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BFIRES were compared with those found in the literature, with professional opinions, and with impressions gathered from anecdotal accounts. With few exceptions, these comparisons illustrate agreement between simulations and other data sources.
dies conducted by the National Bureau of Standards of a prototypical hospital have concluded that the use of this computerized procedure can result in cost savings of 50 percent or more over those associated with strict compliance to the Life Safety Code.
NBSIR 79-1906. The evacuation of non-ambulatory patients
from hospital and nursing home fires: A framework for a model, J. Archea and S. T. Margulis, Ed., 65 pages (Nov. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-119530.
Key words: building codes; building evaluation; elderly; fire safety; handicapped occupants; health care facilities; nursing homes; user needs.
NBSIR 79-1799. Performance of a packaged solar space-heating
system used with a mobile home, D. E. Jones and J. E. Hill, 44 pages (Sept. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB300890.
Key words: mobile home; packaged solar space-heating
system; rating; standards; testing. As part of a continuing program to develop test methods for solar heating equipment, NBS is now developing a standard test procedure for packaged solar space-heating systems similar to test procedures now used for solar collectors and thermal storage devices, and now under development for packaged solar water-heating systems. As a first step, a mobile home, which was previously tested for thermal performance in an environmental chamber, was equipped with a packaged solar space-heating system using air-heating collectors and pebblebed storage. The system was fully instrumented and data were collected over the 1977-78 heating season at the NBS site in Gaithersburg, MD. The performance of the system was determined and various methods of correlating performance were explored.
This report is directed toward the problem of evacuating dependent, non-ambulatory persons from fires in nursing homes and other health care facilities. It deals only with those behavioral and building factors that bear on the activities that follow directly from a decision to evacuate patients from a fire zone in a nursing home or similar facility. The examination is based on the rejection of the model which is the basis for current life safety regulations because it assumes independent occupant mobility. This assumption does not apply to dependent, non-ambulatory persons. The major objective of the report is to identify those factors that must be considered in order to determine the ideal performance of a hospital or nursing home evacuation system for non-ambulatory patients when all components or persons in that system act as they are designed or trained to act. These factors are presented as part of an analysis of evacuation as a five phase process: manpower supply phase, patient preparation phase, patient removal phase, rest and recovery phase, and manpower resupply phase. Research findings are reviewed and a research agenda is proposed.
NBSIR 79-1900. Bibliography on the voluntary standards system and product certification, C. Chapman, 28 pages (Oct. 1979), Order from NTIS as PB80-117922.
Кеу words: bibliography buildings; certification; economics of standards; legal aspects of standards; product certification; product liability; regulation; standards system;
voluntary standards. This bibliography lists references accumulated by the NBS Office of Engineering Standards in the course of its research into the workings of the voluntary standards system and the economic and legal effects of standards. The first portion of the bibliography lists references alphabetically by author. The second portion groups references by subject. Subject categories include: standards system reform, regulatory use of standards (buildings, safety, environment), certification and laboratory accreditation, solar heating and cooling, product liability, and international and foreign.
NBSIR 79-1909. Measurement techniques for solar cells, Quar
terly Report: April 1 to June 30, 1978, D. E. Sawyer, H. K. Kessler, and H. A. Schafft, 27 pages (Oct. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB301309.
NBSIR 79-1902. Economic aspects of fire safety in health care
facilities: Guidelines for cost effective retrofits, R. E. Chapman, P. T. Chen, and W. G. Hall, 118 pages (Nov. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-120165.
Key words: applied economics; building codes; building economics; economic analysis; fire safety; health care facilities; hospitals; life safety; mathematical programming;
nursing homes; renovation. This study focuses upon one aspect of the fire safety problem in health care facilities; the use of the Fire Safety Evaluation System developed by the Center for Fire Research at the National Bureau of Standards for determining equivalence to the Life Safety Code. The Life Safety Code, a voluntary code developed by the National Fire Protection Association, is currently the most widely used guide for identifying the minimum level of fire safety in buildings. Using the Fire Safety Evaluation System as a basis, this study develops a computerized procedure which permits the least-cost means of achieving compliance to the Life Safety Code in health care facilities to be identified. Since each of the parameters used in the Fire Safety Evaluation System has a unique value which corresponds to strict compliance, it is possible to quantify the cost savings attributable to the use of the Fire Safety Evaluation System over strict compliance to the Life Safety Code. Preliminary stu
Key words: device measurements; laser scanning; light-biasing; metallization; ohmic contacts; reliability; semiconductor measurements; sheet resistance; solar cells; solar cell
stability. This is the quarterly report of the work in a program on solar cell measurement technique development and other services which was performed in the period from April 1 to June 30, 1978. The objectives of the program are to assist the DOE thinfilm photovoltaic effort by developing solar cell device and material measurement techniques using the NBS-developed laser flying-spot scanner, by assisting DOE in organizing and hosting appropriate workshops and symposia, and by providing general consultation and liaison services.
The technique proposed last quarter employing cell forwardbiasing during scanning to reveal cell defects was implemented. Using an electrical current source, cell cracks and metallization regions disconnected from the cell output electrode have been readily revealed. The mathematical analysis work supporting the experimental scanning of cells has been extended to more realistic cell geometries than the one-dimensional one previously treated. Developments in scanner equipment and ancillary techniques include the completion of the high-intensity isolation source for forward-biasing cells with light during scanning, an improvement in coupling biased and scanned cells to the display-screen electronics, and an increase in the cell scanning area.
The workshop on Stability of (Thin Film) Solar Cells and Materials was held May 1-3, 1978 at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD.
flowing through the supply wire), the tests indicate that the temperature of associated branch circuit wiring will exceed 80 °C for a one lamp fixture and 100 °C for fixtures with two or more lamps.
NBSIR 79-1910. Purely buoyant diffusion flames: Some experi
mental results, B. J. McCaffrey, 51 pages (Oct. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-112113.
Key words: buoyancy; diffusion flames; fire entrainment;
flame oscillations; plume; scaling. Measurements of temperature and velocity using thermocouples and an impact probe were made in the near field of a purely buoyant diffusion flame produced by a porous refractory burner. Based on time-averaged center line value of V and AT together with photographic records the flame can be conveniently divided into three distinct regimes: (1) a continuous flame region, starting from the surface of the burner with V equal to zero at the surface and rising with the height above the burner, z, to the 1/2 power. At is constant over this regime. Higher up is (2), an intermittent regime, with pulsating flame (~ 3 Hz) exhibiting approximately constant V and AT falling with z to the first power. Still higher is (3) the plume region which is, most of the time, free of flames with V ~ 1113 and AT~ 7 513 as predicted by conventional plume theory. Throughout the three regimes and indistinguishable among these is the consistency of the buoyance relation, V/V2gz AT/T, which has a value of approximately 0.9, a factor 2.5 times previous estimates in the flame region and confirming the recent correlation measurements of Cox'. Different heat release rates, Q, can be scaled to a “universal" fire if the length is normalized as z/Q215 and the velocity scale as V/Q1/. The flame regime is thus independent of Q.
In the radial direction for time-averaged quantities only the plume region appears reasonably Gaussian. The data in the flame and intermittent regimes do not fall as rapidly as that dictated by a Gaussian distribution. In all three regimes the velocity profile is wider than the temperature profile.
Large scale, low frequency Ap fluctuations are about 35% of the time-averaged signal on the center line throughout the three regions. Radially the fluctuating to time-averaged signal ratio rises from the center line value and approaches 100% in the wings. Elementary spectral analysis indicates that most of this energy is concentrated in a narrow band centered around 3 Hz.
Implications of these results for flame entrainment calculations and heat release rates will be discussed.
NBSIR 79-1913. Temperature measurement on operating
recessed lighting fixtures, P. M. Fulcomer, 23 pages (Sept. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-104722.
Key words: branch circuit wiring; electrical junction box; hazardous temperatures; load current; protective barrier; recessed incandescent lighting fixture; thermal insulation;
thermocouple. Potentially hazardous temperatures may result from adding thermal insulation in the attic above recessed incandescent lighting fixtures. The National Electric Code for 1978 specifies that “...thermal insulation shall not be installed within three inches of a recessed fixture enclosure, wiring compartment or ballast and shall not be so installed above the fixture as to entrap heat and prevent the free circulation of air...." The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of various protective barriers in maintaining the requisite threeinch spacing and in preventing over-temperature conditions when loose-fill insulation is installed around recessed lighting fixtures.
For the devices tested, the results indicate that properly installed open-top barriers are sufficient to allow the fixture and associated branch circuit wiring to operate within specified ratings. However, a barrier closed at the top by any method, can cause branch circuit wiring, the external surface of the bar. rier and/or parts of the fixture to operate at temperatures above those designated as "safe."
NBSIR 79-1912. Temperature measurement on operating sur
face mounted lighting fixtures, P. M. Fulcomer, 24 pages (Sept. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-103682.
Key words: branch circuit wiring; electrical junction box; hazardous temperatures; load current; overlamping; surface mounted incandescent lighting fixture; thermal insulation;
thermocouple. Potentially hazardous temperatures may result from adding thermal insulation in the attic above mounted incandescent lighting fixtures and/or operating these fixtures with lamps of higher wattage than specified. This study was concerned with the range of temperatures generated (1) within the fixture, (2) within the electric junction box associated with the fixture and (3) on
on the adjoining ceiling and attic surfaces. Test results indicate that the addition of minimal insulation (equivalent to RII) over a surface mounted lighting fixture which contains two or more rated lamps, is likely to cause normal household branch circuit supply wiring associated with the fixture to operate above its specified. 60 °C temperature rating. Overlamping (using lamps of higher wattage than specified for the fixture) and/or additional load current flowing through the branch circuit wire will cause even higher supply wire temperatures.
With all three conditions present (i.e., insulation over the fixture, overlamping, and an additional 15 ampere load current
NBSIR 79-1914. Assessment of the quality of pulp fibers by
short span tensile analysis, E. L. Graminski and K. Bonin, 22 pages (Oct. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-101918.
Key words: fiber length distribution; fiber strength; interfiber bonding; recycled pulps; short span tensile analysis;
zero span tensile. Fiber strength is an important factor in paper strength, but despite its importance fiber strength is rarely assessed as it involves the tedious and time consuming testing of single fibers. In the recycling of paper, especially of the abundant low grades of waste paper, the question of fiber quality always arises. The inability to monitor fiber quality of recycled pulp, especially from low grade waste paper has led to the practice of utilizing this pulp only for low grade papers regardless of the actual quality of the pulp fibers. Unfortunately, there is a a limited demand for low grade papers. Increased utilization of low grade waste paper could be enhanced if the fiber quality of the recycled pulps could be monitored routinely. As the strength of fibers is affected by defects that are randomly distributed among and within fibers it appeared a short span tensile test might provide a means for assessing fiber quality. In short span tensile testing of fibrous webs the load at the break declines as the span increases. The rate of decline is partly controlled by the fiber length distribution. Since the probability of locating defects in fibers increases with increasing span lengths the rate of decline in web strength with increasing span lengths should be a function of fiber quality for a specific fiber length distribution, all things being equal. The results of this investigation indicate that the rate of decline in web strength with increasing span length is indeed a function of fiber quality. It appears that the test method could be used to monitor fiber quality routinely.
NBSIR 79-1915. Investigation of the effects of heating and air
conditioning on the performance of smoke detectors in mobile homes, R. W. Bukowski, 181 pages (Oct. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-100001.
Program sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). This document includes computer reports of data contained in the Grant file, one of six computer files comprising the database. These reports contain data recorded on applications submitted to HUD by organizations or individual builders applying for grants to build solar energy systems in new and/or existing homes. To date, approximately 450 grants have been awarded in the first four award cycles.
Key words: detection time; detector location; fire tests; gas detectors; kitchen fires; mobile homes; smoke detectors;
tenability limits; upholstered furniture. Since its original promulgation in June 1976, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Federal Mobile Home Construction and Safety Standard has required the installation of at least one smoke detector to protect the mobile home occupants. The location of the smoke detector was based on earlier tests in a mobile home conducted by NBS in 1976.
Because of the limited scope of the earlier NBS tests and subsequent improvements in the design of smoke detectors and the construction of mobile homes, a new series of tests was conducted to evaluate the influences of the operation of central forced-air heating and air conditioning systems on the performance of smoke detectors representative of those which are currently being installed. The tests were conducted with upholstered chairs in smoldering and flaming fire modes, representing key residential fire death scenarios. Tests were conducted in both summer and winter weather conditions. The effects of detector location (wall or ceiling and position within the bedroom corridor) and the effects of open and closed bedroom doors were also investigated.
The report concludes that, for the scenarios examined, a properly functioning ionization or photoelectric smoke detector mounted near the ceiling on the inside or outside wall at the living room end of the corridor should provide an alarm in sufficient time for occupant escape.
NBSIR 79-1927. Recovery from soft errors in triplicated com
puter systems operating in lock-step, A. L. Koenig and A. W. Holt, 28 pages (Nov. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-126931.
Key words: fault tolerant computer; soft errors; TMR;
triply modular redundant. A Triply Modular Redundant (TMR) computer system operating in clocked lock-step is being investigated for an application requiring a Mean Time Between Failure of five years. No mechanical memories are used; this allows comparison of the outputs of the three computers to be made each clock period. The most novel contribution is the method of recovery from soft errors, such as those produced by lightning strokes or alpha particles. Data are provided on the uptime history of experimental system,
three commercial microcomputers.
NBSIR 79-1928 (NBS). NBS library handbook for NBS staff,
N. H. Knight, 76 pages (1979). Order from NTIS as PB80106420.
NBSIR 79-1916. Third annual conference on fire research, I. M.
Martinez, Ed., 188 pages (Oct. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-110240.
Key words: library policy; library procedures; library services.
This publication describes NBS Library services, policies, resources, and lists personnel.
Key words: chemistry of fire; combustion products; fire hazards; fire modeling; fire research; human behavior in
fires; physics of fire; toxicity of combustion products. This report contains extended abstracts of grants and contracts for fire research sponsored by the Center for Fire Research, National Bureau of Standards, as well as descriptions of the internal programs of the Center for Fire Research.
NBSIR 79-1933. Evaluation of a multimegavolt impulse mea
surement system, R. E. Hebner, Jr., D. L. Hillhouse, and R. A. Bullock, 102 pages (Nov. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-119720.
NBSIR 79-1917. Solar energy systems-Standards for rubber hose, R. D. Stiehler and J. L. Michalak, 36 pages (Nov. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-129828.
Key words: hose; hose specifications; rubber hose; solar
energy systems. A study of commercial rubber hose was made to develop standards for hose used in solar energy systems. Twelve hoses were evaluated by cycling between temperatures of about 100 °C and temperatures as low as -40 °C during a period of about seven months. Laboratory tests for bursting strength, compatibility with metals, compression set, ozone resistance, and water vapor transmission were also made.
The results of this study and tests are presented. Based on these findings, a standard for rubber hose used in solar energy systems is proposed.
Key words: divider; Duhamel's integral; high voltage; impulse; pulse measurements; response time; step response;
transients. The calibration of a 4.5 MV impulse divider was evaluated by measuring both the input and output waveforms and the response of the divider to a low voltage step. The measured output was compared to an output calculated from the step response and the measured input waveform using Duhamel's Integral. The validity of the approach for this large measurement system was demonstrated for the specific waveforms studied.
NBSIR 79-1941. Table of recommended rate constants for
chemical reactions occurring in combustion, F. Westley, 169 pages (Nov. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-128531.
Key words: Arrhenius parameters; combustion; decomposition; free radicals; hydrocarbons; hydrogen; nitrogen; organic compounds; oxidation; oxygen; oxygenated; rate constant; sulfur.
NBSIR 79-1923. Residential solar data center grant reports, P.
M. Christopher and M. J. Aronoff, 74 pages (Oct. 1979). Order from NTIS as PB80-119928.
Key words: automatic data processing; computer reports; grant data; residential buildings; solar database; solar ener
gy system; solar heating and cooling. The Residential Solar Data Center project staff in the Center for Building Technology, National Bureau of Standards, is responsible for the establishment and operation of a computerized database containing non-instrumented residential data generated by the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration
A table of recommended rate constants for gas phase chemical reactions occurring in combustion is presented. Specifically, it gives in tabular form the values of the parameters for the modified Arrhenius equation k = AT exp(-E/RT). The table covers reactions occurring in the combustion, oxidation and decomposition of aliphatic saturated or unsaturated C, to Cho hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, thiols, ethers, peroxides, amines, amides and their free radicals, as well as the reactions of O, O, H, H2, OH, H2O, H,O,, N, N2, NO, N,O, NO2, N,O., N2Os, S, S2, SH, SO, SO,, SOH, NS, with each
5.15. GRANTEE/CONTRACTOR REPORTS AND NBS PATENTS
exposed. Phase I, reported previously, concerned flat, horizontal ceilings of large extent. Phase II extends ceiling measurements of temperature, velocity and optical density to six different beam configurations in extensive, horizontal ceilings. As in Phase I, the response times of variously located sets of fire detectors were measured (three types of heat detectors, an ionization detector and a photoelectric smoke detector). A total of 21 fire tests were conducted. The reduced data are presented in two tables, one listing detector response times and the other listing environmental data. Analysis of the data is presented in a second volume (Volume II).
Grantee/contractor reports are prepared by non-NBS persons or organizations working under grant or contract from the National Bureau of Standards. Those contract reports not incorporated into the formal NBS publication series are available directly from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS, Springfield, VA 22161) in paper copy or microfiche form unless otherwise stated. When ordering a report from NTIS you must order it by the "COM, PB, AD, or N" number as indicated.
Patents are legal documents which fully describe inventions in return for the right for 17 years to exclude others from making, using, or selling the inventions. They are obtained on NBS inventions of high commercial potential in order to establish Government ownership of the patent rights. The patents are then made available for the grant of nonexclusive licenses to all qualified applicants. A limited exclusive license may be granted under a particular patent, however, if it appears that some period of exclusivity is necessary as an incentive for the investment of risk capital. For information on licensing any of the following patents, write to the Office of the Legal Adviser, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC 20234. Copies of patents may be obtained from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC 20231 for 50 cents each. NBS-GCR-78-127. Comparison of tape drive interface characteristics, Auerbach Associates, Inc., 75 pages (June 15, 1978). Order from NTIS as PB282291.
Key words: computer magnetic tape drives; computer tape controllers; group coded recording; interface electrical characteristics; interface functional characteristics; magnetic tape drives; NRZI recording; phase encoded record
ing; tape drive characteristics. This report describes and compares the various characteristics of the interface between computer tape drives and their controllers for 9-track tape drives operating at 75 inches per second or more, using the 800 bpi NRZI, 1600 bpi Phase Encoding and 6250 bpi Group Coded Recording methods. It presents the results of an investigation conducted for the National Bureau of Standards in support of the possible development of a Federal Information Processing Standard for the device level interface. Through textual descriptions and an extensive series of tables, the various functional and interface electrical characteristics of the tape drives are compared.
It was concluded that the drives reviewed could be placed in one of two general types, those with explicitly defined signal lines and those with multiplexed signalling between drive and controller. Within each of these types there is a substantial degree of commonality among drives but also important differences. At the electrical signal and physical interface level there are also significant differences of a detailed engineering nature among the drives. NBS-GCR-78-128. Environments of fire detectors-Phase II: Ef
fect of ceiling configuration. Volume I. Measurements, G. Heskestad and M. A. Delichatsios, 180 pages (June 1978). Order from NTIS as PB290951.
Key words: beams; ing height; detectors; fire detectors; fire growth; heat detectors; room fires; smoke detectors;
spacing; velocity. This report describes Phase II of a sustained research program to map ceiling environments to which fire detectors are
NBS-GCR-78-129. Environments of fire detectors-Phase II: Ef
fect of ceiling configuration. Volume II. Analysis, G. Heskestad and M. A. Delichatsios, 112 pages (June 1978). Order from NTIS as PB284042.
Key words: beams; ceiling height; detectors; fire detectors; fire growth; heat detectors; room fires; smoke detectors;
spacing; velocity. This volume contains an analysis of experimental data presented in Volume I on 1) the ceiling environment generated by flaming fires under extensive beamed ceilings and 2) the response to this environment by various types of fire detectors. Data on gas temperatures, gas velocities and optical densities have been presented in readily usable form for each of six beam configurations. These data have been converted to “reduced" forms which allow predictions to be made of the environmental variables for any combination of ceiling height and fire growth rate. The experimental response of fire detectors was generally found to conform with available response theories. With the aid of these theories and the data on the "reduced” variables, optimum spacing configurations of fire detectors have been determined as a function of ceiling height for each beam configuration. It is cautioned that the resulting spacing configurations pertain to large, unobstructed beamed ceilings and may be overly conservative in many practical situations.
NBS-GCR-78-134. Development of measurement techniques for
monitoring chemical purity of materials used in digital IC processing, J. Stach, M. B. Das, and R. E. Tressler, 88 pages (Sept. 1978), Order from NTIS as PB29 1427.
Key words: boron nitride; Cl-doped glasses; diffusion in silicon; integrated circuit processing; kinetics of oxide growth; oxidation of silicon; semiconductor processing; silicon; silicon dioxide; thermally stimulated measurement;
thermal oxidation; Zn-doped glasses. The report is in two principal parts: I. The transport of impurities from specially prepared boron nitride diffusion sources onto silicon slices was investigated. The sources were of varying degrees of purity. No transport was detected by thermally stimulated capacitance and current measurements having an estimated detection limit of 101 cm. Zinc, one of the more probable contaminating impurities, was introduced in excess and detected down to a level of 2 x 1018 cm.
II. The kinetics of silicon thermal oxidation in the presence of chlorine, from HCl gas or from trichloroethylene vapor, were studied using the SOLGAS computer program. Calculated data are presented to show the equilibrium partial pressures of the various chemical species in the diffusion furnace atmosphere as a function of temperature in the range 800 to