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While it is well known that our country faces a serious shortage of teachers, and that this bill seeks to respond to this question, I feel that it is equally important that we strengthen it by specifically recognizing the special needs of teachers who are already teaching and who have not had an opportunity to leave work for an extended year's study in their field of teaching or to develop further skills in another field in which they may have found new interests.

I heartily endorse section 532 (b) (1) of H.R. 6232 which specifically refers to various subject matters such as history, civics, reading, international affairs, and the arts and humanities, in addition to educationtype courses, as those which might be included in programs that institutions could provide for teachers who are presently in specific teaching fields.

Paragraph (2) refers to guidance, remedial speech and reading, child development, and educational media as other areas of study for the teacher.

Reference is also made in other paragraphs to special programs for teachers of preschool children, or disadvantaged children, of handicapped children, as well as programs for administrators and other school personnel.

This bill authorizes the Commissioner to include in the terms of the grant or contract with the institution of higher education, State or local educational agency, or other agencies payments to persons participating in these training programs of such stipends, including allowances for subsistence and other expenses for such persons and their dependents, as he may determine to be consistent with prevailing practices under other comparable Federal programs.

This provision, I feel, is absolutely necessary for the teacher to participate in these programs.

A recent study by the National Education Association showed that in urban districts selected for study only 19.4 percent offered their teachers sabbatical leaves with at least partial pay for professional study.

The study also showed that the smaller the school district and the more limited its financial resources, the less likely it was that any provision for such a leave was available. The study also pointed out that only 4,229 teachers were on such leaves, averaging less than one teacher from the 4,697 school districts that were included in the study.

The complexity of our society and the rapid expansion of new knowledge and ideas are self-evident. Equally apparent is the fact that we are not helping our teachers keep up with the current explosion of concepts and ideas, if the vast majority are left to their own resources to maintain professional competence and expertise.

We are penalizing our children if we do not provide our teachers with ample opportunities to return to institutions of higher learning without undue sacrifice to their families' well-being.

Summer institutes, inservice training programs and other shortterm programs, seminars, workshops, and conferences are worthwhile

but in my opinion cannot take the place of offering the teacher concentrated full-time academic study in his particular field of study or in a new area which is urgently needed in his school system.

For this reason I urge this committee to amend the language on page 61 of H.R. 6232 to make specific the authority that section 532 grants to teachers already in the system may be for year-long academic programs at institutions of higher education.

While fully supporting the provisions of the bill which provide refresher courses, as well as the degree-program fellowships which are designed to attract qualified people into the teaching profession, I am most fearful that H.R. 6232, as drafted, will not make possible the intensive study many of our nondegree teachers need to upgrade their qualifications.

Nor will it allow such longer periods of study to experienced teachers. It cannot be assumed that these teachers are able to maintain professional competence only through attending evening institutes or

summer courses.

In H.R. 3372, which I have again introduced in the present Congress and which was reported favorably out of the House Committee on Education and Labor in the last session, I have made specific provision in order that teachers who are currently teaching and who do not have a baccalaureate degree have specific assistance.

Current figures are not available; however, a 1955 report of the NEA showed that 34 percent of all elementary school teachers lacked a bachelor's degree and in 1960 a further study revealed that 25 percent of the elementary teachers had less than 4 years of undergraduate teacher preparation.

In recognition of this problem I urge this subcommittee to write specific language in this bill to provide special programs which will accelerate the completion of the basic academic studies necessary to bring these teachers' professional requirements up to standard. Such a move is as necessary as attracting new students into teaching careers. No matter how vigorously we work to achieve equal educational opportunity for our children, each class is only as good as its teacher. The Federal Government needs to make a firm commitment to our teachers by providing them with greater ease and access to the available knowledge and education in our universities.

Finally, I urge the provision of adequate funds for implementing these programs; this would be the surest guarantee of the highest quality education for our elementary and secondary school children. Thank you very much for this opportunity to express my views on this most vital matter.

With your permission, Madam Chairman, I would like to have appended at the conclusion of this statement a list of organizations and individuals who have written in support of my bill, H.R. 3372, which I believe lends support to the testimony I have presented today. Thank you very much.

(The list of organizations and individuals follows:)


American Federation of Teachers

California Teachers Association


Everett Federation of Teachers (Massachusetts)

Hawaii Education Association

Hawaii State Board of Education

Illinois Federation of Teachers

International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers

International Brotherhood of Teamsters Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers

of America

Kauai Education Association (Hawaii)

Labor's Non-Partisan League

Lanai Education Association (Hawaii)

Maine Teachers Association

Minnesota Federation of Teachers

National Education Association of the United States

Nebraska State Education Association

New Jersey Education Association

North Dakota Education Association

Ohio Education Association, Association of Classroom Teachers
Oregon Education Association

Overseas Education Association, Inc.

Rhode Island Federation of Teachers

Texas State Teachers Association

United Automobile Workers of America
Washington Education Association
Wisconsin Education Association


Mr. Mark Cockrill, Maunaolu College, Maui, Hawaii
Mr. Eugene C. Edgerly, Heidelberg American School
Mr. Don B. Goodloe, The Washington Teachers' Union
Mr. Don Kenyon, Covina High School, California


Hon. John H. Dent, identical bill introduced
Hon. John G. Dow, identical bill introduced
Hon. Ed Edmondson, identical bill introduced
Hon. Don Edwards, identical bill introduced
Hon. Donald M. Fraser

Hon. Julia Butler Hansen

Hon. Henry Helstoski, identical bill introduced
Hon. Elmer Holland, identical bill introduced
Hon. Hervey Machen, identical bill introduced
Hon. Spark Matsunaga, identical bill introduced
Hon. George P. Miller

Hon. Robert N. C. Nix, identical bill introduced
Hon. Joseph Resnick, identical bill introduced
Hon. James Scheuer, identical bill introduced
Hon. Lionel Van Deerlin

Hon. E. S. Johnny Walker, identical bill introduced

Mrs. GREEN. Thank you, Mrs. Mink.

Congressman Gibbons, do you have any questions?

Mr. GIBBONS. I certainly support your request for more real opportunity for teachers who are now in the profession to go back and update thoroughly their knowledge, not just only on a hit-and-miss or piecemeal basis as they have often had to do in the teacher institutes.

I want to thank the lady for the constructive suggestions she makes on the legislation.

Mrs. GREEN. Congressman Quie.

Mr. QUIE. You make the suggestion on page 6 that we amend H.R. 532. Do you feel that the programs as specified in this suggestion do not permit a year-long program when they talk of regular-session institutes?

Mrs. MINK. It might, but the language is unclear as I read it. The more I read it the more I become concerned that the whole thrust of the 1, 2, 3 enumeration under subparagraph C was with reference to short-term-type instruction seminars and other inservice programs.

I felt compelled to request an opportunity to appear before the subcommittee to point out what I thought was a deficiency in the language, that the universities might not be permitted to seek grants under this section for year-round programs even though they felt it might be necessary for teachers in their community.

Mr. QUIE. Would it be satisfactory to you if we made regular session institutes into year-round sessions?

Mrs. MINK. Yes, instead of regular session, year-round courses, or whatever language would be best suited would be quite acceptable and I feel that is where the amendment should go.

Mr. QUIE. Thank you.

Mrs. GREEN. Congressman Esch?

Mr. Escн. No questions.

Mrs. GREEN. Regarding the stipends you suggest, $200 a month and $1,000 to the institution, do you think there would be some merit to making this amount the same as that which is given for institute programs?

Mrs. MINK. Yes, and for that reason I did not raise any objection to the paragraph that I cited which gives the Commissioner the right to look to the other programs and to designate stipends which are comparable in other areas.

I feel it is important not to make distinctions and that whatever the basis might be for making payments not only to the teachers but to the dependents to carry through for the year-round program.

We selected the $200 because we felt that was a minimum amount at least to get started with this program and it would afford roughly $2,000 to the teacher and a 10-month program at a university program and also the $1,000 to cover travel to the university and the tuition.

Mrs. GREEN. Would you give attention to amendments which would make this a part of the total teacher training program? I am thinking in terms of section 6 and also where you suggest 50 percent be given to those who don't have a degree and 50 percent to those who have.

We have a national program for teachers in the elementary and secondary schools for those who would go on beyond the baccalaureate degree. As you know, $275 million was authorized by the Congress last year and only 12 percent is being requested in terms of funds.

I think this would have a great bearing on section 6 of the bill. If the teacher fellowship bill were completely funded, I think it would take care of subparagraph A.

Mrs. MINK. Subparagraph A of—

Mrs. GREEN. Section 6 of your bill.

Mrs. MINK. There is a tremendous difference, however, between the need for a baccalaureate for the basic degree for the teachers who are in the system as distinguished from those seeking advance degrees and I felt this bill did not give any consideration to the teacher who is already in the system and who lacks the 4-year or 5-year basic education to be a teacher.

Nowhere in it-I stand corrected if I have misread the bill-but nowhere in the bill do I feel there is any reference to this problem which, in our hearings, was clearly pointed out as a major deficiency of many major_systems.

Mrs. GREEN. I heartily agree with what you said; there is nothing for the person who has not completed the undergraduate work. But the 50 percent of the funds for teachers having their first degree, that part, it seems to me, should be meshed in with the existing fellowship program.

Mrs. MINK. Yes, I would agree that would be a proper place to put it. Mrs. GREEN. Also I would think there would be some merit to having the stipends the same?

Mrs. MINK. Yes, I would agree with that also.

Mrs. GREEN. If it were the same, people wouldn't go on a shopping spree to see where they could get the most money?

Mrs. MINK. Yes, I think that is very important.

Mrs. GREEN. I will say I am in agreement with your views. I have said many times the important thing is to retain teachers. I get a little discouraged when we put so much emphasis on recruiting 5,000 teachers when 140,000 are leaving each year and we better turn our attention to that problem.

Thank you very much.

Mrs. MINK. I thank the Chairman and the committee.

Mrs. GREEN. The next individual to appear before the committee is Dr. Richard Frost from the Office of Economic Opportunity and Director of the Upward Bound program.

Welcome to the committee hearings. We are delighted to have you with us.


Dr. FROST. Thank you very much.

May I introduce the new Deputy Director of the program, Dr. Billings, from Washington State College in Bellingham, who has been the Director of the Upward Bound program there since 1965. He knows about it from the ground up.

Mrs. GREEN. Do you have a statement?

Dr. FROST. I filed a statement with your committee which is a basic description of the program and, with your permission, I wouldn't just merely read it, I would summarize it and go on to your questions.

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