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resources in institutions for re-education along academic, domestic, and industrial lines as well as for the treatment of physical disease and abnormal mental conditions. The greatest need at present is the support of the public in these measures of reform.— Edith R. Spaulding, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, May, 1918.

F. O. D.

The Soldiers' and Sailors' Families.-"The Home Service of the American Red Cross reaches both the men, wherever they may be, and their loved ones at home." By being a connecting link with the home, the Home Service serves to keep up the morale of the army. "The greatest opportunity of Home Service lies in conserving human resources in the families left behind." A second opportunity is relief in emergencies. A third is the giving of allowances to the families of those who have no claim upon the government, as in the case of those who are serving in the armies of our allies. A fourth opportunity is the co-operation with the government in the care and rehabilitation of the wounded and crippled. A fifth is the service of giving information concerning enlisted men to their relatives. A sixth "is to help families to keep pace, in ambition and achievement, with the man who is surrounded, often, with new chances for education and advancement." The Home Service has a separate department in each local Red Cross chapter and has a Consultation Committee of representative men of the community which serves to consider difficult problems and to co-ordinate the Home Service with the other charitable agencies of the community. Not much money relief is given as usually the government allowance and the soldiers' allotment is sufficient. The plan is to keep the families intact and the mother at home when she is needed. Workers are trained as rapidly as possible.-W. F. Persons, American Academy of Political and Social Science, May, 1918. A. G.

Eliminating Vice from Camp Cities.-The recreation program of the Commission on Training Camp Activities runs the gamut from athletic coaches and liberty theaters inside the camps to recreation and social opportunities in the communities outside the camps. This program is based on the principle that soldiers prefer clean, red-blooded, wholesome recreation to the other things which have usually in the past contributed to their inefficiency. Venereal diseases in the past have been the greatest single cause of much loss of man power, and hence of inefficiency in the army. On this question the United States government has taken the following stand, unique in world-history: the Council of National Defense unanimously decided that continence for the armies and navies of the United States was a perfectly practical program and the only sure preventative against venereal disease. That pronouncement is revolutionary. It marks an epoch in the history of the governments of the world.

A recent report from one of the two camp cities having the highest venerealdisease rate among their troops shows by October a decline from 200 per thousand to 167 per thousand, following the going into effect of the recreation program. By making prostitutes inaccessible by a vigorous law-enforcing and public-health campaign, the rate of exposures to these diseases dropped from 826 in October to 497 in November, showing conclusively that the amount of exposure to venereal disease among troops varies directly as the accessibility of prostitutes to them. Open vice has gone from all cities or towns within five miles of an army or navy station where bodies of men are in training. Major Bascom Johnson, Annals of the American Academy, July, 1918. C. W. C.

Modern Penal Methods in Our Army.-In order to keep down the number of those convicted and dishonorably discharged and to save as many fighting men as possible, a reorganization of the penal methods of the army should be made. Every man who commits an offense should have a thorough mental and physical examination, and as much of his previous history as possible should be learned through correspondence. With the exception of the small number of those convicted of major offenses, the greater part of those found to be normal physically and mentally should be sent to a disciplinary battalion. At the end of three months the officers, who will subject the men to close observation while in their charge, will determine whether or not the men shall be returned to the regular organization. Another medical examination

will be given at this time. Any attempt to escape military service by committing offenses will be discouraged. By compelling those under guard-house sentences to do hard drilling, it will not be as now a detriment to the army. By these methods the number of fighting men lost to the army through convictions will be reduced by about one-half.-J. H. Wigmore, Journal of American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, August, 1918. E. G.


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American Public Health Association. The Accuracy of Certified Causes of Death. Washington, D.C.: Govt. Ptg. Office. Pp. 77..

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MacGregor, Ford H. Municipal Coal
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