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giving human personality a chance to express itself in and through a democratized industry. While the book does not pretend to be for the use of scholars, it certainly would be valuable as collateral reading for sociology classes. I should recommend it particularly, however, to tired and harried business men who are beginning to question if, after all, discontented, clamorous, restive, heedless, and uninterested workers are simply creations of the devil. It ought to be helpful in the ministry of reconciliation.
ARTHUR J. TODD UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
What Is National Honor? The Challenge of the Reconstruction.
By LEO PERLA. With an introduction by Norman Angell.
This book is symptomatic of the current tendency to appeal from intellectualism to instinct under the influence of great crises demanding quick action. The author finds that the emotional complex of national honor is the chief cause of wars and that to secure permanent peace we must rationalize the concept of national honor. To this end he recommends the establishment of a court of international honor, which will give definition to the fact and analyze the claims of states to vital interest in specific instances. It should also give international publicity to those claims, thus serving as an effective check upon unjust national ambitions and jingoistic demonstrations. A league for peace would be a useful adjunct to such a court. In addition it is advocated that a sentiment or emotion complex supporting peace should be created internationally to take the place of the emotional sanctions for war which now exist. This could be done through advertising, prizes, honors, literature, setting forth the benefits of peace and the irrationality of war, etc. These are the practical proposals.
Intertwined with the above-mentioned program is a rather questionable psychological assumption to the effect that the causes of war are not economic but emotional and (apparently—though the exposition is not clear here) that the emotions supporting war are instinctive or inherited. Hence the problem of peace is ultimately the problem of building up emotions supporting peace, but we are left confused as to how this is to be done. If the emotions favoring war are instinctive and underived how can we be sure that we can build up substitute (acquired) emotional complexes of sufficient power to keep the instinctive ones in check? If the war emotions are derived-as the common experience of mankind would seem to indicate do they not either directly or indirectly and in very large degree arise out of economic situations ? Can we prevent the formation of bellicose emotions except by the removal of their economic or other irritability causes? The author seems to be content with an explanation in terms of subjective states and does not push the analysis back to objective facts. However, his psychological theory is not vital to his practical proposals.
L. L. BERNARD UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
Use of Factory Statistics in the Investigation of Industrial Fatigue;
a Manual for Field Research. By PHILIP SARGANT FLORENCE.
New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1918. Pp.v+153. $1.25.
The case for the shorter workday has been founded on theory and general observation rather than on actual figures, analyzed statistically. Mr. Florence in this book has formulated the procedure for scientific investigation of the effect of working hours. His outline is not theoretical. It 'shows in every section that it has stood the test of use. Mr. Florence' work has mainly been done in England where he was associated with the well-known studies of fatigue in munition plants. At present he is carrying on research work of a similar nature in this country. Manuals such as Mr. Florence', and studies such as he has made and is making will go far to put the case for the shorter work day on a scientific basis.
JANET R. HUNTINGTON ILLINOIS INDUSTRIAL SURVEY COMMISSION
Instinct in Man. A Contribution to the Psychology of Education.
By JAMES DREVER, PH.D. Cambridge: University Press, 1917. Pp. x+281.
An assembling of scattered literature on instinct coupled with an interpretative point of view has been needed for some years. In this study the first three chapters are devoted to preliminary definition, history of the opinions of descriptive psychologists from Hobbes to Dugald Stewart, of philosophers from Leibnitz to von Hartmann, and of the biological school stimulated by Darwin. Then follows the author's psychological analysis, using as controversial material such typical writers as Bergson, Lloyd Morgan, Stout, Myers, Shand, Hobhouse, Titchener, Thorndike, and McDougall. The concluding chapters contain applications to education of the “specific” instincts, the sentiments, and sundry "general" tendencies—as play, imitation, and sympathy.
The author repudiates behaviorism, holding that an element of meaning is essential in defining instinct, and that the psychologist as such is not concerned with the mechanisms described by the biologist. To a considerable extent he agrees with McDougall. It is a gap in the investigation that the historical and critical chapters do not deal carefully with Dewey's article in the Psychological Review, 1894-95. The bibliography does not list this notable revision of the status of instinct and emotion which Darwin and James had established.
E. L. TALBERT UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
The Responsible State. By FRANKLIN HENRY GIDDINGS. New
York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1918. Pp. xii +108.
The name of this little volume would seem to imply a discussion of the paramount structural problem of political science—the satisfactory adjustment of the conflicting demands for scientific efficiency and for popular control. But in this respect the reader will be disappointed. The volume, which contains the Colver Lectures for 1918, is rather a sketchy and readable discussion of some of the problems of government which the World War has emphasized in the mind of its author.
Patriotism is not merely blind instinct but is "a growing volume of emotion shot through with thought.” The state is not omnipotent or supreme for historically, moral rights preceded the state and they are the foundations upon which it must be builded. Unlimited sovereignty, therefore, does not exist in fact, for authority is limited by considerations of human nature and morality. It follows, therefore, that the German theory that the state can do no wrong is vicious. But the state, as a guardian of the ethical rights which preceded it, has a moral claim to existence, and equality of opportunity for nations is the only basis of an enduring peace.
The duty of the modern state is to guard its people from invasion and protect civilization. Its dangers are twofold, absolutism from without and radical democracy from within. Its hope is the golden mean of democratic republicanism. As between the extreme claims of the individualist and the socialist there is as yet no basis for dogmatic statement. There must first be more experience and experimentation. It is not through authority, revolution, or dogmatism that justice will come but only “through mental and moral evolution."
The work as a whole represents the personal opinions of an eminent sociologist upon some current political problems, which opinions are both interesting and suggestive though not always thorough and convincing.
ARNOLD B. HALL UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
Welfare and Housing. A practical report of war-time management.
By J. E. HUTTON. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1918.
As manager of the Labor and Catering Department of the Vicker's Limited, the largest commercial undertaking in England, Mr. Hutton's experience in the handling of large masses of employees and in providing their welfare as related in this book is a valuable record.
Divided into thirteen chapters, Welfare and Housing deals with welfare supervision, housing, catering, canteens, food values, motor transit, hospital and medical service, amusements, work's police, the women's point of view, and industrial unrest. Approaching the subject of industrial welfare from the efficiency expert's point of view, the author recognizes "that the environment and condition of life which not only render possible, but also maintain a vigorous and healthy staff of workers, are as much a part of successful factory management as the devising of machinery and the perfection of bases in the fixing of rates of wages.” In the discussion of the technique of industrial welfare, Mr. Hutton substitutes "physiological management" as an expression preferable to "industrial welfare work.” Throughout the discussion of the practical aspects of physiological management, one gains the impression that the few fundamental principles laid down by the author are based upon experiences derived from a wide field and under extremely varied conditions.
The chapter on “Temporary Housing" would prove of little value to the American reader since the experience of the United States during the war has made a more telling contribution toward the solution of the problem of the temporary housing than seems to have been made by the Vicker's Limited. The details relating to the industrial villages of Crayford and Erith are more interesting, both from the point of view of the method of organizing the financing and from that of management. This chapter could perhaps have been improved by more details as to the basis upon which the types of houses were determined, particularly with regard to the size, arrangement of rooms, etc.
The chapter on “Industrial Unrest” might have been sacrificed in order to make room for a more detailed discussion of some of the processes which have led Mr. Hutton to his conclusions. The practical side of the problem as revealed from Mr. Hutton's unusual experience seems to be more in his field than a broad discussion of economic and social problems which he has attempted in his chapter on "Industrial Unrest."
CAROL ARONOVICI ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA
Housing Conditions in the City of Saint Paul. By CAROL ARONO
VICI, PH.D. St. Paul: Amherst H. Wilder Co., 1918. Pp. 120.
This report was made to the Housing Commission in St. Paul concerning the conditions under which people live in that city, but the year in which the report or the survey was made is not indicated. Eighteen selected sections of St. Paul, inhabited by 18,425 people from many races, were included in the study. Thirty-four tables, several charts, a large number of splendid photographs, maps, and drawings are used to support and to illustrate the housing facts which have been obtained by the investigators, working under the direction of Dr. Carol Aronovici.
The recommendations for a new housing code for St. Paul appear to be excellent; they deserve study by the housing authorities in other large cities of the United States. For the urban housing and health worker, another valuable feature is an extended analysis of the housing ordinances in many large American cities; the regulations concerning ventilation, fire protection, water supply, plumbing, and so forth are concisely given and arranged for comparative purposes.
E. S. BOGARDUS UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
The Psychology of Handling Men in the Army. By JOSEPH PETER
SON, M.D., and QUENTIN J. DAVID, L.L.B. Minneapolis,
This small book is fairly interesting and would prove helpful to an officer whose task was the immediate handling of privates if he were not familiar with the elements of psychology. It presents nothing new and is not based on any inductive study made during the present war,