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may, a generation later, come under the control of men skilful in organizing the teaching force and handling large classes. Impatient at having to spend so much of their time on administration, the real scholars, bit by bit, relinquish their authority to organizers, and the spirit of the institution changes. In this way Frate Elias, skilful organizer and friend of the Pope, but not in the least a saint, succeeded St. Francis at the head of the Franciscan Order. After Constantine the bishop of the church becomes less apostolic, while the typical Methodist bishop of today is scarcely a spiritual son of Wesley.

With the organizer comes less faith in spontaneity and more stress on form as embodying the founder's ideal. The life of the monastery is directed less by religious impulse and more by rules, the work of the research institute less by fruitful ideas and more by routine. Everything runs "as if by clockwork," only the one does not produce great characters, nor the other great discoveries. While St. Francis lived the stern rule of absolute poverty was applied with "the genial concessions and exceptions he knew how to make," whereas half a century later, under St. Bonaventura, his monks had to follow a formal and lifeless discipline. To carry flowers or a staff, to twirl the end of one's girdle cord, to sit with crossed legs, to laugh, to sing aloud, were all unworthy of Franciscan decorum. St. Francis cherished the sweetest friendship with Santa Clara, but in time the friar was forbidden even to look at a woman, much less speak familiarly with her.

When by its merits a body has gathered momentum and won prestige it becomes a standing temptation to the unscrupulous. If they can worm into it or, better yet, gain control of it, they can convert its store of power to their private purposes. Thus the popes of the Renaissance enriched themselves and their families by misusing the vast authority of the Roman church, while the representatives of the East India Company employed the great power of the company to practice extortion upon the rulers and people of India in order to build up private fortunes.

As a body gains wealth and popularity, it holds its members by benefits, so that they will tolerate a concentration of authority which would wreck a young society. Masterful organizers who love power

for its own sake magnify their office. In a religious organization control becomes established in the clerical order. St. Francis was a mere layman, but Albert of Pisa, the first priest to become head of his order, instituted that laymen should no longer be elected as officers. In England by the middle of the sixteenth century the charitable foundations were regularly in the hands of monks and priests. A royal edict took the direction of hospitals from clergy and nobles and lodged their management in the hands of "bourgeois, shopkeepers, and laborers." Early in the same century the right of choosing officers in the English craft guilds was restricted to their liveried members, and later control passed from them to a still more select body, the Court of Assistants, which, beginning as an informal committee of the wealthier brethren in livery and especially such as had held the higher offices in the guild, became a co-optative council well-nigh absolute in the affairs of the society.

Thus the body becomes machine rather than organism. Without voice the rank and file lose the genial we-feeling that once warmed their hearts. They stick to the organization for the benefits it gives or the opportunities it offers, but their loyalty is less pure than when it was truly theirs. Moreover, just as control slips away from them to a higher class, so may the benefits leave them. The Roman baths were originally intended for the poor, but under the later empire they were the exclusive privilege of the wealthy and one of their most luxurious forms of enjoyment. The thirty-three endowed grammar schools of London were all metamorphosed to teach the children of the higher class. Harrow, one of the most expensive of English schools, was founded by a bricklayer for the free education of the ranks in which he had been born. Male trustees twist foundations left for the sexes equally, to the service of the male sex. For instance, the endowments of Christ's Hospital given for the most destitute classes and "for girls as much as for boys" were found in 1865 to be educating 1,100 boys and only 25 girls, nearly all from the middle classes.

Finally the institution becomes an end in itself. The university exists for the benefit of its dons. The state prison is conducted as a provider of cheap labor for the prison contractor. A local charity becomes the means of enhancing the social prestige of the ladies

back of it. The courts of chancery instituted for the protection of orphans whose money was liable to misappropriation by unscrupulous relatives had become in Dickens' time a machine which sucked up all their money in interminable lawsuits, the lawyers being far more dangerous to the orphans than the guardians from whom the lawyers were to protect them. Military orders like the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaliers, founded to defend the Holy Sepulcher, came to fight each other more than they fought the Mussulman. In a millennium and a half the assembly (ecclesia) of the believers in a religion of love was transformed into a great temporal monarchy throttling intellectual freedom and cruelly destroying its exposers and critics.

Since the independent structure is never safe from perversion, organized society should beware of bestowing upon it favors and privileges. An unmodifiable charter should never be granted. Buildings actually used for public worship, education, or relief may be left tax free, but the exemption should not extend to other property of a private corporation. The one-sided partnership, so common in some of our states, whereby the public furnishes an annual subsidy to be expended at the discretion of the private charity, has shown the ugliest tendencies and should cease. Public funds should never be given to an educational institution not under public control. No legitimate service should be withheld by the state in order to leave the field clear for the private agency. The public asylum, school, university, library, or research institute should be set up in order to correct and spur the private institute. The self-constituting governing board should be looked upon with suspicion, and the state's right of visitation, report, supervision, and revision should not be allowed to lapse through disuse.



University of Chicago

The progress made in recent years in economic and social history has changed both the axis and the orbit of historical interpretation. Political, dynastic, and military history, the history of governments, laws, and institutions, has ceased to interest many students of history in these days. The Aristotelian mind of Western Europe and America has discovered new sources of information and new subjects of investigation. No one of these questions is more important to the mediaevalist than that of demography.

Among the discoveries which the modern study of mediaeval history has made is the profoundly organic and heterogeneous nature of mediaeval society-the complexity of its composition, the variety of its texture. The sharp cleavage once supposed to to have existed between the three classes of mediaeval society, we now know, was not a hard and narrow line of separation, but a series of social gradations, some of them so slight that their parallax, so to speak, has not yet been accurately determined."

The light cast upon the condition of the mediaeval peasantry in the course of these social and economic researches has been

'The literature upon this subject is very large. It is cited fully in Kretschmer, Historische Geographie von Mitteleuropa (Berlin, 1904), 371-72; in Schulze, Die Kolonisierung und Germanisierung der Gebiete zwischen Saale und Elbe (Leipzig, 1896), 129; in Kötzschke, Deutsche Wirtschaftsgeschichte, 109. These books have brief accounts. Lamprecht, Deutsche Geschichte (3d ed., 1906), III, 309-42, has a great amount of suggestive material packed into a small compass. R. Kötzschke's Quellen zur Geschichte der ostdeutschen Kolonisation im 12. bis 14. Jahrhundert (Leipzig: Teubner, 1912) is an indispensable collection of the charters. Helmold's Chronica Slavorum, ed. Schmeidler (Leipzig: Hahn, 1909), is the best narrative source. May I also mention my article, "The German Church and the Conversion of the Baltic Slavs," in the American Journal of Theology, April and July, 1916; and another, "German East Colonization," in Proceedings of American Historical Association, 1916.

2 See my article on "Profitable Fields of Investigation in Mediaeval History," American Historical Review (April, 1913), 500.

enormous. One of the most interesting of these findings is the startling discovery that the rural population of Europe in the Middle Ages was probably more nomadic and less sedentary than the lower classes of society today. These displacements of population were not upon the gigantic scale of the German migrations in the fifth century or the Norse and Hungarian invasions of the ninth and tenth centuries. Nevertheless they were mass movements of large dimension-waves of popular migration sometimes succeeding one another through a series of years, which were primarily motived by desire for improvement of material condition and powerfully affected by economic distress and the pressure of social forces. The Frankish colonization of the Spanish March in the time of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious is an example of such a movement; more important and more typical is the history of the eastward expansion of the German people under the Saxon, Franconian, and Hohenstaufen rulers, and their colonization of Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Pomerania, and Silesia.3

In this pioneer labor Dutch and Flemish immigrants from the Low Countries played no unimportant part. The emigration of the peasantry of modern Holland and Belgium in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and their settlement in numerous scattered colonies in Lower Germany was due to the simultaneous operation of expulsive forces at home and the attraction which a new land presented.

Mediaeval Belgium shared with Lombardy the honor of being the most densely populated region of Western Europe. The heart

This the late Achille Luchaire, Social France at the Time of Philip Augustus (English trans.), 404-6, clearly demonstrated. Cf. Powicke's review of the French original in English Historical Review, XXV, 565. The conclusion amply confirmed the previous researches of Lamprecht, Etudes sur l'état économique de la France (French trans. by Marignan), 138–39, 222-23; Flach, Les origines de l'ancienne France, II, livre iii, prem. partie. For Germany the last half of Lamprecht, Deutsche Gesch., Vol. III, to mention no other work, shows the same thing.

* See Imbart de la Tour, "Les Colonies agricoles et l'occupation des terres désertes à l'époque carolingienne," in his Questions d'Histoire, 31–68.

3 See my article, "German East Colonization," Proceedings of American Historical Association, 1916, and another, "The German Church and the Conversion of the Baltic Slavs," American Journal of Theology, XX (1916), 203–30, 372-89.

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