Strange Creatures: Anthropology in Antiquity
Bloomsbury Academic, 2006 M06 8 - 256 pages
Traces the anthropological and ethnological theories of the ancient Greeks and Romans from the creation of the world to the invention of the Americas. In ancient Greek and Roman thinking, whether the world is flat or spherical it will have imaginary boundaries and liminal areas where the norms of nature and culture are thought to break down. Analogies are constantly drawn between 'primitive' peoples at the 'edges of the world' and 'primitive' people in prehistory. Distance, both in time and space, leads to difference, and the idea that strange things happen out there or happened back then dominates Greek and Roman thinking on other cultures. This book examines ancient ideas of the creation of the world, the beginnings of life and origin of species, humans and animals, utopias and blessed islands, and 'barbarian' cultures beyond the Mediterranean world, before going on to trace the influence of ancient anthropological and ethnological thought on the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.We begin with primordial chaos and end with the invention of the Americas, taking in on the way many strange creatures, among them the noble or ignoble savages of Britain, Gaul and Ireland, the Man-faced Ox-creatures of Empedocles, the Dog-heads of India, the Amazons, Centaurs, Columbus, and the Tupinamba of Brazil.
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... Ocean is the origin of all things - although parallels with Babylonian and Egyptian mythologies , and reports of Orphic theories have often been adduced - but since the river of Ocean is the embodiment of flux in its endless flowing ...
... Ocean is disorder and flux.4 At the centre we find normality , order , and stability in both nature and culture , but at the extremes Ocean is the home of chaos . Chaos , again , may be ' emptiness ' or ' nothingness ' as well as ...
... Ocean in the Babylonian model is , through Tiamat the female creative principal , more explicitly connected to the earlier pre- cosmic state of the world than in the Greek model . Further , we find the same climatic theory in both ...
The Origin of Life and the Origin of Species
Ancient Theories of Prehistory and the Evolution of Society
Blessed Islands and Blessed Lands
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