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Key words: building (codes); probability distribution functions; statistical analysis; storms; structural engineering;

wind pressure; wind speeds. The purpose of this report is to present information on recorded and predicted wind speeds at 129 airport stations in the contiguous United States at which reliable records are available over a number of consecutive years. This information is provided to serve as basic documentation from which appropriate decisions can be made on values of design wind speeds to be specified in building codes and standards or on specific projects. Included in the report are: recorded wind speeds and anemometer elevations; predicted wind speeds based on probability distributions of the largest values; estimates of the sampling errors inherent in the predicted wind speeds; a description of the statistical procedure used in the analysis of the data; and a discussion of the results of the analysis.

In general, the recommendations offered in this report derive from the premise that stairway accidents are caused by human perceptual errors, which are frequently triggered by some flaw in the design or construction of stairways themselves. Evidence describing the severity and frequency of residential stairway hazards, and supporting premises underlying design guidelines were obtained from epidemiological, experimental, exploratory, and survey research sources. General directions for future investigation are suggested.

BSSI19. Economic evaluation of windows in buildings:

Methodology, R. T. Ruegg and R. E. Chapman, Nai. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Bldg. Sci. Ser. 119, 118 pages (Apr. 1979 SNOO3-003-02042-7.

Key words: building economics; daylighting; economic analysis; energy conservation; engineering economics; lifecycle costs; solar heat gain; thermal efficiency; window;

window management. This study, which is one part of a National Bureau of Standards interdisciplinary project on windows, is aimed at improving the cost-effectiveness of window selection and use in buildings. It develops and illustrates a life-cycle costing evaluation model and computer program for assessing for alternative window systems the net dollar impact of acquisition, maintenance and repair, heating and cooling energy gains and losses, and artificial lighting and daylighting tradeoffs. The method is applicable to the evaluation of many different window sizes, designs, accessories, and uses, both for new and existing residential and commercial buildings. Two step-by-step examples of evaluating selected window alternatives in a residence and in an office building in Washington, D.C., serve to illustrate the application of the method.

A companion report, A Regional Economic Assessment of Selected Window Systems, presents the results of eight additional residential case studies and eight additional commercial case studies. While the emphasis of this report is on the method of evaluation, the companion report focuses on summarizing the results of a regional analysis in a form that will be convenient for use by building owners, operators, designers, financiers, and builders, those whose interest centers on the actual implementation of research results.

BSS120. Guidelines for stair safety, J. Archea, B. L. Collins,

and F. I. Stahl, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Bldg. Sci. Ser. 120, 129 pages (May 1979) SN003-003-02063-0.

Key words: accidents; architectural design; architectural psychology; architectural research; building codes; building design; building regulatory standards; floor coverings;

home safety; safety standards; stair safety; stairway design. This report summarizes information and research in the area of stair use and provides design guidelines for improving stair safety. These guidelines are directed toward seven major categories of stairway design and construction: (1) structural integrity and quality of stairs, (2) physical attributes of stair surfaces, (3) appearance of stair surfaces, (4) handrails, (5) physical attributes of the surrounding stairway environment, (6) appearance of the surrounding stairway environment, and (7) signs and symbols.


Publications in this series collectively constitute the Federal Information Processing Standards Register. Register serves as the official source of information in the Federal Government regarding standards issued by NBS pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 as amended, Public Law 89-306 (79 Stat. 1127), and as implemented by Executive Order 11717 (38 FR 12315, dated May 11, 1973) and Part 6 of Title 15 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). This series is available only from the National Technical Information Services, Springfield, VA 22161. See page 24 for price list.

FIPS PUB 65. Guideline for automatic data processing risk anal

ysis, S. K. Reed, Standards Coordinator, Nar. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Fed. Info. Process. Stand. Publ. (FIPS PUB) 65, 27 pages (Aug. 1979).

Key words: ADP availability; annual loss exposure; application system vulnerability; computer security; data confidentiality; data integrity; data security; physical security; procedural security; risk analysis; risk assessment; systems

security. This document presents a technique for conducting a risk analysis of an ADP facility and related assets. Risk analysis produces annual loss exposure values based on estimated costs and potential losses. The annual loss exposure values are fundamental to the cost effective selection of safeguards for the security of the facility. An ADP facility of a hypothetical government agency is used for an example. The characteristics and attributes of a computer system which must be known in order to perform a risk analysis are described and an example is given of the process of analyzing some of the assets, showing how the risk analysis can be handled.

FIPS PUB 58. Representations of local time of the day for infor

mation interchange, H. McEwen, Standards Coordinator, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Fed. Info. Process. Stand. Publ. (FIPS PUB) 58, 4 pages (Feb. 1979).

Key words: American National Standard Representation for Calendar Date and Ordinal Date for Information Interchange; meridian designators; separators; sequencing;

time elements; timekeeping systems; time representations. This FIPS PUB announces the adoption of American National Standard X3.43-1977, Representations of Local Time of the Day for Information Interchange. This standard provides the means for representing local time of the day to facilitate the interchange of information among data systems. FIPS PUB 59. Representations of universal time, local time dif

ferentials, and United States time zone references for information interchange, H. McEwen, Standards Coordinator, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Fed. Info. Process. Stand. Publ. (FIPS PUB) 59, 4 pages (Feb. 1979).

Key words: American National Standard Representation for Calendar Date and Ordinal Date for Information Interchange; local time differentials; meridian designator; time differential factor; time zone refer ces; Uniform Time Act of 1966; universal time.

This FIPS PUB announces the adoption of American National Standard X3.51-1975, Representations of Universal Time, Local Time Differentials, and United States Time Zone References for Information Interchange. This standard provides the means for representing universal time, local time differentials, and U.S. time zone references to facilitate interchange of information among data systems.

FIPS PUB 66. Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, H.

McEwen, Standards Coordinator, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Fed. Info. Process. Stand. Publ. (FIPS PUB) 66, 23 pages (Aug. 1979).

Key words: computers; data processing; Federal Information Processing Standards Publication; industries; represen

tations and codes; Standard Industrial Classification. This standard provides classifications, short titles, and codes for representing industries. The general concept of an industry is one of a group of establishments with similar economic activities. The SIC codes, initially developed by the Office of Management and Budget, are currently being maintained and published by the DOC Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, the organization to which this function has been transferred. Their implementation in Federal ADP systems will avoid unnecessary and costly incompatibilities in the collection, processing and dissemination of data. FIPS PUB 67. Guideline for selection of data entry equipment,

Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Fed. Info. Process. Stand. Publ. (FIPS PUB) 67, 23 pages (Sept. 1979).

Key words: data entry; economic considerations; keyboard; keypunch; optical character recognition; optical mark

sensing; source data entry. This publication provides a guideline to be used by Federal agencies in the selection of data entry equipment. The objective is to make available information that will assist in the selection of more efficient and economical data entry systems. The guideline provides information about economic and general operational considerations, steps to be followed in acquisition and training, and other factors pertinent to data entry equipment selection.

FIPS PUB 64. Guidelines for documentation of computer pro

grams and automated data systems for the initiation phase, B. Leong-Hong, Standards Coordinator, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Fed. Info. Process. Stand. Publ. (FIPS PUB) 64, 54 pages (Aug. 1979).

Key words: automated data systems; computer programs; cost/benefit analysis; documentation; documentation content guidelines; feasibility study; FIPS guidelines; initiation

phase; project request; software. These guidelines provide a basis for determining the content and extent of documentation for the initiation phase of the software life cycle. Content guidelines are given for the following document types: Project Request Document, Feasibility Study Document, and Cost/Benefit Analysis Document.

The guidelines are intended to be a basic reference and a checklist for general use throughout the Federal Government to plan and evaluate documentation practices.


Developed under procedures published by the Department of Commerce in Part 10, Title 15, of the Code of Federal Regulations. The purpose of the standards is to establish nationally recognized requirements for products, and to provide all concemed interests with a basis for common understanding of the characteristics of the products. The National Bureau of Standards administers the Voluntary Product Standards program as a supplement to the activities of the private sector standardizing organizations. No publications issued in this series during this period.


Studies or reports which are complete in themselves but restrictive in their treatment of a subject. Analogous to monographs but not so comprehensive in scope or definitive in treatment of the subject area. Often serve as a vehicle for final reports of work performed at NBS under the sponsorship of other Government agencies.

terms of simple, ideal, geometrical optics, with sharp image and shadow boundaries, and only passing mention is made of perturbations caused by imperfect imaging, aberrations, scattering, and diffraction.

TN971. Guidelines for cost-effective lead paint abatement, R. E.

Chapman and J. G. Kowalski, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 971, 88 pages (Jan. 1979) SN003-003-02014-1.

Key words: abatement; building economics; building materials; economic analysis; housing; lead-based paint;

lead poisoning. Public and private concern about the potential for lead poisoning in children due to the ingestion of lead-based paint chips has resulted in a Federally sponsored program to develop technologies by which the lead-based paint hazard may be eliminated from the nation's housing. Through this program lead-based paint abatement techniques were tested in field deleading operations conducted in Boston, Massachusetts. The major focus of the program was on the collection of data on the direct costs of labor, materials and special equipment associated with these abatement techniques. Data were also collected on contractors' bids so that markup ratios could be calculated.

This report provides an overview of the statistical analysis of these direct cost data by abatement technique and building component (i.e, walls, doors and frames, windows and frames, and miscellaneous trim). An overview of the statistical analysis of the markup ratio is also included. Cost models are developed for each abatement technique which identify the key factors which affect direct cost and markup. Guidelines are given so that these models can be used by municipal officials and building owners to estimate deleading costs as well as provide input to policy evaluation and formulation.


TN910-4. Self-study manual on optical radiation measurements:

Part I-Concepts, chapters 7, 8, and 9, F. E. Nicodemus, Ed., Nar. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 910-4, 134 pages (June 1979) SN003-003-02067-2.

Key words: aperture/aperture-image pair; aperture pair; calibration; convolution; deconvolution; geometrical-optics radiometry; inversion; measurement-beam geometry; relative spectral responsivity; slit-scattering function; slit-scattering function corrections; spectral line radiometry; spectroradiometer characterizations; spectroradiometry;

vignetting. This is the fourth in a series of Technical Notes (910- ) entitled "Self-Study Manual on Optical Radiation Measurements." It contains Chapters 7, 8, and 9 of this Manual. Additional chapters will continue to be published, similarly, as they are completed. The Manual is a comprehensive tutorial treatment of the measurement of incoherent radiation that is complete enough for self instruction. Detailed chapter summaries make it also a convenient authoritative reference source.

The manner in which the spectral responsivity of a spectroradiometer containing a , monochromator varies

with wavelength is treated in Chapter 7. The nature and characteristics of this function, how it is determined, and the effects it has on spectroradiometric measurements are discussed in detail. The traditional, indirect determination, involving the slitscattering function, is shown to be highly inaccurate except for wavelengths in the central portion of the function. An introduction to the measurement of spectral line radiation is also presented

Deconvolution, discussed in Chapter 8, is the numerical process of recovering an improved spectral distribution from spectroradiometric measurements inevitably smeared spectrally by the spectral-responsivity function of the radiometer. A simple, iterative technique, which is extensively used, will be completely satisfactory in almost all radiometric situations. A more sophisticated technique, which is founded on a sounder theoretical basis, should succeed in many of the few remaining instances where the simpler technique fails. Examples of computer programs for the two techniques are given in an appendix. Both are applied to a simple illustrative numerical example with brief mention of some of the sources of difficulty and the limitations of deconvolution. Finally, we touch on the question of errors and describe a couple of useful measures of accuracy.

The physical definition of measurement beams, including the integration limits in the measurement equation, is treated in Chapter 9 in terms of geometrical-optics quantities and concepts. The usual definitions of geometrical optics are extended to situations where defining the measurement beam may not involve the imaging of any source. The importance of aperture pairs or equivalent aperture/aperture-image pairs, in defining measurement beams without vignetting, is developed. Also discussed entrance pupils as receiving apertures in radiometry (their positions and dimensions), diffusers, vignetting, and the effects of beam geometry on overall instrument radiance and irradiance responsivities. The treatment is in

TN979. Lead paint abatement costs: Some technical and

theoretical considerations, R. E. Chapman and J. G. Kowalski, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 979, 153 pages (Feb. 1979) SN003-003-02022-2.

Key words: abatement; building economics; building materials; cost estimation; econometric models; economic

analysis; housing; lead-based paint; lead poisoning. Public and private concern about the potential for lead poisoning in children due to the ingestion of lead-based paint chips has resulted in a Federally sponsored program to develop technologies by which the lead-based paint hazard may be eliminated from the nation's housing. The nature and design of the Experimental Hazard Elimination Program (EHEP) is thought to be unique in that it permitted the costs of the alternative lead paint abatement techniques to be rigorously analyzed.

The focus of this report is on the design, implementation and analysis of EHEP and the cost information it produced. Statistical analyses which permitted the development of econometric models capable of estimating abatement technique costs and expected contractor markup are described. Structural equations relating changes in the values of certain key factors to variations in direct cost and contractor markup are also presented. Guidelines, including a national deleading cost estimate, are given so that these econometric models can be used by municipal officials and building owners to estimate deleading costs as well as provide input to policy evaluation and formulation,


TN980. Historic preservation incentives of the 1976 Tax Reform

Act: An economic analysis, S. F. Weber, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 980, 32 pages (Feb. 1979) SN003-00302015-0.

Key words: adaptive reuse; buildings; demolition; economics; historic preservation; life-cycle costing;

redevelopment; rehabilitation; tax incentives. The Tax Reform Act (TRA) of 1976 includes several provisions which affect the financial position of owners of incomeproducing historic buildings. This report analyzes the effect of the TRA on the after-tax cost of two basic alternatives facing the owner: (1) rehabilitate the structure; or (2) demolish it and redevelop the site. A life-cycle minimization model was developed, programmed in BASIC language, and applied in an after-tax comparison of six alternative situations representing rehabilitation and redevelopment both before and after the TRA. Under the assumptions of the model used in this analysis, the TRA has made the rehabilitation option significantly more attractive than previously. The former tax bias in favor of demolition and redevelopment has been reversed. Until now, this information on the life-cycle tax advantages of rehabilitating historic buildings has been unavailable. This report will help corporate investors make cost-effective decisions regarding historic preservation of nonresidential buildings and provide policy makers with information on the effectiveness of these tax incentives. The approach utilized could be adapted to analyze incentives for other types of building rehabilitation.

A low-velocity airflow facility suitable for the calibration of wind speed measuring instruments and research in aerodynamics is described. The flow facility is of the open-return type with a test section 20 feet (6.1 meters) long, and nominally 3 X3 feet (0.91 0.91 m) in cross section. Special attention was given to obtaining an air stream with a high degree of spatial uniformity and low turbulence with excellent speed control over the range from 3 to 1000 meters (10 to 3300 feet) per minute. Laser-optical methods with appropriate signal processing electronics are employed to establish a primary standard for the measurement of very low velocities. A crossedbeam dual-scattering laser-optical system is used that can operate with either forward or backscattering, and in a frequency shifted Bragg cell mode, or in a non-frequency shifted optical beam-splitter block mode. Detailed performance characteristics of the flow facility and the laser velocity standard are presented.

TN991. COMPF2-A program for calculating post-flashover

fire temperatures, V. Babrauskas, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 991, 76 pages (June 1979) SN003-003-02080-0.

Key words: computer programs, fire protection; fire protection; fire resistance; fire tests; fire walls; safety engineer

ing, fires. COMPF2 is a computer program for calculating the characteristics of a post-flashover fire in a single building compartment, based on fire-induced ventilation through a single door or window. It is intended both for performing design calculations and for the analysis of experimental burn data. Wood, thermoplastic, and liquid fuels can be treated. In addition to the capability of performing calculations for compartments with completely determined properties, routines are included for calculating fire behavior by an innovative variable abstraction method. A comprehensive output format is provided which gives gas temperatures, heat flow terms, and flow variables. The documentation includes input instructions, sample problems, and a listing of the program. The program is written in Fortran and constitutes an improved version of an earlier program, COMPF.

TN985. Fire effects on reinforced concrete members, B. Elling

wood and J. Shaver, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 985, 42 pages (Aug. 1979) SNOO3-003-02104-1.

Key words: concrete (reinforced); fire load; fire resistance; fire tests structural engineering; temperature; thermal anal

ysis. Fire ratings for structural assemblies in the U.S. are currently measured by endurance of or temperature rise in components subjected to a standard test. Analytical procedures show considerable promise for alleviating the extensive testing required, and for placing fire resistant structural design on a limit states basis. In this study, thermal and structural analyses for reinforced concrete members are validated using experimental data. Temperature distributions computed in reinforced concrete members for several realistic fire exposures are examined and compared to the distributions measured in a standard test. Parameter studies show the effect of typical variations in thermal diffusivity, emissivity and conductivity. Structural responses for the different fire exposures are also briefly compared

TN992. An investigation of air-infiltration characteristics and

mechanisms for a townhouse, S. J. Treado, D. M. Burch, and C. M. Hunt, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 992, 36 pages (Aug. 1979) SNOO3-003-02090-7.

Key words: air infiltration, residential; air permeability of houses; energy conservation; pressurization technique; tracer-gas technique.

TN987. A servo controlled electro-optic modulator for cw laser

power stabilization and control, J. B. Fowler, M. A. Lind, and E. F. Zalewski, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 987, 16 pages (Apr. 1979) SN003-003-02049-4.

Key words: laser power modulator; laser power stabilizer; photodetector characterization; radiometric instrumenta

tion. Two simple designs for a low cost laser stabilization system are presented. The systems described are capable of stabilizing the power output of a cw laser line to better than .05% from DC to 100 kHz in the 350 to 1150 nm spectral range.

Air infiltration measurements using a tracer-gas technique and the pressurization technique were performed on a threebedroom townhouse having a gas-fired, forced-air furnace system, in order to quantify the amount of air infiltration due to various mechanisms. These mechanisms include combustion and draft-diverter air requirements, air leakage from supply-air ducts, and air leakage through the solid parts of the building envelope as well as air leakage through cracks around windows and doors. A thermographic survey was also performed in conjunction with pressurization of the structure, in an attempt to identify specific leaks. An apparatus for measuring the air permeability of building materials was used to analyze the significance of air permeation through solid building elements. Based on the findings of the study, general guidelines are presented for reducing air infiltration in residences.

TN989. A low-velocity airflow calibration and research facility,

L. P. Purtell and P. S. Klebanoff, Nar. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 989, 21 pages (Mar. 1979) SNOO3-003-02038-9.

Key words: airflow; calibration; facility; laser optics; low velocity; mine ventilation; velocity standard.

TN993. Optical materials characterization - Final technical re

port, February 1, 1978-September 30, 1978, A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, and M. J. Dodge, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 993, 71 pages (Feb. 1979) SNOO3-00302031-1.

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