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profession. Yet twenty years ago a phy- Maher made plantings of various kinds of sician ventured his belief that cancer might sea grasses growing on the shores of both be due to eating lettuce and other uncooked sides of Long Island Sound, which gave vegetables. He attributed the disease to the only spore-bearing bacilli if the specimens vegetables, themselves, however. The rea- were gathered from clean rocks or sand, son they have been thus disregarded is that and gave admixtures of coccal colonies if they are presumed to be harmless. Maher, the specimens came from plants that were on the contrary, makes the statement that muddied or that were submerged at high all germs that cause disease come from tide. them.'

Where Spore-Bearers Are Not Found. Where Spore-Bearers Are Found.

During the past twenty years Maher has Naher made a midwinter visit to the examined many thousand specimens of huAdirondack Mountains in New York State

man sputum. Except in the cases of a few some years ago and found by careful bac patients who were sleeping outdoors among teriologic examination and cultivation that pines and firs in the coldest week of an spore-bearing bacilli in pure cultures grew Adirondack winter, he has never found on all Petri dishes of agar exposed out- spores in a specimen of sputum. In one doors before snow falls, during snow falls batch of specimens raised by these pineor after snow falls. Spore-bearing bacilli, wood patients after the coldest night of the pure except for an occasional mold from the

year, when the temperature had been bethicker twigs, grew from the foliage of all tween 40° and 50° below zero, he was able the evergreen trees in the mountain forest,

to grow from two specimens a spore-bearwhether near to the village or distant. ing bacillus of the same general character

Maher also exposed agar plates to out- as the spore-bearing bacillus that grew from door air in New Haven, Conn., in winter

the green needles on the neighboring trees. and in summer. After rainstorms in sum- It stands to reason, of course, that, if the mer and after snowstorms in winter, and spore-bearing bacilli lived on the tree foliage sometimes during snowstorms in winter, and were blown around in the air, they the incubated plates have yielded only would be inhaled by persons nearby. colonies of spore-bearing bacilli. At all

Occasionally in cases of bronchitis Maher other times outdoors, and at all times in

has grown from the sputum a large yeastoid doors, the colonies of spore-bearing bacilli bacillus having many of the cultural charhave been mixed with colonies of various

acteristics of bacillus anthracis. With these kinds of cocci, non-spore-bearing bacilli, and exceptions Maher has never seen a spore in molds. Plantings of blades of grass have

human sputum, tuberculous or not, nor has invariably produced only pure cultures of he been able to grow any from sputum. spore-bearing bacilli provided the blades

Maher therefore concludes from his exwere secured a few yards from the road.

perience that spore-bearing bacilli are not At Dr. Maher's request, Dr. P. M. Car- found in the healthy human air passages rington, of the United States Public Health and only very exceptionally in diseased air Service, sent him from Fort Stanton, New

passages.' Mexico, an assortment of the foliage of

During the past fifteen years Maher has the grasses and stunted trees that grow with made bacterial cultures from various parts some difficulty on the dry plateau on which

of the body, and has never been able to grow the national reservation is situated. The

any spore-bearers from the skin, cerumen, collection included specimens of alfalfa, smegma, or oral or nasal mucous mebrane loco weed, scrub oak, cedar, salt grass, blue nor from the human hair. In the food grass, blue gramma grass, cottonwood and tract, however, the spore-bearers persist, holly. The specimens were gathered with and they can be easily grown from the consterile instruments and sent in sterile tubes.

tents of the bowels. From all of the grasses and foliage only Maher believes that the facility with spore-bearing bacilli grew. From the roots

which cultures of cocci can be made from of several of the grasses to which bits of the skin and the mucous membranes of the soil adhered colonies of cocci grew in greater

upper air passages and from sputum and numbers than colonies of spore-bearing purulent discharges of all kinds makes this bacilli.

absence of all spore-bearing bacilli from the

'Italics ours.

*Italics ours.

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human skin worthy of attention. Certainly

Transformation of Bacteria. every wind that blows, whether dust-laden

That bacteria do change form has been or not

, sprinkles the human skin with spore- proved. As, for instance, Pfeiffer's reac, bearing bacilli.

What happens to these tion, in which cholera vibrios and typhoid hardiest of bacteria that are continually de

bacilli are transformed into coccal forms in posited on the human skin? Of course, bacterial forms, other than cocci, are found

the peritoneal fluid of injected guinea pigs.

Maher has, at the International Tuberculosis on the human skin and in human sputum, in health and in disease, but even they fit read

Conferences at Philadelphia, Brussels, and

Berlin' told of (1) the breaking up of ily into the theory that they came originally spores of the bacillus subtilis into cocci by from the spore-bearing bacilli

, Maher says. culturing them in various strengths of salt These are the diphtheroid and the acid-fast

water, and of (2) forcing even tubercle bacilli that are found in smegma and ceru

bacilli to elongate, become granular, and men, in the accumulated oily sweat of arm

finally extrude these granules as culturable pits and groins and in ozenal crusts. Ac

cocci. He also mentions Much's demonstracording to Maher, they are transition forms,

tion of a coccal prebacillary form of the for he states that they do not preserve their

tubercle bacillus, and Noguchi's making acid-fast character and frequently not their

bacillus bifidus alternately spore-bearing bacillary form on subculture. In cases of

and non-spore-bearing by changing its culchronic psoriasis some of the bacilli found

tural environment. by Maher were perfectly acid-fast and re

In our laboratories our named bacteria sembled thick, granular tubercle bacilli; but, like some of the growths in smegma, they their continuous growth on unchanging

maintain their fixed characters owing to varied in acid resistance. Some of the rods

media in an unchanging temperature and had none at all, and mixed with them were cocci of the same size and staining as the

atmosphere. In nature, the breezes con

stantly mix the bacilli and alter the gaseous coccal granules in the bacilli. Attempts at

environment.
culturing these psoriasis bacteria resulted
only in growths of cocci.

Conclusions.
At the 1914 meeting of the Connecticut
State Medical Society Maher exhibited pure

Maher's view, therefore, is that the pathcultures of acid-fast bacilli simulating tuber- ogenic germs are descended from the spore

bearers of the fields and woods which have cle bacilli that he developed from old acid

become altered by contact with man.

The fast spores of the hay bacillus (bacillus subtilis). The bacteria that he has found

human cells are able to cope more or less

successfully with the plant parasites, but in the hair were diphtheroid bacilli and cocci, sometimes in short chains. He does

spores and granules may escape destruction not believe that the partly acid-fast bacilli

and carry on an existence as one or another

of the pathogenic germs. He believes pneucause psoriasis or that the smegma bacilli

mococci can be derived from tubercle bacilli, cause smegma or that the acid-fast bacilli

thru sporulation. of the oily secretion of the axilla cause the oily secretion. His explanation is that the

Therefore cleanliness is the first requisite cells of the skin, tho increasing in number,

to good health. This belief is growing and are so weakened with disease that they can

in New York City is being substituted for not finish the destruction of the bacilli or

fumigation after infectious diseases. The their spores and the bacilli and their spores

cleanliness demanded by the New York

Board of Health includes new wall paper grow on the skin in this transitional form. That the smegma bacillus may have an

and paint in all rooms where a contagious importance not usually ascribed to it Maher disease patient was kept, and also in any asserted previously,' when he related a case

other part of the house where it may be

needed. There can be no question, howof pulmonary tuberculosis following an infection by smegma bacilli. He adds that ever, that formaldehyde gas does kill bacthe histories of women patients at State

teria. We would not recommend the distuberculosis sanatoria show a large number continuance of disinfection by formaldeof cases of consumption in whom the first hyde so long as it kills off the pathogenic symptoms began in the uterus, tubes or bacteria. ovaries.

Medical Record, November 12, 1910. 'Lancet, November, 1913.

Medical Record, December 27, 1913.

BUSINESS TALK TO DOCTORS

During these perfect autumn days you are responding to the demands of your profession, and, I hope, enjoying the annual season of fulfillment of spring's promises. You are also enjoying the crisp atmosphere of autumn, which has aptly been called our "annual tonic." While in the comfortable mental condition that the above lines encourage, read the following clipping from the Financial World:

Every man as he approaches the middle line of life begins to think of the protection he will need in old age. He wants an investment of his savings in a security that will not fail him when he needs the income. The great majority of those who come to old age are without resources; they must depend on their children for support. Generally if you look into their life you will find that once they were well to do, that they saved some money, but that they lost it through unfortunate investments. They bought stocks which proved worthless; they invested in property that proved valueless or friends borrowed the money and it was lost. They lacked judgment in one thing: They did not select that security which gave substantial basis for the future and they did not look ahead in their planning. A New England merchant, retired some years ago, died recently and it was found that his estate supposed to be worth a quarter million was worth less than $10,000. Why? Because the stocks he had bought had been in companies that promised big dividends and finally went to the wall. The only security he possessed that was valued at what it cost him was a mortgage on a farm in Ohio. That had been renewed twice, but the farm was so enhanced in value that the loan was much less than any bank or insurance company would have made on it.

The problem of protection for old age faces every man all the time. It makes no difference how much money he may earn, collect and put in bank. If he should lose it, he is as bad off as tho he had never had it. Agents come around and tempt you, and make great promises and give the most positive assurances. The Scranton Correspondence Schools crowd sent agents all over the country, trained to talk and to entrap. Perhaps the agents were honest and did not know of the trap. The following, from the Financial World, indicates the present value of the Scranton stocks: Bleeding Hearts and Wrecked Fortunes Mark the

Trail of T. J. Foster-Is There No Redress!

Pathetic in the extreme is the experience of a Texas school teacher who was cajoled to invest her entire savings in one of T. J. Foster's projects under the false promises of one of his agents. Every dollar she was able to save is tied up in one of his ventures. She was told she could not

lose her money; any time she wished to sell her stock the home office at Scranton, Pa., would take her shares off of her hands and dispose of them at exactly what they cost her.

For two years before the deluge came to submerge this frail house of cards she has had her stock for sale, but throughout this long wait not even a nibble did she receive, but instead letters reached her at frequent intervals explaining why her stock had not been sold. Excuses in abundance constitute a familiar practise with Foster.

The smug Foster was not in business to take stock from anyone who had bought it from him. His object was to sell more stock to get in more money to keep alive the buzzards who fed off his rich table.

Yet, so far, this man who has lied in various ways to the investing public, goes about free. All Scranton, upon whose good name he has brought a blot that will take a long while to wipe out, is only concerned with saving itself from too much loss.

But for a long period to come Scranton and its environment will be but oases of desolation as far as placing any new investments are concerned, so completely has Foster wiped it clean of ready cash and confidence.

All the retrenchment that can be brought to bear by the committee organized to save the schools will not recall any of the losses to the investors at large who listened to the hypocritical, siren voice of Foster. The ruin is complete. Only the immediate creditors have any hope of saving enough to pay their bills; as for the security holders, they may not realize it now, but it is true, a fire of fraud has swept over their investments and has consumed them in ashes.

When agents do not come around, you are accosted by the confidential letter under a two-cent stamp. C. M. Keane, director of

Postal Savings Bank system, thus expresses himself:

"The picture that comes to my eye to-night is a sad one. I have seen homes lost in a twinkle of an eye; I have seen the opulent made poor; I have seen the aged and the infirm driven back to the fields and the shops thru the heartless and merciless. Oh, that heartless conspiracy of those who have the venality, but not the courage, to carry into effectthose people who employ a two-cent postage stamp to do their mission of crime. I take my hat off to men who in their code have set their force and face against such men."

The Financial World thus comments on the above:

Those who become entangled in the get-rich-quick spider's web are the men and women who have succeeded in saving a few hundred or thousands of dollars and are eager to make them grow fast. Four and five per cent. income appears to them a. rather tame return. What they are eager to see is that their small fortunes shall double and triple quickly, and the glib-tongued, suave, well-dressed financial swindler tells them he can do it in absolute safety—and they thereupon fall prey to his wiles.

How to keep money safely is more difficult to many persons than to make and save it. This is particularly true of certain

classes, and strangely these classes include patrons think that there will be a profit, even the professional classes : doctors, dentists, if you live out the time. lawyers, preachers and teachers. Widows Insurance is a financial proposition, which who inherit insurance money frequently are insurance companies pursue for profit. They sought out and visited by financial agents render a service to those who cannot save, with questionable schemes. When you have and to men who have growing families who money, don't be in a hurry to invest it. Per- would suffer if their supporter should die, haps the best all-round investment, both for These are the ones who need protection. A income and safety, is to lend on good, well- man who has not a family who would suffer located property, either city, town or rural, by his untimely demise, or whose business at a good interest, secured by first mort- would not need ready money in the event of gage, the amount being not more than one- his death, does not need insurance protechalf the average assessment during the last tion. Such a man should save the expense ten years. Please remember that this is the of insurance. A good way to save and get ideal investment that I have recommended all there is in it and not have to die to get to doctors for years. Many write me about it, is to take shares in a good, reliable local other investments, but I wish they wouldn't. building and loan association. What I have just given is my advice, and I

An Interesting Correspondence. wish to impress it firmly on the minds of

THE PROVIDENT all WORLD readers.

LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY And as a method of saving and invest

OF CHATTANOOGA, TENN. ment at the same time, there is nothing bet

CHATTANOOGA, August, 17, 1975. ter than a good, well-managed local build

Dr. C. W. Hunt, Brevard, N. C. ing and loan association. Every community DEAR DOCTOR :may not have one, but should. This is also

In Re: Claim A. C. McCall. my standing advice.

Please give us this party's present physical conBut many will not be satisfied with this dition and if he is still disabled and under your standing advice. They want greater re

care, kindly advise us how long he is likely to be

so in your judgment. We enclose stamped envel turns, not realizing the decline in safety

ope for your reply. Yours very truly, necessarily involved. Hence, I must, from

W. L. WEBB. month to month, take up and discuss other

Asst. Claim ja nager, forms of investment.

BREVARD, N. C., Aug. 19, 1915. A Case in Insurance.

Mr. W. L. Webb, Chattanooga, Tenn. Here is a bit of insurance experience that

DEAR SIR :-Your favor of 17th carefully noted

The mileage to Mr. McCall's would be... $2.00 recently came under my observation. It

An examination of his present physical conwas a 15-year policy in the N. Y. Life in

dition and written report.....

500 a special class at rather a high rate-$409 A written opinion, expressing my opinion and per year on $5,000—a substandard risk. judgment, as to future condition and results,

following the injury..

25.00 The gain or “dividends," if the insured lived out the time, was expected to be about

Total..

. $32.00 $1,500. It is now about expiring, and the

If you will remit the above amount I will give you gain is actually $683.46 instead of $1,500. my best services and judgment. I have noticed that these indefinite expecta

I write the above believing that it is fair to pay tions are always much less than the insured

a doctor for his knowledge and professional opinioa.

the same as you would fee a lawyer. If not, where is led to expect them to be. Always bear

does the doctor come in and how could the insurthis in mind. This has been my universal ance companies do a safe business without the observation. If anyone else knows cases in doctors' professional knowledge and co-operation?

Yours truly, C. W. HUNT, M.D. which this has not been true, please give the facts. This person paid $6,135 in cash in

BREVARD, N. C., Sept. 27, 1915. the fifteen years, not counting interest. He is now offered $5,683 in cash, a loss of $452

DEAR DR. TAYLOR :--Your letter asking about the

answer from The Provident Life Insurance Comand the interest, which at 4% would have

pany received.

They wrote me they would not been $1,840. Here is a loss of $2,296. You

think of paying a thing. Pretended to be surprised will say at once that this is not a loss, but and wrote as if their feelings were hurt. Said the cost of the risk which the company took.

that they “had only asked for my opinion." That

is just what I thought, but they did not think that Of course, insurance protection costs some

a doctor's opinion was cash like an opinion from thing, tho agents make their prospective a lawyer.

C. W. Hurt.

a

Kansas City is starting out a new colony gram has been received from the director general in Old Mexico. In the literature not a word

of the English Army Medical Corps accepting

the offer. There will be 32 surgeons and phyis said about another Mexican colony sicians and 75 nurses sent to the front by the three boomed hard by Kansas City people and American universities to man the unit. noted in these Talks several years ago.

The Child Federation of Philadelphia, May 1st, Wonder if it is the same crowd? A sub

began the demonstration of a new idea in pubscriber asks about this new one-Edenview,

licity work when it placed in 300 locations in

the congested districts of the city, bulletins, 17 it is called. He incloses a circular and says by 22 inches, on the “Prevention of the Fly.” his community is flooded with them. They The bulletin boards are made of sheet iron and charge from $15 to $30 an acre. Who is so

are so constructed that the bulletins printed on foolish as to go to Mexico now?

cardboard, may be placed in them without the use Who

of paste, tacks or other holding means. Twenty would take his family there? If you want social agencies were approached and each was Mexican land, you can get as much as you

asked to install a certain number of bulletin want of it at much lower prices than the

boards. The location of the boards was selected above. You can get plenty of good land letins to be placed during the coming year number

after a thoro survey of the city. The bulunder the Stars and Stripes at the above seventeen, and will treat of the general sanitary prices. If Mexico is such a paradise, why measures regarding the home, the hygiene of the don't those Kansas City boosters go there family, care of the baby, etc. All the many forthemselves? I never knew a

eign colonies in that polyglot city will have bulMexican

letins in their own tongues. colony to succeed. Did you? Did any

Philadelphia, because of its commerce with the body?

Near East, is taking precautions against introduc

tion of typhus and other epidemic water-borne The "Rocky Ford" man (see Oct. WORLD, diseases. page 374) has operated also in Scranton,

The new dean of Albany, N. Y., Medical ColPa.—where the sheriff wants him.

lege, Dr. Thomas Ordway, came from the Har

vard Medical School, but was formerly professor Doctor, how are your collections this fall?

of pathology at Albany.

The "war bride” scandal in the warring Euro Need any help? If so, write to this depart- pean countries will soon be heard from in an obment, and your needs will receive attention stetrical way, the hospitals everywhere preparing next month. One of the missions of this

for the large number of births expected. journal is to help doctors to earn their fees, The Canton, Ohio, Daily News and the Oskacollect their bills and invest their savings so

loosa, Iowa, Weekly Times are the newest re

cruits in the ranks of self-respecting American that old age will not come without prepara

newspapers that decline to print advertisements of tion for comfort. And as each brother drug nostrums or medical frauds. grows old and retires in comfort, and gives

A gift of $250,000 to go toward a medical school up his work and his journals, we ask that he to be operated in connection with the new Cincinwill kindly see that his young successor

nati Hospital, was received by the local hospital takes his place in the World “family," in

commission at Cincinnati, May 25th, from Mrs. order to not leave a vacant chair. When

Mary Emery, of that city. The hospital commis

sion announced that a similar amount would be you meet your medical friends do you ask raised by the commission for the same purpose. them if they take THE WORLD?

The school will be located near the hospital, and will be under the supervision of the Ohio-Miami

Medical College, the medical school of the UniTHE MEDICAL MONTH.

versity of Cincinnati.

George Macaulay Trevelyan, nephew of Lord

Macaulay, and himself an eminent historian, in a At a meeting of the Negro Medical and Pharmaceutical Association of Guilford County, held

recent lecture at Philadelphia, paid high tribute to at High Point, N. C., May 10th, a resolution was

the American physicians now combatting the a dopted that the association establish a hospital

typhus epidemic in Serbia. Mr. Trevelyan has for the care of colored people of Guilford County,

just come from the latter country where he man

aged the British Red Cross. N. C., to be located at Greensboro.

The Woman's Medical College in Philadelphia is The campaign against medical “correspondence” carrying on a nation-wide campaign of informahealers, conducted by United States authorities,

tion among woman's literary institutions, using is actively in progress, the thorny way of the

cinematographic films. quack growing worse daily. The American people insist that the medical cheat must “go.”

As a result of the survey of oyster beds by the

Federal authorities, in co-operation with State England has called on American surgeons to authorities, every oyster bed polluted by sewage man her newest and largest field hospital. It was or other causes, from Virginia to Massachusetts, learned May 20th that the medical schools of Co

the northern oyster-producing region, has been lumbia, Johns Hopkins and Harvard Universities

closed and many beds placed under such restricoffered to supply the men and nurses. A cable- tions as to the taking and handling of oysters as

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