from LiNbO, or BaTiOg. Polarized light propagates through the crystal in two modes, the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray, which have indices of refraction no and no. For LiTaOg at room temperature, n = 2.2, B= n - no 0.004, and dB/dT = 4.4 X 10/°C. The intensity of light passed through a sandwich of aligned sheet polarizer, crystal, and optical analyzer is a function of B and hence also is temperature dependent. A thermometer probe is constructed by bonding this sandwich to a bundle of optical fibers along with a dielectric mirror so that the sensor will be at the probe tip. The probe has been constructed for use in the presence of intense electromagnetic fields and also designed to eliminate the possible hazard of an electrical leakage back to the subject.

U.S. Patent 4,152,074. Inverse fourth power photometric calibrator, D. A. Swyt, 6 pages (May 1, 1979).

Key words: inverse fourth power; light flux; photometric calibrator

U.S. Patent 4,143,520. Cryogenic refrigeration system, J. E. Zimmerman, 8 pages (Mar. 13, 1979).

Key words: low input power cyclic cryogenic refrigerator; multi-stage displacer; Stirling machine; superconducting

quantum interfering devices (SQUID). A simply constructed low input power cyclic cryogenic refrigerator suitable for cooling superconducting quantum interfering devices (SQUID) and similar instruments is provided. A Stirling machine having a multistage displacer and a piston as its only essential moving parts, with helium gas as the working fluid, achieves and maintains a temperature of substantially 8.5 °K. The working cylinder and displacer are separated by a tube and are fitted together precisely at steady-state operation rather than at room temperature. The displacer preferably is made of nylon and its cylinder of an epoxy-glass composite to provide the nearly optimum clearance required to maintain the 8.5 °K temperature for continuous periods on the order of several weeks.

A photometric calibrator is disclosed wherein a known and continuously variable amount of light flux received at a detector is linearly proportional to the inverse fourth power of the optical path length between the detector and a primary, quasipoint source of the light flux. The calibrator includes a secondary, quasi-point light flux source wherein the total flux emitted thereby is proportional to the flux received thereby over a quasi-point detecting area located at some distance, d, from the primary source. The detector is located at an equal distance d from the secondary source.

U.S. Patent 4,158,944. Rotary blade coupling for lawn mower, J. Rabinow, 9 pages (June 26, 1979).

Key words: brake; coupling device; cutting blade; deadman's handle; disconnect element; lawnmower; motor shaft.

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This invention relates to a coupling device and especially a coupling device operable by a dead-man's handle on lawnmower. When used in a lawnmower the coupling device couples the motor shaft to the cutting blade. A spool has a hole in it that surrounds the shaft. A rotary connecting device normally couples the spool to the shaft so that the spool and shaft rotate together. A disconnect element and brake are operated when the dead-man's handle is released to disconnect the spool from the shaft and subsequently stop the spool. The cutting blade has a central hole through which the spool passes. The blade is in frictional contact with the flanges of the spool and is rotated thereby.

U.S. Patent 4,146,848. Frequency stabilizing system and method

for beam type device, H. W. Hellwig, S. Jarvis, Jr., and D. J. Wineland, 10 pages (Mar. 27, 1979).

Key words: beam type device; frequency stabilizing system;

microwave interaction regions; microwave signals. Frequency stabilization of a beam type device is disclosed that is particularly well suited for avoiding cavity phase shift problems. A beam generator provides a molecular or atomic beam that is directed through a pair of spaced and separate interaction regions to a detector. The two interaction regions, such as cavities, provide independent regions into which different signals are injected with the injected signals being derived from an oscillator such as a crystal oscillator. The signal coupled to the interaction regions may be varied according to a general equation. The first signal may also be coupled into one of the interaction regions at a frequency substantially the same as the resonance frequency of the particles in the beam directed through the cavity, while the signal coupled to the other cavity may be caused to vary above and below the resonance frequency. At the detector, the envelope of the pattem impressed on the beam is detected and a correction signal derived therefrom with the correction signal then being coupled as a feedback signal to the oscillator for frequency stabilization thereof.

U.S. Patent 4,165,183. Fringe counting interferometric system

for high accuracy measurements, J. L. Hall and S. A. Lee, 15 pages (Aug. 21, 1979).

Key words: counting and control circuitry; fringe counting interferometric method and apparatus; Michelson interferometer; phase locked oscillators; retroreflectors.

A fringe counting interferometric method and apparatus is disclosed. The apparatus comprises a fringe-counting Michelson interferometer employing a velocity-stable carriage means for translating the two corner-cube retroreflectors, two phase locked oscillators and counting and control circuitry. Fringe intensity signals are counted for both a reference and unknown beam, and high accuracy is obtained by multiplying reference beam fringe signals by a fixed integral multiplier employing a phase-lock circuit. In comparing the unknown wavelength with the reference, the convenience of direct readout in wavelength units arises from the use of a high resolution preset counter.

U.S. Patent 4,166,229. Piezoelectric polymer membrane stress

gage, A. S. DeReggi and S. Edelman, 5 pages (Aug. 28, 1979).

U.S. Patent 4,148,586. Apparatus for galvanic detection of opti

cal absorptions, R. B. Green, R. A. Keller, G. G. Luther, P. C. Schenck, and J. C. Travis, 7 pages (Apr. 10, 1979).

Key words: opto-galvanic effect; predetermined frequency; spectroscopic and analytic determinations; variable

wavelength monochromatic light. An apparatus and method for utilizing the opto-galvanic effect to perform spectroscopic or analytic investigations of atomic or molecular species. A sample of the substance to be analyzed is vaporized in an analytical flame, gas discharge tube, high temperature furnace or the like, and the vapor is irradiated with chopped pulsed variable wavelength monochromatic light. The electrical resistance of the vapor is monitored as the frequency of the radiation is tuned through one or more electronic transition frequencies of the substance. The resistance spectrum resembles the optical absorption spectrum of the species in the vapor. The opto-galvanic effect may also be used to frequency lock a laser to a transition frequency of a substance in a gas discharge cell.

Key words: acoustic waves; piezoelectric polymer; preset tensile stress; pressure variations.

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Apparatus and method for detecting pressure variations because of acoustic waves by modulating a preset tensile stress in a stretched thin sheet of a piezoelectric polymer. The modulation is provided by the changing stress caused by an impinging acoustic signal or the like. The piezoelectric polymer sheet under a preset tension acts effectively as a membrane resulting in a high output combined with a high resonance frequency and a wide operating frequency range.

U.S. Patent 4,168,441. Picosecond pulse generator utilizing a

Josephson junction, D. G. McDonald and R. L. Peterson, 6 pages (Sept. 18, 1979).

Key words: ac current; high frequency oscillator;

Josephson junction; picosecond pulse generator. A picosecond pulse generator for producing pulses having widths in the order of 10-12 seconds utilizes a Josephson junction that has an external load resistor connected in shunt therewith by a balanced transmission line. The Josephson junction is driven by a high frequency oscillator, and the AC current, Iy, flowing through it is adapted to have its amplitude varied with respect to Ic, the critical current of the junction. As the value of 11/4 exceeds one and increases, first a single and then an increasing number of picosecond pulses are produced during each half cycle of the high frequency oscillator.

U.S. Patent 4,173,442. Apparatus and method for determination of wavelength, J. J. Snyder, 14 pages (Nov. 6, 1979).

Key words: Fizeau-type interferometer; fringe pattern; spa

tial period; wavelength of light. An apparatus and method for determining the wavelength of light such as monochromatic radiation from a laser source. The apparatus comprises a Fizeau-type interferometer, photoelectric means for receiving the interference fringe pattern produced in the interferometer, means for determining the spatial period and phase of the fringe pattern, and means for calculating from the spatial period and phase the wavelength of the radiation.

6. TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN NON-NBS MEDIA, 1979

Reprints from the journals listed in this section may often be 18321. Robertson, B., Application of maximum entropy to obtained from the authors. See page 3 for additional informa- nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, Proc. Maximum Entropy tion.

Formalism Conf., Cambridge, MA, May 2-4, 1978, R. D.
Levine and M. Tribus, Eds., pp. 289-320 (The MIT Press,

Cambridge, MA, 1978). 18318. Hartman, A. W., Piezoelectric inchworm operation in a

Key words: correlation functions; equations of motion; vacuum, Opi. Eng. 17, No. 6, 645-646 (Nov.-Dec. 1978).

maximum entropy; nonequilibrium statistical mechanics;

nonequilibrium thermodynamics; projection operator. Key words: high vacuum; interferometry; piezo-electric

This paper reviews the use of the maximum entropy formalpositioner.

ism (MEF) on an isolated system that may be arbitrarily far An "inchworm"-type piezoelectric displacement device has from thermodynamic equilibrium. Information for one instant been tested for operation in a vacuum. Comparative data are of time is collected because it gives the entire equilibrium thergiven for its operation at two pressures (1 atmosphere and 10-6 modynamic formalism for a system far from equilibrium. In to 10% torr), three loads (0, 8, 15 N), and four speeds in the particular, the MEF entropy is then a suitable expression for range 0.5 to 50 micrometers per second. The results are such the thermodynamic entropy for a nonequilibrium system. The that the device is now being applied successfully to drive an MEF yields a general expression for a projection operator. This X-Y stage in a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

is used with the Liouville equation to derive an exact expression for the nonequilibrium statistical density. This immediately gives exact closed equations of motion for the time dependence of the expectations that appear as constraints in the MEF. The equations are integrodifferential equations whose kernels are generalizations of rate-rate time-correlation functions. The equations are also written using flux operators satisfying conser

vation equations, and the memory-retaining nonlocal 18319. McNeil, J. R., Johnson, W. L., Collins, G. J., Persson, K. B., Franzen, D. L., Laser action in sputtered metal vapors,

generalizations of the equations of nonequilibrium ther

modynamics are obtained. The kernels in these equations are Proc. IXth Int. Conf. on Quantum Electronics, Amsterdam,

flux-flux time-correlation functions. The appearance of the proThe Netherlands, June 14-18, 1976, pp. 162-163 (North-Hol

jection operator in the correlation functions has important conland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1976).

sequences for their asymptotic time dependence. References to Key words: Cu Il; cw laser action.

specific applications of the formalism and to related work are

given. We have obtained cw laser action on twenty-eight transitions of Cu II spanning the wavelength region from 2486 Å to 7988 Å and on four transitions of Ag II in the visible region. Threshold currents for the 2500 Å transitions of Cu II are typi- 18322. Sawyer, D. E., Solar cell measurement technique cally 6 A and 10 mW of cw output power was obtained at 10 development and other services, Proc. Photovoltaics Program A, the limit of our d.c. power supply.

Semi-Annual Review Advanced Materials R&D Branch, Gol-
den, CO, Oct. 4-6, 1977, pp. 708-713 (Available as Dept. of
Energy CONF-771051 from National Technical Information
Service, Springfield, VA 22161, 1978).

Key words: laser scanner; measurement development;
photovoltaics; reliability; solar

arrays; solar cells;

workshops. 18320. Miller, C. K. S., Millimeter wave metrology capabilities

The development of solar cell measurement techniques using at NBS, Proc. 1974 Millimeter Waves Techniques Conf., San

a laser scanner is a major portion of a new program which will Diego, CA, Mar. 26-28, 1974, 11 pages (Naval Electronics

be initiated for ERDA. The other portion is to assist ERDA Laboratory Center, San Diego, CA, 1974).

with supportive activities such as helping organize workshops Key words: millimeter waves; standards.

and symposia and hosting these events. This paper is a brief survey paper of the millimeter wave metrology capabilities of the Electromagnetics Division of the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado. The mea- 18323. Waclawski, B. J., Gadzuk, J. W., Herbst, J. F., uv sures and quantities covered include power, attenuation, im- photoemission for rare gases implanted in Ge, Phys. Rev. Lett. pedance, noise, and antenna gain. The basis for the metrology

41, No. 8, 583-586 (Aug. 21, 1978). capabilities are briefly sketched to identify the reference stan

Key words: amorphous germanium; binding energy shifts; dards used, the transfer system, measurement techniques, and accuracy of the final measurement process. Calibration services

extra-atomic screening; implants; ion bombardment; rareoffered are identified. A few comments are made about mil

gases; relaxation energy; ultraviolet photoelectron speclimeter wave flanges and the precise measurement of amplifier

troscopy. noise. This paper gives an overview of the state of precise mil- The first ultraviolet photoemission spectra of the valence limeter wave measurement capabilities at NBS and refers electrons of rare-gas atoms, implanted by ion bombardment liberally to recent publications that detail these capabilities. into an amorphous Ge matrix, are presented here. The posi

tions of the peaks in the observed spectra are shifted relative to gas-phase spectra, consistent with a final-state screeningenergy shift which varies inversely with the radius of the particular implant, as predicted by a linear-response relaxation model described herein.

A micropositioning stage has been developed for use with optical and electron microscopes in the accurate measurement of fine lines used by the microelectronics industry and microscopic objects such as biological cells, air pollution particles, and asbestos fibers. The stage combines a piezoelectric driving element and flexure pivoted lever arms to achieve a compact, vacuum compatible device with a resolution of 0.001 um or less over a range of 50 um.

18324. Yokel, F. Y., Guidelines for housing construction in

mine subsidence areas, Proc. Int. Conf. on Evaluation and Prediction of Subsidence, Pensacola Beach, FL, Jan. 1978, S. K. Saxena, Ed., pp. 129-139 (American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, 1978).

Key words: foundation design; geotechnical engineering; housing construction; mine subsidence; mining; site

development; standards; structural design. Suggested guidelines for the construction of housing in mine subsidence areas are outlined and discussed. The guidelines deal with site evaluation, site development, and housing construction,

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18325. Blanchard, D. B., Harrison, S. H., Trace element profiles

and ratios determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis for fine paper identification, J. Forensic Sci. 23, No. 4, 679-686 (1978).

Key words: analysis; clay; forensic; INAA; paper; trace elements.

Investigation into the use of (INAA) instrumental neutron activation analysis for determination of trace element profiles and ratios of clay filled fine papers for forensic purposes. First part of investigation directed toward determining if clays varied substantially in their trace-element profiles. Second part ascertained that resultant trace-element profiles and respective elemental ratios of clay filled papers could serve as a "fingerprint" of a specific piece of paper for forensic purposes.

18328. Siedle, A. R., Bodner, G. M., Garber, A. R., Wright, R.

F., Todd, L. J., A high-resolution "B NMR study of the [(B.,H.2)2Nij?- ion, J. Magn. Reson. 31, 203-206 (1978).

Key words: boron hydride; metalloborane; nickelaborane;

nuclear magnetic resonance. The 70.6-MHz "B NMR spectrum of ((B2H,2)2Ni]:- has been assigned: 8.8, 10.1 (B(5,7,8,10)); ~8 (B(1 or 3)); 0.4 (B(3 or 1)); -4.1 (B(6,9)); -21.7 (B(2,4)). 18329. Abbundi, R., Rhyne, J. J., Sweger, D. M., Segnan, R.,

Magnetic relaxation phenomena in Dy-Sc alloys, Phys. Rev. B 18, No. 7, 3313-3317 (Oct. 1, 1978).

Key words: hyperfine fields; magnetic relaxation; mag

netism; Mössbauer; rare earths; spin glass. Neutron-scattering and magnetization experiments on R SC-s (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er) alloys have given anomalous results for the concentration dependence of the magnetic-ordering temperature. In contrast to conventional theoretical arguments and to data on other rare-earth alloys, these systems require large rare-earth concentrations (15% <x< 39%) for the onset of long-range magnetic order to occur. The work which we report here deals with the investigation of the Dy, Sci-s system in the concentration range 0.02 <x< 0.75. The Mössbauer effect was used to examine the magnetic hyperfine interaction at the 161Dy nuclei both as a function of temperature and concentration. Neutron scattering on the samples containing < 35-at.% Dy indicated no long-range magnetic order at T = 4.2 K. However, each of the alloys investigated, including the 2-at.% Dy alloy which was the lowest concentration measured, exhibits a well-defined magnetic hyperfine splitting at this temperature. The magnitude of this splitting is 45 + 0.5 cm/sec and corresponds to a field approximately equal to that found in pure Dy metal, and is independent of the Dy concentration contained in the alloy. The observed magnetic hyperfine lines for the alloys in the lower Dy concentration region (< 25%) are relaxation broadened with increasing temperature, while the overall splitting remains essentially independent of temperature. These spectra are analyzed in terms of an electronic-spin-relaxation model for an effective spin-1/2 system.

18326. Fong, J. T., Uncertainties in fatigue life prediction and

a rational definition of safety factors, Nucl. Eng. Des. 51, 4554 (1978).

Key words: corrosion fatigue; design; engineering judgment; factor of safety; fatigue; mathematical modeling; nuclear engineering; reliability; risk; safety factor; sam

pling; Weibull distribution. To cope with uncertainties in mechanical and structural design, engineers exercise their judgment through the use of safety factors based on service experience and laboratory data on relevant design parameters. Using the problem of fatigue life prediction as a vehicle, the relationship between the size of a safety factor and the associated risk and cost-benefit estimates of the engineering judgment based on new technical information, is demonstrated. The subtle influence of the choice of a distribution function for a given set of data is exhibited by comparing the gaussian with the three-parameter Weibull fits of a set of fatigue life data on 6061-T6 aluminum. A system of ranking the importance of different sources of uncertainties based on an analysis of service data is proposed along with an example to “refine" the system using up-to-date laboratory and field measurements. The concept of a rational definition of safety factors as a tool for engineers who design under uncertainty is discussed.

18330. Armstrong, G. T., Cezairliyan, A., Calorimetry, Chapter

in Kirk-Othmer Encycl. Chem. Technol., 3d Ed. 4, 449-474 (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1978).

Key words: bomb calorimetry; drop calorimetry; electromagnetic power calorimetry; energy measurement; enthalpy measurement; entropy measurement; fuels, heating values; gas-flow calorimetry; heat capacity measurement; heat measurements; levitation calorimetry; micro

calorimetry; radiation calorimetry; solution calorimetry. Calorimetry is defined on the basis of its historical origins and in terms of the first law of thermodynamics. The technological and scientific applications of calorimetry are described: fuel technology, the properties of materials (heat capacities, internal energies, enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs energies), changes during reaction, the calorimetry of physical processes (radioactive decay, electromagnetic radiation), the application to process design, and industrial process control. Calorimetric instruments are discussed in terms of the theoreti

18327. Scire, F. E., Teague, E. C., Piezodriven 50-um range

stage with subnanometer resolution, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, No. 12, 1735-1740 (Dec. 1978).

Key words: flexure pivots; linear positioning; micromanipulator; optical microscope stage; piezoelectric drives; scanning stage; SEM microscope stage; submicrometer positioning instrumentation; TEM microscope stage.

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