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another foe appeared: the loss of moral and mental freedom, manifested in the lack of free public criticism, free public discussion, and free formation of public opinion and will. There was shown only a little recognition of the rights of minorities, because of the autocracy of the majority. The best antidote against this weakness is political and social education. Industrial democracy is needed as a necessary complement of social and political democracy. A strong, organized, social liberalism which can mediate between the opposing camps is lacking. We need a higher development of intelligence and character in the mass of individuals. Charles A. Ellwood, International Journal of Ethics, July, 1918. J. H.

Religion and Social Control.-Religion has always been a fundamental means of social control because it has been at the heart of the mores of every group. Through religion man universalizes and makes "sacred" his values. Religion has a positive social effect in that it stabilzies men in times of crises. It has negative social effects in that: (1) it tends to be too conservative, influencing the maintenance of a given social order longer than that order is necessary; and (2) it may become exploited by certain classes. On the whole the evolution of religion has been in a humanitarian direction: (1) because it emphasizes service and self-sacrifice for the sake of the group, including all humanity; (2) because the higher religions are but the manifestations of social idealism imbedded in religious feeling and accompanied by more or less formal religious sanctions. The seven stages of religion, viz., preanimism, animism, totemism, ancestor worship, polytheism, henotheism, and monotheism, not only embody man's valuation of his world but also the social values of the age which they represent. The religious problem of today consists in adapting religion to our present social life. This means the transition from a metaphysical to a social conception of religion. All that is needed is that the churches should drop theological disputation, recognize that their essential work is the maintenance and propagation of rational social values, and teach clearly that the only possible service of God must consist in the service of men, irrespective of class, race, or nationality. This is the surest guaranty of social justice and future good-will between classes.-Charles A. Ellwood, Scientific Monthly, October, 1918. F. O. D.

Program for Socializing Education.—Principles founded upon careful psychological and sociological study must guide the changes in our educational system. A survey of the present educational system reveals the more complete application of psychology than of sociology to educational problems, owing to the fact of its being an older science. The result is that the psychological point of view, the individualistic, has been the more strongly emphasized. The basic principles on which a scheme for the better adjustment of education to social needs should be founded are that it should more definitely accomplish three things: (1) it should develop appreciation for the better things within reach of the individual in an advancing society, i.e., means must be found for the stimulation and guidance of motive; (2) social welfare must be kept on a par with individual welfare through emphasis upon group training; (3) it should provide a fund of useful knowledge. Hence the facts to be presented in a particular study should be based upon the needs of the pupil in the society he is in and adapted to the uses he may be able to put them to in the mature society of which he is later to become a part. It must lead to the application of the ideals developed and the knowledge obtained to the vitalization of the purposes of life.-W. R. Smith, Educational Review, October, 1918. C. W. C.

The New Marxism.-The New Marxism is a very significant phenomenon in the development of German Socialism. Its fundamental presupposition is that the teaching of Marx is not to be regarded as a hard-and-fast set of dogmas which could not be changed, but that its principles should be adapted according to the change of conditions. The New Marxians are viewed by some observers as that fraction of the German Socialists which has adopted the imperialistic ambition for German worldpower and colonial expansion. Its adherers believe that the old proletarian forwardlooking socialism of preparation has been revolutionized by the socialism of fulfilment. They want to organize society as a whole upon the basis of a national state, which would

maintain itself in its struggle for life by means of the organization of all the forces of society (Volkssozialismus). For them the state is a sphere of economic activity of its own special character, where both capital and labor have a common interest in their sphere's prosperity. Their two principal organs are the Glocke and the Sozialistische Monatshefte, which differ from the former in that they adhere to the "Continental idea"- -an extension of the Mittel-Europa scheme as a special part of their program. -Edwyn Bevan, Nineteenth Century Magazine, August, 1918.

J. H.

The Future of India.-Great Britain did not conquer India but gradually inherited and undertook increased responsibility in bringing peace out of war. Nor does she desire India to be in a state of subjection. Great Britain has been successful so far in India because she has interfered as little as possible with the habits of the local people. The question now is, Is India, an oriental country, in a fit state readily to adapt herself to democratic government, which is a Western institution? The Indians reared in India and accepting caste as a natural condition of things are usually contented. The more violent champions for the speedy throwing off of British domination are men who received their education in England and while there mingled freely with the English, and who upon their return to India were excluded from this privilege by the caste system. Great Britain is sympathetic toward the aspirations of the Indian people. Last year at an imperial council held in London it was decided that in future councils India should sit at the same board and have the same voting power as the representatives of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Her desire is to educate the Indians through parliament in self-government, so that when through evolution the change is made India will be prepared to manage her own affairs and play her part, along with the chosen men of the Dominions, in deciding the destinies of the British Empire.-Sir John Foster Fraser, Century, September, 1918. F. O. D.

Educational Reconstruction in England.—(1) Following are some of the reasons why the new bill is wanted: (a) Of every 1,000 children born, 110 die in the first year. Thus in 1915, 89,477 persons met premature death. Of 6,000,000 children attending elementary schools, over 600,000 are verminous or unclean, over 600,000 are ill fed, some 3,000,000 have decayed teeth, over half a million have weak sight, and over a quarter of a million have diseased ears or throat. (b) Of children under fourteen, about 35,000 are working half-time, and a quarter of a million work outside school hours for wages, sometimes for 40 hours a week and often from 10 to 25 hours. These conditions retard the growth of children and hamper their school work. (c) Youths are neglected. Of 3,000,000 young people between the ages of fourteen and eighteen, over 2,000,000 receive no systematic training after the age of fourteen. (d) Need of standardized school system in place of numerous educational standards. (2) The bill proposes: (a) establishment of a nursery school for children under six, with medical attention, physical training, playgrounds, and school baths; (b) abolition of child labor and compulsory school attendance to the age of fourteen or fifteen; (c) that all boys and girls under eighteen who have not been under full-time instruction must attend continuation school in the daytime for 8 hours a week during 40 weeks of each year; (d) to secure a standardized system in national education.-Frank Roscoe, School and Society, August, 1918. C. N.

Naturalization in the Spot Light of the War.-There will be some difficulties connected with the problem of naturalization of immigrants after the war. The present experience shows that a large number of unassimilated immigrants remain partisans of some foreign state. Opponents of the restriction of immigration who favor a gradual Americanization of the foreign elements by way of elevating the immigrant to American standards forget that naturalization is only a formality, and that unless these people absorb the national ideals of this country they may be more dangerous than those who did not become citizens. Greater strictness in the naturalization laws is needed if this country wants to attain a national homogeneity and solidarity and to play an appropriate part in the after-the-war period.-Anonymous, Unpopular Review, July, 1918.

J. H.

Civilization in Its Effects on Morbidity and Mortality-Oral Relationship.— The mouths of civilized men suffer very much more from dental disorders than those of primitive men. The question of heredity and evolution may be considered as being too slow in action to be responsible to any great degree for this disorder. Among the environmental causes may be mentioned: (1) the decrease in breast feeding, which deprives the child of its natural food, the substitutes not containing some of the essential elements to normal growth and development; (2) the unnatural method of eating, which does not afford sufficient exercise of the jaws and muscles to insure the physical development of these parts; (3) the change from the coarse, tough, gritty foods to the softer, prepared, mushy foods. These civilized foods are swallowed with not enough admixture of saliva. They are also less cleansing to the teeth than are the gritty foods. These factors cause decay and subsequent loss of the teeth. Decayed teeth are the cause of rheumatism, endocarditis, keratitis, neuralgia, and other diseases. The disorder of irregular teeth, or malocclusion, impairs the function of certain organs and lowers efficiency by: (1) insufficient mastication of food with a consequent impaired digestion; (2) lack of general bodily growth and development, and (3) lack of local growth. Dentistry is making a strong endeavor educationally and through school clinics to do preventive work on young children.-Frank A. Delabarre, Journal of Sociologic Medicine, August, 1918. C. N.

Notre Tâche de Demain dans la Pratique de la Prophylaxie Physique; Intellectuelle et Morale de Nos Ecoliers de Deux Sexes.-School hygiene is making good progress, though much improvement is yet to be expected in the line of medical and surgical discoveries of the future. The reform of school architecture and the introduction of physical culture are being accomplished. L'Ecole Monge and the school of Noisiel may serve as models in this respect. The most important task of the school hygiene is the prevention of diseases of which the most common are shortsightedness, the inflammation of the ear, nose, and brain. Shortsightedness is mostly due to inadequate lighting facilities and bad writing habits. It can be prevented only by scientific architecture, better teaching methods, and medical examinations. Defective hearing was observed in all countries. In the Volksschulen of Stuttgart Dr. Weill has found 30 per cent of all children affected with this disease. In France, among other preventive measures, the introduction of music was recommended. Neurology is determined by lack of oxygen and the presence of organic matter and evaporated water in the air.-Dr. L. Barthes, Revue philanthropique, May, 1918.

J. H.

National Effectiveness and Health Insurance.-When the soldiers return from the trenches the following problems should be solved to their satisfaction: (1) The public-health problem-the guaranty of healthful working conditions of the masses. The average human life may be much extended and thousands of cases of sickness may be prevented by a healthful physical condition and the knowledge of hygiene already at hand. (2) Financial aspect-adequate provisions for medical attention of the employees and of the dependent members of their families. Cash payments based on a percentage of wages should be paid to employees when incapacitated by sickness. The great expense thus incurred would be met through the accumulation of many small weekly payments from both employers and employees under state supervision. (3) Health insurance problems. In 1911 England adopted a system of workmen's health insurance. Germany and other Continental countries have adopted compulsory contributory systems of health insurance. In the United States the workmen's compensation movement in seven years spread over four-fifths of the country and was followed last year by wise provision by the United States government of accident, health, and life insurance for soldiers and sailors. (4) Necessity for a general sanitary system-healthful working conditions. While we are striving to make our troops the healthiest army, we should also set up the same ideal for the much more numerous army of industrial workers at home.-John P. Penn, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, July, 1918. C. N.

Mental Hygiene and Social Work: Notes on a Course in Social Psychiatry for Social Workers.-Medicine has developed the nurse; similarly applied sociology has developed quite on the same level the social worker. It is obvious that the public

health nurse of today is no better prepared to be an aid to a psychiatrist than the ordinary physician is trained to deal with psychopathic cases. Again, a collection of cases such as Miss Richmond's demonstrates so high a percentage of disease, and especially mental disease, that a revamping of the whole attitude of social service to its problem may become necessary, that social work in general will find itself far more medical than it ever formerly suspected, that medical social work will find itself more psychiatric than anyone had anticipated, and that psychiatric social work will find one of its chief aids in mental hygiene. A course for psychiatric social workers should be an advanced one containing a résumé of applied sociology and of the technique of social investigation, and a résumé of social psychology and the general principles of neuropsychiatry, preferably with demonstrations of patients. These should be co-ordinated in lectures on mental hygiene as applied to sociology and psychiatry.— E. E. Southard, Mental Hygiene, July, 1918.


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