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except that opinions of certain officers are quoted. Psychological tests are not referred to, nor is there an adequate treatment of the psychology of large groups of men torn out of civilian environment and thrust into a camp with its greatly increased stimulation to certain normal impulses and repression of others. The chapter on leadership restates Cooley and presents general considerations of a practical philosophy sort; but will give little aid to the officer attempting to lead by offering stimuli to instincts of individuals, as the hypothesis of the text would suggest. Group response to social stimuli is so complex that principles of leadership are more profitably determined by inductive sociological methods than by deduction from principles of individual psychology.

There are three parts to most of the chapters, the first consisting of general remarks on the subjects by the junior author, the second of a theoretical discussion by the senior author, and the third of a few practical deductions and quotations from officers. Such subjects as competition, team play, discipline, leadership, and loyalty are treated. LEROY E. BOWMAN


Rural Problems of Today. By ERNEST R. GROVES. New York: Association Press, 1918. Pp. viii+181. $1.00.

A series of papers, many of them reprints, treating briefly but sanely and suggestively the following topics: "The Country Home," "The Country School," "The Country Church," "Mental Hygiene," "The Social Value of Rural Experience," "Rural vs. Urban Environment," "The Mind of the Farmer," "Psychic Causes of Rural Migration," "Rural Socializing Agencies," and "The World-War and Rural Life."

The book "attempts to approach rural social life from the psychological angle," but the psychology is of the applied variety with no attempt at abstract analyses or discussions. There is little new in the book, but it is wholesome, suggestive, stimulating, and especially well adapted for sociological laymen and for students in rural sociology as supplementary reading. The most original parts seem to be the discussions of "The Social Value of Rural Experience," "Rural vs. Urban Environment," and "Psychic Causes of Rural Migrations." Professor Groves holds that city life stands for the power of money, for the power of man over man, and for a sharp demarcation between capital and labor; whereas, rural life stands for the power of man over nature, for the development of imagination sobered by experience of hand-to-hand conflict

with nature, and for a combined labor-capital interpretation of life. "Healthy national ideals," the author concludes, "require a contribution from both urban and rural experience. The first we have in quantity. It is the second we lack. It is the business of those who conserve social welfare to respect the conclusions of rural thinkers and to discover how rural experience may make its largest contribution to national policy and social opinion."



Child Welfare in Oklahoma. An inquiry by the National Child Labor Committee for the University of Oklahoma, under the direction of EDWARD N. CLOPPER. New York: National Child Labor Committee, 1917. Pp. 285.

This investigation represents one of the most ambitious attempts to make a state survey of the problems of child welfare. The information is based on studies of representative counties and cities, a sufficient number having been included to justify the conclusion that the conditions portrayed are general throughout the state. The problems of child welfare are divided into eleven parts covering such subjects as health, recreation, education, child labor, delinquency, dependency, child protection, and administration of laws. A corps of seven investigators spent the larger part of a year in gathering and compiling the information.

Many important facts are presented: frequently conditions are described as most unsatisfactory, and laws are found to be inadequate, and public opinion dormant. For example, the survey of public health work shows that birth registration is inadequate, contagious disease is not effectively controlled, the majority of schools have no provision for medical inspection of children, the state health department does not meet the needs of the state, the educational work of the schools is unsatisfactory, milk inspection is lagging, and free hospital service is practically nonexistent. On the basis of these discoveries a series of recommendations is made designed to improve the enforcement of existing laws or to erect new administrative machinery for carrying out the needed reforms.

A similar situation holds for recreation and juvenile delinquency. The needs of dependent children have, however, received considerable attention, while the most serious aspects of child labor are those relating to the street trades and to agricultural work. A very important part of the report consists of a summary of the laws dealing with parentage,

property and general protection of children. The chapter on "Agriculture," although necessary for an understanding of the local problems, deals largely with questions affecting the general welfare of the state and illustrates the danger of drawing too close a line of demarcation between problems of child welfare and other social problems.

The culminating features of the report are the practical suggestions for the improvement of child welfare throughout the state. The suggestions are conservative and seem to develop naturally from a knowledge of existing conditions in Oklahoma and of the effects of remedial efforts elsewhere.

This investigation is not an intensive study of problems aiming to gather original information and develop new principles, but rather an extensive survey attempting to discover actual conditions and the extent of their deviation from accepted standards. Reports of this kind will greatly accelerate the development of state programs of child welfare. They need to be supplemented, however, by intensive research into special problems about too many of which very little is as yet known. GEORGE B. MANGOLD


Religion and the New American Democracy. By JOSEPH E.
MCAFEE. Brooklyn: 200 Clermont Ave., 1918. Pp. 98.
The religious system needs rebuilding to fit into the new democracy.
The author sees the beginning of such reorganization in the impulse
which has given rise to the community-church movement.

Ancient Peoples at New Tasks. By WILLARD PRICE. New York:
Missionary Education Movement of the United States and
Canada, 1918. Pp. xl+208. $0.40.

This book illustrates the spirit of the modern missionary movement. It presents a view of the missionary as a leader in the industrial development of backward foreign peoples.

The American Spirit, A Basis for World-Democracy. By PAUL MONROE, PH.D., LL.D. and IRVING E. MILLER, PH.D. New York: World Book Co., 1918. Pp. xv+336. $1.00.

This book is a compilation of selections from the speeches and writings of prominent Americans. It is designed to serve as a reader which shall "focus attention upon the constructive aspect of patriotism."

The Arbitral Determination of Railway Wages. By J. NOBLE STOCKETT, JR. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1918. Pp. XXV+198. $1.50.

The chief significance of this book is that the author recognizes that political economy has furnished no generally accepted workable principles to serve as guides for adjustment of wage disputes. The writer seeks to find such principles in the standards that have been set forth and debated and in some cases applied in actual wage disputes and settlements. These standards or principles are (1) standardization, (2) the living wage, (3) the increased cost of living, and (4) increased productive efficiency. These standards are critically weighed and the conclusions set forth.

The Peace of Roaring River. By GEORGE VAN SCHAICK. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1918. Pp. 313. $1.50.

A wholesome novel involving the experiences of an underpaid working girl of New York who finds romance and refuge in the Canadian North. It is unimportant from a sociological standpoint.

Hindu Achievements in Exact Science. By BENOY KUMAR ŠARKAR. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1918. Pp. xiii+82. $1.00.

A suggestive little book for the occidental student. The writer sketches the main scientific achievements of ancient and mediaeval India "in the perspective of developments in other lands." He defines his main object as an effort to "furnish some of the chronological links and logical affinities between the scientific investigations of the Hindus and those of the Greeks, Chinese, and Saracens."

The Holy Spirit, A Laymans Conception. By WILLIAM IVES WASHBURN. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 133. $1.25.

1918. Pp. viii+

A conventional treatment without sociological significance.

You Who Can Help. By MARY SMITH CHURCHILL. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1918. Pp. 296. $1.25.

This is a volume of letters written by the wife of an American army officer in France. They give an interesting intimate account of French life as the author found it in connection with her work as an agent of the American Fund for the French Wounded.

The German Secret Service in America, 1914-1918. By JOHN PRICE JONES and PAUL MERRICK HOLLISTER. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1918. Pp. 340. $2.00.

This book, as the title indicates, endeavors to give a rounded account of the work of the German secret agents in America from the beginning of the war.

Home and Community Hygiene. By JEAN BROADHURST, PH.D. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1918. Pp. xiii+427. $2.00.

The purpose of this book is to present in usable form scientific knowledge of essential hygienic measures. It is an interesting, yet accurate summary. It is worthy of a place in most home and school libraries.

The Church and the Crowd. By RICHARD WALLACE HOGUE, D.D. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1917. Pp. 84. $0.60.

The volume frankly acknowledges that the church has lost its hold on the "crowd" but sees its reinstatement by an exercise of a larger place of leadership in the solution of the social problems of everyday life.

Democracy Today. By CHRISTIAN GAUSS. Chicago: Scott, Foresman & Co., 1917. Pp. 102.

Democracy and America's rôle therein as interpreted by speeches of representative Americans. Speeches of President Wilson make up the larger part of the book.

The Collapse of Capitalism. By HERMAN CAHN. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Co., 1918. Pp. 119. $0.50.

This is an effort, from the Marxian point of view, to show how the war is bringing about the collapse of capitalism through the breakdown of the currency system on which it rests.

Capital Today. By HERMAN CAHN. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1918. Pp. ix+376. $2.00.

A second edition made necessary by changes in the monetary situation brought on by the war. This change consists chiefly in the enormous increase of "credit-money ordinarily created by the banks and heretofore in existence in but moderate volume."

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