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undiluted glycerin should be brought in the phenolsulfonates, and they can be contact with the parasites, and that the administered up to the full limit of gastric thirst for water should not be first slaked tolerance with absolute impunity. The by absorption from the tissues of the throat evidence for their efficacy, while wholly and stomach. For this reason Dornblueth clinical, is very strong. suggested that Unna's claim for keratin

Few, if any, clinicians accustomed to the should be acted upon, and that the glycerin regular use of calomel, will be found to should be inclosed in soft capsules of doubt its efficacy as an antiseptic. Whether keratin and expressed past the acid stomach, the old explanation of an action in stimulating to be dissolved in the alkalin fluids of the the liver have any foundation or not, the bowels, and discharged there, where it results following the exhibition of calomel

, could meet the parasites while undiluted, in very many affections, are too decided and and exercise on them its full hygroscopic sure to permit of mistake. It is significant powers.

that those who employ other antiseptics One case Dornblueth treated: A man invariably urge a preliminary course of the had eaten freely of measly—trichinous, mild chlorid.

— pork; he was given emetics and cathartics, Emetin has as yet proved successful only and a tablespoonful of pure, water-free against animal parasites, but its success has glycerin at frequent intervals. Prompt been so decided that it goes far to upset recovery followed, and the clinician believed

the hypotheses of those who assert the that the glycerin had been quite effective. impossibility of rendering the bowels aseptic. But experiments made by American phar- Rogers also urges the use of calcium permacists did not substantiate Unna's claim manganate, but as yet it has not received that keratin would not be dissolved in the a general trial. Some readers may remember stomach; in fact, the solvent powers of the furore that followed the recommendation the human gastric juice have as yet not of potassium permanganate as a remedy for been delimited. The matter stops just amenorrhea-and the glowing reports in its short of that extended clinical trial that favor, altho the salt could not have passed offers the final evidence for or against any the stomach unchanged. medical hypothesis.

All the volatil oils possess antiseptic Bouchard asserted that any intestinal powers, in widely varying degree; and the antiseptic to be effective must be insoluble; profession cannot have forgotten Wood's as otherwise it might be absorbed and advocacy of the oil of turpentine in late disappear from the alimentary canal. But typhoid fever. Comparative tests showed it is difficult to see how any agent can be that the oil of cassia was more powerful as active unless it is in solution; and the an antiseptic than any other of this group. standing of his chosen remedy, betanaphthol, Iodin and chlorin, in many forms, have depends rather on somewhat favorable been lauded likewise; and it is noteworthy clinical trials than on his a priori reasoning. that, whenever a clinician commences the Alphanaphthol has also had its advocates, use of any of these agents as antiseptics he and these bodies seem to be quite effective surely becomes quickly enthusiastic over it when administered in large doses. The —the response seems to be certain and deobjection is that they are not wholly cided. innocuous, and hence one must have care Meanwhile the great question is unsolved not to pass the line of safety in the endeavor

-can the alimen ry canal be rendered to reach the point of asepsis.

aseptic? and how? The pathologists assert This applies as well to salol, which other- that it cannot; the vast mass of clinicians wise would appear to be almost the ideal. assert that whether this is true or not, the Insoluble in the acids of the stomach, it administration of these remedies is followed is claimed that it reaches the alkalin intestins, by benefits so decided and striking that to be there broken into phenol and salicylic their utility is to be explained rather than acid, both effective locally. But salol has a questioned. Here, however, sterilization is toxic point, and cannot be given safely the object to be attained. It is not a beyond a certain dosage.

clinical cure we seek, but absolute destrucThe phenolsulfonates, better known as tion of the pathogenic organisms inhabiting sulfocarbolates, are perhaps the most widely the bowels. used of all these agents. They are official Remains the bacillus Bulgaricus. Strongly in the pharmacopeia. When employed in urged, used with little discrimination and chemical purity there is no toxic point of no knowledge of its biology, the evidence is still imperfect. Experiments made in a in a child or delicate adult. This will cool laboratory showed that very few of the the inflamed parts, numb the pain, tone preparations on the market contained living up and astringe the weakened tissues. bacilli in sufficient numbers to exercise any Internally we may give mistura cretæ or perceptible action. Only after two weeks' bismuth subnitrate every 2 hours, with administration of a really active prepara- enough tinct. opii camphorata to quiet tion, in commensurate doses, was the bowel pain and tenesmus, and should direct once so densely populated with the bacillus as daily an enema or lavement of 1 dram of to secure the object desired. If during acetate of lead to 4 pints of boiled water, this period a saline laxative were taken, thus cleansing and astringing the rectum the protective bacilli were swept out, and and colon. the process of stocking the bowel had to What shall the patient eat? The sick be commenced again. If any effect is had must have food, not so much, but more upon typhoid bacteria in the bowel, no often than the well, if we would keep up records of this have appeared.

vitality. Shall we not forbid fruits, vegeThe need is plain. We must have a tables and fried meats—all difficult of means of destroying these organisms in the digestion and hence liable to fermentation bowel. Modern science has her work laid or putrefaction? out. Let us see if she is equal to the emer- What better can

we prescribe than gency

cream toast, boiled milk, well-cooked cereals, WILLIAM F. WAUGH, A.M., M.D. eggs, malted milk, toasted crackers, barley Muskegon, Mich.

water, albumin water, lemon flavored and

sweetened? Summer Ailments.-Eczema, Diarrhea and For many years summer diseases of the Dysentery.

alimentary canal in both children and EDITOR MEDICAL WORLD :-Hot weather adults treated along these lines have been is with us. What effect has it on the marked by a success surprising and gratihuman body? Does it not relax and fying alike to myself and my neighboring weaken all of the tissues, especially dilating physicians.

J. N. COONS, M.D. and detoning the cells of the skin and Palmyra, Mo. mucosa of the alimentary canal, provoking [It is not likely that the relaxation of the eczema of the one, and diarrhea or dysen- skin due to the warm weather causes tery of the other?

eczema, but it may render the skin more For the eczema of the skin what better vulnerable to the cause of eczema. Nor is than dusting with borated talcum powder; it likely to cause diarrhea or dysentery. or, if obstinate, an ointment of subnitrate Diarrhea is usually due to the ingestion of of bismuth, 1 dram, to 4 drams of white decomposing food, to errors in diet that petrolatum, to which in some cases 1 or 2 neutralize the acidity of the stomach or the grains of carbolic acid may be profitably alkalinity of the bowel or inhibit the added.

secretion of digestive ferments. Dysentery But the bowel troubles are more complex. is due to a bacillary or an amebic infection. Digestion is impaired. Fruits and vege- Dr. Waugh's article on intestinal antiseptics tables, so craved and vividly eaten, sour in this issue is also useful in this connecand ferment into an irritant mass provoca- tion. The sulfocarbolates are distinctly tive of gaseous distension, pain, increased useful in these summer bowel troubles.peristalsis, diarrhea and dysentery.

ED. How shall we meet these pathologic conditions? First we must cleanse the

Sciatica. alimentary canal with as much certainty DEAR DR. TAYLOR:-For Dr. C. P. Graves, and as little irritation as is possible. To Alden, Ill., who asks help: Give 2 drops tr. apthis end I know of no agent as certain and

ocynum in 1/2 wineglass water 4 times daily. It

cures 60% of cases. G. P. GEHRING, M.D. reliable as castor oil. After this cleansing

Los Angeles, Cal. a tablet of calolactose hourly will disinfect

Dear Dr. TAYLOR :—The “knockout" which Dr. the canal, promote biliary action and

C. P. Graves (June World, page 235) seeks complete the cleansing.

awaits him in the proper application of the static Then with the patient in a cool, well- wave current, which is a specific in such troubles. ventilated room, apply over the abdomen

I have yet to witness a single failure, either in the an ice coil or a rubber bag of crushed ice, hundred cases

. young or old, and I have treated at least two

E. G. CHARBON NEAU, M.D. enveloped in a soft cloth to prevent shock Newark, N. J.

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Some Diseases Prevalent Among Indians of large quantities, indigestion necessarily results. the Southwest and Their Treatment.

The increasing use of large quantities of black

coffee also have a bad effect in producing headEDITOR MEDICAL WORLD :—The statements pre- aches and vertigo. Rheumatic pains, particularly sented in this article are obtained from Bulletin in the lumbar region, are quite common among old 34 of the Bureau of American Ethnology, which is people, as well as simple ophthalmia and irritaa summary of the results of extended research

tion of the eyes. among a large number of Indian tribes of the

Among the Hopi Indians the most common dissouthwest made by Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, Curator of eases are ophthalmia and gastro-intestinal disPhysical Anthropology in the National Museum. orders, the former being generally caused by windThey will, it is hoped, afford at least a glance at blown sand. As a result, a comparatively large the numerous conceptions and practises of those number of them become more or less blind. Indians.

Among the Hopi children were noticed several The Southern Utes suffer from various digestive cases of fevers, 3 of chickenpox, 3 of dry eczema, and pulmonary disorders, including consumption, 2 of scrofula, 1 of strabismus, numerous instances while among the Apaches in Arizona and New of conjunctivitis and some of cough. Mexico the disease probably of greatest promi- The most prevalent and fatal diseases among nence is pulmonary consumption. Epilepsy and


the Zuñi are those of the intestinal tract-enteriinsanity are also occasionally encountered. On tis of different forms, but not typhoid; pneumonia,

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one reservation among a population of about 3,000, there occurred from 1901 to 1903, 255 deaths, of which over 36% were due to different forms of tuberculosis. The conditions are still worse among the Mescaleros.

On the White Mountain reservation such cases are less common, but again become more frequent among the Jicarillas, and with this tribe several deaf and dumb children were observed. Both adults and young people of the Walapai tribe were found to suffer from stomach and intestinal disorders.

The Navaho Indians are, as a rule, healthy, except perhaps those around Fort Defiance, and their common disorders are those affecting the digestive tract. Within recent years they have learned to make an inferior kind of bread in which they use much cheap baking powder, and as the bread is not baked well, and is eaten in

tuberculosis (particularly pulmonary), and various infections.

The Papago Indians seem to be healthier than some of the other Southwestern Indians, while among the Pima tribe tuberculosis in its different forms, including scrofula, is quite frequent. One case apparently of elephantiasis of the foot and one case of marasmus were also observed among the Pimas. They say that if a stalk of the bush Cul-ick-un-ek (Dondia suffrutescens) wounds a man and is not promptly removed, it is liable to cause blood-poisoning that may have fatal results. Contact with the plant hā-van-tātat (“crows' feet": Phacelia, probably infundibuliformis) is followed by inflammation of the skin, and the Pima Indians say that when this plant touches the naked arms or legs it produces sores which, tho they do not spread, will last for three weeks to a month.

are common.

With the Mohave Indians the most common smallpox. Pulmonary tuberculosis occurs, tho complaints were found to be those of the stomach rarely, and intestinal disorders among the infants and intestines, and muscular rheumatism.

The most prevalent diseases among the Yamas Results from the abuse of intoxicants are said seem to be malaria and venereal troubles, while to mark the Otomi Indians, while epilepsy and among the Opatas those of the digestive system other neuropathic conditions are met with quite are the most common. Malarial fever is also frequently. prevalent.

The most common disease among the TlahuilThe Yaquis are very sturdy, tho along the val- tecs, besides the effects of alcoholism, are various leys, especially in the midsummer rainy season, calenturas and pneumonia. they suffer from fevers, probably of a malarial From the preceding remarks the following are nature.

a few of the general deductions made as to the A certain amount of irregularity of living and health and diseases of Indians in the Southwest unhealthiness of the lowlands, with too frequent and Northern Mexico. On the whole, the health use of "tesvino," subjects the Tarahumare Indians of the Southwestern and North Mexican nonto numerous disorders, the commonest of which civilized Indians is superior to that of the whites are affections of the digestive organs and various living in larger communities. Pathologic condiforms of malaria. An affliction much spoken of tions of the blood are very rare, while anemia is and often fatal is "dolores costales," a term prob- occasionally met with in the later stages of ma

laria, or in a lighter degree in some of the taller schoolgirls who have become debilitated. Diseases of the respiratory apparatus are relatively common and cause numerous deaths. Disorders of the digestive apparatus are very common, but rarely serious, except in the case of infants. Typhoid is very rare. Certain forms of diarrhea or dysentery attack both adult and young Indians, especially in the low-lying parts of Mexico. Intestinal parasites occur very seldom. Venereal diseases prevail more or less in the tribes near railroad centers and near large white settlements. Diseases of the skin are restricted to eczema, favus, or ulcers in children, acne in adolescents or young adults, and some ulcers, due to neglect, in older individuals. Headache is quite common among the nervous, and mental disorders occur, while vertigo occurs only occasionally, and hysteria of light or moderate form is met with occasionally in growing girls. Diseases and defects of the sense organs include numerous ophthalmias, some trachoma and occasionally a cataract. Strabismus is very rare, and so are ear diseases and defects of hearing. Of contagious and infectious diseases the most dangerous is smallpox. Localized epidemics of measles are quite common. Scarlet fever is very uncommon. Whooping cough is not very rare. Influenza was reported from several localities, and pneumonia in isolated cases has appeared in an epidemic form. Malignant diseases and hernia seem to be very rare, while rheumatic afflictions are quite common. Pathologic obesity does not exist.

In studying the defects of pigmentation, Dr. Fig. 2.-Gemiwûnac (“Sailing in the rain"), a

Hrdlicka met with two apparently related classes Chippewa bealer, who sang the “healing song" when of phenomena. One of them was a regular, a member of the Midewiwin was dying, and also more or less complete and extended congenital administered medicinal herbs.

lack of the usual pigmentation, or what may be

termed albinism proper; the other being a genably including both pleurisy and pneumonia. Con- erally irregular, more or less incomplete and extagious diseases, such as variola, visit these In- tended, depigmentation occurring at some period dians occasionally. While insanity is very rare, of life and known more commonly as vitiligo. cases of temporary mental aberration following Both of these conditions, originally probably drink are well known. Deaf and dumb people neuropathic, yet seemingly radically different, exoccur in this tribe and blindness is more or less plains Dr. Hrdlicka, were met with among the frequent as the result of smallpox or injury of Indians visited, but in the Southwestern States some kind.

the cases found were comparatively few in number Malarial fevers, dysentery and a chest disease, and were restricted to a few tribes, while no inprobably pneumonia, seem to be most frequent stance of either kind was encountered among the causes of death among the Tepecano Indians in Mexican Indians excepting the Tarahumare. Jalisco.

Taking up the Indian conception of disease, its The Cora Indians seem to suffer chiefly from prevention and treatment, including folk medicin calentura (mild thermic fever) and outbreaks of and medicin-men, Dr. Hrdlicka remarks that


among them illness is regarded as a deleterious regarded as the work of supernatural agencies spell which includes bodily suffering, is generally superior in

power to the counter-agencies inimical to physical welfare, and may even bring employed as a cure. an untimely death. Ailments caused by certain As a result of the Indians' effort to find pernatural conditions, such as extreme heat or cold sons endued with the supernatural powers to conand accompanied by various symptoms, as pain, trol and counteract the powers that caused the debility, fever, etc., are viewed rationally, but disease, there arose a class of "medicin-men" and similar symptoms arising without their cause being "medicin-women" who were supposed to have observed cause suspicion of natural or super- extraordinary and mysterious powers, which they natural secret agencies, and often the Indians sus- acquired prenatally or received in dreams or in pect as the actual agent of a disease some mate- connection with some notable event in their lives. rial or magic object such as in his belief might By means of these gifts and with the aid of cause the principal symptoms if introduced into fetishes they are supposed to recognize the mystic the body in a natural way and with his knowledge. causes, to choose the most efficacious way of preThus there are to his mind “two chief classes of venting further action of this cause, and to remove ailments: (1) those of an ordinary character or neutralize the objective agent to whose preswhich have their origin in extreme old age, acci- ence the suffering is due.


FIG. 3.—Peyote Plant and Buttons. A small piece of cactus (Lophophora), which, on account of its medical properties and wonderful ef. fect on the imagination, is regarded by the Indians as a vegetal incarnation of a deity. A whole system of myth and ritual has grown up in connection with its use. The rite originated among the more southern tribes and has come thru the Mescaleros and Comanches to the Kiowas within the last seventy years.

dents or some other accountable manner, and (2) The treatment accorded by the medicin-man those of a mysterious nature, incited by some ad- may consist of repeated prayers to the elements verse natural or supernatural power, sustained or deities, depositing prayer sticks or counteroften by magic or particularly by some material charms in shrines, appeals to the patient's peragent introduced secretly into the body and re- sonal protector or totem, the use of songs, rubquiring special, largely thaumaturgic, treatment.” bing or kneading, extracting the objective cause In brief, these people believe that all serious or of the disease, blowing air or tobacco smoke on protracted illness, the cause of which is not ap- the patient, etc., etc. There are also medicinparent, is due to occult influences of men, animate women in several of the tribes, a few of whom or inanimate objects, spirits or deities, and that practise in the same manner as the men, but most the influence is exercised by a magic or secret of them serve as midwives and herbalists. They introduction into the body, particularly during are said not to be tricky like the men, and usually sleep or thru touch while awake, of some noxious apply simple remedies, such as herbs. Quite inobject as poison, a worm, an insect, a hair, a dependently of supernatural cures there is among thorn, or a live coal, which produce and maintain the Indians much simple general knowledge of the morbid manifestations. Death from disease, actual remedies, the medicins usually taking form especially in the case of a young male adult, is as a decoction of some plant, tho they are also

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