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Four hundred years of experience are more conclusive than all that literary men and grammarians may say with respect to the attempted unification of the language [p. 194].

There is more of beauty, more realism, and greater force of expression attaching to this picturesque variety of "Spanishes" of Mexico than if they should be fused, through compulsion, into one impossible and grotesque imitation of the Spanish of Castile or of whatever other place [p. 196].

Of the rise of a national literature Gamio says:

It is logical to affirm that the national literature will appear automatically when the population attains to racial, cultural, and linguistic unification. Then, without doubt, the ethical, esthetic and religious ideas, the scientific acquisitions, the aspirations, the ideals of the distinct groupings of the country will not diverge as they now do, but will have converged and blended. The national literature will present various origins but one single body of exposition. The national soul will then be sensitive to the beauty of this literature, whether the episodes or passages which arouse the esthetic emotion be native or Spanish, pre-Hispanic, or colonial. Today, each Mexican grouping possesses its own literature, different from the others in form and in content, as one may easily convince himself by a detailed examination of the actual literary manifestatations, written and "latent"-that is to say those which have not been written but exist and are orally transmitted, such as those of the natives [p. 205].

It is necessary to encourage all the actual literary manifestations in place of praising some and decrying others, a feat of fools to ridicule the little histories of Vanegas Arroyo, publications of the type of La Guacamaya, the pathetic compositions declaimed by the strolling bards of the town square and the stories that issue from the mouths of nurses and servants, since all of this is Mexican literature, however much the pretended purists preach the contrary [p. 206].

His discussion of the industries which arose by fusion during the colonial epoch is most interesting and deserves thoughtful reading. At its close he makes several concrete propositions: We propose concretely:

1. That an attempt be made to crush out or diminish the ridiculous exotic tendencies which make us unconditionally prefer industry of foreign character and to disdain our own.

2. To encourage first of all the production of our typical industry to the end that not only its consumption in the country may be increased, but the demand which has always existed for it outside may be supplied and augmented.

3. To apply the technical methods of the foreign industries to the similar typical industries and to sensibly bring about the fusion of the two, as was done spontaneously and so brilliantly during the colonial period.

4. To send our workers to foreign industrial centres that they may incorporate with their traditional industrial aptitudes, foreign experience.

5. To establish in foreign countries expositions of Mexican typical products and in Mexico expositions of new foreign industries unknown to us [p. 262].

In reference to literacy he makes some observations which are sane and appropriate and outlines the proposed "editorial division" of the present government, which is planned to meet the actual conditions and to make it worth while for a person to know how to read:

It is frequently preached that the national welfare and the enlargement of the country depend upon the "alphabetization" of all the Mexicans. We, however, do not admit that the educational factor will produce such miracles unless it is accompanied by the complementary factors, as the political, the economic, the ethnic, and the others to which we refer in this book [p. 285].

If our population were racially homogeneous, possessed a common language and the same tendencies and aspirations, it would be easy to adopt and adapt an education plan analogous to that which has produced such a good result in those countries [France and Germany]. Unhappily, the heterogeneity of our population, the multiplicity of languages, and the divergence in modes of thought, render its implantation impracticable and impossible [p. 286].

In effect: when on account of lack of books, more advanced readings than the primer and first reader are impossible, the knowledge of reading appears idle and unproductive.

Nevertheless, for the generality of those who learn how to read there remains no other recourse, because there are few who can secure a more extensive education or even have the opportunity of obtaining printed matter of whatever sort. To what is this fact due, which directly and indirectly contributes to maintain illiteracy? It is that in Mexico the pamphlet, the book, publications generally, have always been costly and for that reason little adequate to the diversity of standards of the population. Provision has been made, though defectively, for the intellectual "élite," which can pay for what it reads, and for the city youth by supplying them schoolbooks. But is not the rest of the population, the great mass which longs to gather knowledge through reading, worth attention?

In consideration of what we have just said, the department of public instruction and fine arts has proceeded to create an editorial division, which will have for its high mission the vulgarization of human knowledge among us, by publishing books, pamphlets, and periodical publications, the prices of which shall be within reach of the generality of the population and the selectness

and adequacy of the text of which shall supply teachings of efficient and practical results. This division will also care for the needs of the intellectual "élite" and school children, since in agreement with the nationalist and democratic principles of the Revolution, all classes or social groups ought to receive the cultural benefit which in accordance with their conditions and aptitudes corresponds to them. Ultimately, the Indian, who with dire pains learned to read in the poor schools of the mountains and who apart from his primer has had nothing with which to enlarge his knowledge may secure at insignificant prices, or without any cost, elementary works of useful instruction, since they will deal objectively with the fields in which he lives, of the modes of seeding and cultivating them, of the wild and domestic animals of the region and the products which they yield, of the notable men and the salient facts of the past, etc., etc. The workman of the cities will encounter in his turn in such works, reliable counsels for perfecting himself in his industry and obtaining from it a better return, simple hygienic rules which will improve his health and that of his family, civic and social instruction which will strengthen the grouping to which he belongs [p. 293].

We have not presented the half of the passages we had translated to show Señor Gamio's views, but have already overrun our limits of space. His Programa is an official plan for amelioration based upon anthropological and ethnological studies and developed from scientific principles. It outlines an extraordinary, almost unique, governmental experiment. The LatinAmerican excels in drawing up schemes of perfection. No one better than he can formulate plans, programs, codes, constitutions. We are usually able to grant assent to almost every paragraph. These beautiful theoretical constructions are rarely carried through. We hope this case may prove an exception. Mexico would not only make a marvelous step forward, she would command the admiration and respect of the world if she could place her Indian in his proper position. Should she fail, the ideas and the words remain and they are largely true. Americans who really wish to know the causes of Mexico's present troubles will do well to read Forjando Patria with care, even though there may be occasional flaws and weaknesses in it.



University of Wisconsin

Social structures are made up of people, yet it would be rash to assume that they can have no tendencies of their own. There are structures so badly constructed that they would fail even if manned by saints; while there are others so shrewdly put together that they would render acceptable service even if manned by sinners. Nor should we overlook the fact that the long-lived organization which survives staff after staff and gathers tradition as an old wall gathers ivy is virtually a soul-mold. Although it takes the stamp of strong personalities, it tones down, keys up, twists about, inspires or deadens the ordinary person who becomes identified with it. Structures then will not be plastic because living beings compose them, nor healthy because their members are sound, nor serviceable because these members are busy. From being badly constituted or from wrong relations to their environment, structures are subject to diseases which hinder them from realizing the purposes they were intended to serve.

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Someone has to pick the members of a staff, and it is not easy to prevent that one from assigning the desirable post to kinsman, or friend, or highest bidder rather than to the best-qualified applicant. Nepotism is an old abuse that now excites resentment whenever it is recognized. In China the claims of family are felt so much more keenly than any other claims that every kind of public organization is vitiated by nepotism. In the European Dark Ages the hereditary kingship superseded the elective kingship partly because it was cheaper to satiate one royal family than a series of such families. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries nepotism was the cancer in the Papal States. Each pope felt that

he could trust only those utterly dependent on himself, consequently he raised his own relations to wealth and influence. Each papal clan hurried to gorge itself before the next pope should supplant it with his own hungry kinsfolk. Under Clement VIII the Aldobrandini, under Paul V the Borghesi, under Gregory XV the Lodovisi, and under. Urban VIII, with unparalleled rapacity, the Barberini enriched themselves from a chronically depleted treasury. To raise money for them, offices were sold and issue after issue of government bonds marketed at ruinous rates.

Wherever there are good livings to bestow, nepotism or worse will creep in. Eighty years ago, commenting on a proposal to take away the patronage of the English cathedrals and confer it on the bishops, Dean Sydney Smith wrote:

I do not want to go into a long and tiresome story of Episcopal nepotism; but it is notorious to all that Bishops confer their patronage upon their sons and sons-in-law and all their relations, and it is really quite monstrous in the face of the world who see this every day and every hour to turn round upon Deans and Chapters, "We are credibly informed that there are instances in your Chapter where preferment has not been given to the most learned men you can find, but to the sons and brothers of some of the Prebendaries. These things must not be-we must take these Benefices into our own keeping"; and this is the language of men swarming themselves with sons and daughters, and who, in enumerating the advantages of their stations, have always spoken of the opportunities of providing for their families as the greatest and most important.

Nepotism is the disease of well-endowed churches just as gout is the ailment of rich men. On the other hand, the disposal of places in return for money, political influence, or personal service makes a black chapter in the history of the state. In England over two centuries ago the policy of turning out all the lower officials to make room for party men was adopted by the very generation that originated party government. Under George III, who used it to get the better of the party system, the patronage abuse reached scandalous heights, but after the American Revolution the practice of selling offices or letting them go by favor declined, and patronage was dispensed with a more and more strict regard to party advantage. Between 1820 and 1870 England went over to the merit system, established open competition for 80,000 government

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