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Prof. William H. Harlan, Department of Sociology, College of Arts and Sciences,

Ohio University. Prof. Harry F. Harlow, Department of Psychology, the University of Wisconsin. Prof. Robert J. Havighurst, Committee on Human Development, the University

of Chicago. Dr. Lissy F. Jarvik, Department of Medical Genetics, College of Physicians and

Surgeons, Columbia University. Dr. Edgar P. Jayne, assistant professor, Department of Anatomy, University of

Connecticut. Dr. Robert B. Johnston, associate professor, Department of Chemistry, the

University of Nebraska. Prof. Hardin B. Jones, assistant director, Donner Laboratory and Donner Pavilion,

University of California. Dr. Max Kaplan, director, the Arts Center, Boston University. Dr. John E. Kirk, director of research, Washington University, Division of

Gerontology, St. Louis, Mo. Prof. Robert W. Kleemeier, Department of Psychology, Washington University,

St. Louis, Mo. Nathan Kogan, research associate, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J. Dr. Robert R. Kohn, Institute of Pathology, Western Reserve University, Cleve

land, Ohio. Dr. Ross C. Kory, professor, clinical research, Marquette University School of

Medicine, Wood Veterans' Administration Hospital, Milwaukee, Wis. Dr. N. B. Kurnick, R-2 Medical Research, University of California. Dr. Albert I. Lansing, Department of Anatomy, University of Pittsburgh. Dr. C. P. Leblond, Department of Anatomy, McGill University, Montreal,

Canada. Prof. C. M. McCay, Department of Animal Husbandry, Cornell University. Dean John W. McConnell, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Čornell

University. Dr. Ross A. McFarland, Department of Industrial Hygiene, Harvard University. Dr. John W. Magladery, Division of Neurological Medicine, Johns Hopkins

Hospital. Dr. Donald Mainland, professor of medical statistics, New York University Col

lege of Medicine. Dr. George Margolis, chairman, Department of Pathology, Medical College of

Virginia, Richmond, Va. Prof. Paul B. Maves, Department of Religious Education, Drew University,

Madison, N.J. Dr. Aloysius I. Miller, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, D.C. Rev. Henryk Misiak, professor of psychology, Fordham University, New York

City. Dr. Robert T. Monroe, vice president, the Age Center of New England, Boston. Prof. William Montagna, Department of Biology, Brown University, Providence,

R.I. Dr. Matthew T. Moore, associate professor of neuropathology, University of

Pennsylvania. Dr. Robert W. Mowry, professor of pathology, the University of Alabama. Dr. Elizabeth Moyer, School of Medicine, Boston University. Dr. Harold L. Orbach, assistant project director, Inter-University Training Insti

tute in Social Gerontology, University of Michigan. Dr. Harold F. _Osborne, director, American Institute of Biological Sciences,

Washington, D.C. Dr. Gregory Pincus, research director, the Worcester Foundation for Experi

mental Biology, Shrewsbury, Mass. Dr. Otto Pollak, Wharton School of Finance & Commerce, University of Penn

sylvania. Prof. Dorothy Price, Department of Zoology, University of Chicago. Dr. Ernest Retzlaff, research neurophysiologist, Columbus Psychiatric Institute

and Hospital, University Health Center, Columbus, Ohio. Dr. John R. Ring, associate professor of anatomy, School of Dentistry, Washington

University, St. Louis, Mo. Dr. Morris Rockstein, associate professor of physiology, Marine Biological

Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. Dr. James B. Rogers, School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, University

of Louisville. Dr. Arnold M. Rose, professor of sociology, College of Science, Literature and the

Arts, University of Minnesota.

Dr. Arthur M. Ross, director, Institute of Industrial Relations, University of

California. Dr. K. Warner Schaie, assistant professor, Department of Psychology, The

University of Nebraska. Dr. Henry P. Schwarz, chief, Division of Biochemistry, Philadelphia General

Hospital. Dr. James A. Shannon, Director, National Institute of Health, Department of

Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, D.C. Dr. Henry D. Sheldon, Chief, Demographic Statistics Branch, Population

Division, Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Dr. Nathan W. Shock, Baltimore, Md. Dr. Martin Silberberg, Department of Pathology, Washington University,

St. Louis, Mo. Dr. Henry S. Simms, Department of Pathology, College of Physicians and

Surgeons, Columbia University. Dr. Alexander Simon, medical director, Langley Porter Institute, San Francisco,

Calif. Dr. F. Marott Sinex, chairman, Department of Biochemistry, Boston University

School of Medicine. Dr. Fred Slavick, associate professor, New York State School of Industrial and

Labor Relations, Cornell University. Dr. Durwood J. Smith, College of Medicine, University of Vermont. Dr. Jeremiah Stamler, director, Heart Disease Control Program, Board of Health,

Chicago, Ill. Dr. Eugene A. Stead, Jr., Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical

Center. Dr. Gordon F. Streib, Professor of Sociology, College of Arts and Sciences, Cornell

University. Dr. Norman M. Sulkin, chairman, Department of Anatomy, Bowman-Gray

School of Medicine, Wake Forest College. Dr. Neil C. Tappen, Associate professor of physical anthropology, Department

of Surgery, Tulane University. Clark Tibbitts, Chief of Program Planning, Special Staff on Aging, Department

of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, D.C. Dr. Thomas T. Tourlentes, Superintendent, Galesburg State Research Hospital,

Galesburg, Ill. Dr. Otto von Mering, associate professor of anthropology, School of Miedicine,

Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh. Dr. A. Kurt Weiss, associate professor, Department of Physiology, School of

Medicine, University of Miami. Dr. James M. A. Weiss, acting chairman, Department of Psychiatry, University

of Missouri. Dr. Frederick L. Weniger, clinical director, Western Psychiatric Institute and

Clinic, University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Charles D. West, assistant director, Professional Services for Research,

Department of Medicine, University of Utah. Dr. Joseph W. Willard, Deputy Minister of Welfare, National Health and Welfare,

Ottawa, Canada, Dr. Seymour L. Wolfbein, Deputy Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of

Labor, Washington, D.C. Dr. Verner J. Wulff, Masonic Foundation for Medical Research and Human

Welfare, Masonic Research Laboratory, Utica, N.Y.

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Question No. 1 To what extent, if any, is there an imbalance in amounts being spent on medical-biological research on aging as over against social science research?

Responses

At present, in my opinion, there is some imbalance in the amounts of money being spent on medical and biological research as compared with social science research and an attempt should be made to correct this imbalance by more financing of research in the psychological and social sciences. The imbalance goes much further than the question indicates in that it arises basically out of the extent to which research workers within disciplines are interested in the field of aging. Many persons in the field of medicine encounter chronic diseases and thus automatically become concerned with the problem of aging. Biologists, particularly those who work on animals with short lifespans, see the effects of aging clearly and engage in specific studies which concern the entire life cycle.

On the other hand, the social scientist, by and large, tends not to be interested in the older population because of the pressing problems presented by younger adults, by children, and by society as a whole. The questions of the committee are not as clear as they might be as to what is meant by “social science research," since question 1 uses the term "social science” and question 9 uses the term "social welfare” research. I take it that question 9 refers mainly to superficial surveys of a practical nature which social welfare people call research, rather than to the intensive investigations needed to build up a sound background of knowledge and principle upon which to develop practice. In my opinion, all decision is based upon some information; research offers a technique to increase the amount of information available for decisionmaking. There is never zero information and only rarely 100-percent information. Often a basic study increases information by a leap while surveys and practically oriented studies plod along.-John E. Anderson.

I have read several publications which list grants made available for research relative to aging and the aged.

Being a sociologist and statistician I may be a bit biased, but from noting the sums I feel very definitely that the medicobiological funds far overbalance the others. And why?

Largely, I suppose, because so many people, medics and biologists too, assume that longevity is a genetic trait, heritable, and therefore the major factor in maintaining the lifespan. I have scores of thousands of records on that point, and I think there is a great error harbored by those specialists. I shall not give details here. If you are interested, I will consider it a pleasure to make proof available. But, assuming that old age is a purely hereditary phenomenon, money goes to them also. Many appear to believe that the social scientists have little but superficial information and less proof. They are handicapped by small grants or none at all. Further, since biologists and medical students are largely in big universities and the social scientists often in smaller colleges, size tends to dominate, as if quantity and quality were positively related. Small schools and more liberal allowances to some investigators in social science fields would undoubtedly turn up some very significant information, and with no more "slant” than some of the researchers in big universities have.—Chester Alexander.

I do believe that there is at the present time an imbalance in amounts being spent on medical-biological research on aging as over against social science research. It is very difficult to say to what extent this is so but I believe that the amounts being spent on medical-biological research should be tripled or quadrupled within the very near future.—Warren Andrew.

There has been a good deal of social science research, but it has been primarily focused on the needs of the social worker and the guidance counselor and the needs of the older person subsequent to his retirement.

My own emphasis has been in another area which has been neglected in the United States. These are the fields in which the personnel man and the trade union leader are most interested. The issues relate particularly to the problems of training and extending the worklife span of the older worker.

As for the former, many other people concerned with the problems of older people should have emphasized the great gaps in our knowledge about teaching older people. But the absence of a theory of training as well as tested training techniques is most keenly felt in the employment areas. A prospectus for fundamental recearch in this area is greatly needed.

As for the second field of job redesign to fit the older worker, here we are completely dependent upon practical floor experience and British investigations. It is most important that we make our own contributions to this vital area.

The third area of importance is allied to the second. With the increased awareness of the difficulties of getting older people to move once they are displaced from jobs, or plants closed, it is vital to conduct large-scale studies of the types of industries, occupations, employments, and enterprises which should be directed to such communities in which there are large numbers of older persons, in order to increase their employment opportunities.

Retraining is an extremely important problem for the older person. There must be facilities which will prepare him for new jobs. He needs guidance in this field. The techniques, alternatives, and information for this work haven't been adequately cataloged.

The concentration on the older person as a dependent individual has tended to minimize the opportunities and needs for helping him become a self-supporting person. This deficiency should be corrected.

In view of these interests, I believe that the sponsorship of further research in this area should be on a wider base than is contemplated in question 10. There might well be a separate arm for the consideration of the economic and social research problems.-Solomon Barkin.

I am not familiar with the budget distribution between medical-biological and social science research. However, it is my opinion that the stress should heavily favor the social aspects of aging. This answer is based on a lay appreciation of the need for sociological advancement and my dissatisfaction as a scientist with current trends in medical-biological research with respect to aging.—Howard B. Bensusan.

I believe that it is important to develop research into the medicobiological problems of old age by channeling more funds for this purpose. In saying this, I do not want to diminish the importance of the social science investigation nor to suggest that the funds made available to this type of work should be reduced, but simply that a greater sum should be spent on the biologicomedical aspect.Geoffrey H. Bourne.

In general, I feel that the mechanism set up for the granting of research funds to scientists has been impartial and very well handled. There has been, I think, a little tendency to place these grants in the hands of large medical schools. But this is a natural trend and I have no specific method whereby grants whould be made to those best qualified to answer the problems.

There certainly should be a proper balance between amounts spent between medical-biological research and social science research. In other words, a balance should be maintained between amounts spent on efforts to keep old people alive and what to do with them when they are kept alive. This looks like a 50-50 effort to me. Perhaps a little more spent on policy research would be wise.Clark E. Brown,

The answer to this question can be meaningful only if certain words are defined. The term “imbalance” can be interpreted to imply a faulty distribution of an adequate amount of funds, or to imply that one area of research is adequately supported, while additional funds are needed to strengthen support of the second

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ACTION FOR THE AGED AND AGING

area of research. The word "amounts” can also result in confusion. If it is interpreted strictly in the sense of total dollars available for research, which must be assigned to specific projects, the term can be quite misleading. It is clear that some research efforts—particularly those which involve buying, constructing, and maintaining scientific equipment—are apt to be more expensive than other types of research. Consequently, one research effort may require considerably larger amounts than the other, despite the fact that the end results might be equally important to the welfare of man.

In order to crystallize my thinking, I consulted individuals who, I believe, are among the top sociologists in the United States today, and found that they have some difficulty in defining "social science.” They are united, however, on the view that social science research includes research in "sociology, anthropology, economics, political science, and social psychology.

Another point to be considered is that there is clearly an overlap between medical research and social science. For instance, the term "social health” is frequently employed. When this term is defined, it is usually said to be related to the ability of the members of a large group or a portion of society to perform mentally and physically in an effective manner which is acceptable to themselves and to society. Clearly, the functioning of each individual in this group is determined by his mental and physical health. It is equally clear that social patterns affect the mental and physical health of all people. These interactions must be understood and appreciated. To separate social and environmental factors from individual health is unwarranted.

After careful review of the funds invested by the National Institutes of Health and the major private foundations supporting research in the field of aging, and discussion with a number of leaders in the field of social science, I cannot conclude that there is any imbalance, in the sense of faulty distribution of available research funds; rather, I believe that increased financial support is needed for research and for training of investigators in gerontology.--Ewald W. Busse.

I am inclined to believe that the amount being spent on aging research and procedure is about right at this time.—Earl O. Butcher.

There is a decided imbalance in amounts now being expended for social science research with respect to all age groups.

I do not favor reduction in any governmental funds for medical and biological research on aging. But I strongly favor additional funds for social science research in all areas—for the aged, the young, and the middle aged; for the unemployed, sick, disabled, and the dependent.

One reason for the failure to obtain sufficient funds for social science research is that the idea has been fostered by some individuals and organized groups that social science research leads to socialism. This is, of course, completely erroneous. But this false notion continues to pervade the thinking in many places in Congress and especially among business leaders and organized medicine. I favor redressing the imbalance which now exists in funds for social science research.--Wilbur J. Cohen.

In reply to your first question, I should say that a serious imbalance exists between the amounts spent on medical-biological research on aging as against social science research. I suggest no deemphasis of the former, but urge an expansion of inquiry into the social and economic aspects of aging. As Dr. Marcus Goldstein and I point out in the “Handbook of Social Gerontology,” the improvement of health of the aging may greatly depend on a better understanding of the impact of economic position, social attitudes, motivation toward medical care, a sense of participation in life, and similar factors.--Eugene A. Confrey.

I am not familiar with the amounts and the need for research in the medicalbiological area, so I do not know whether an imbalance exists. I am, however, of the decided opinion that not enough is being spent on social science research into the problems of the aged.-- Fred Cottrell.

67714—61-10

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